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Article
An Evaluation of Ion Released from Two Brands of Brackets in Three Types of Mouthwashes

Authors: Arwa Gh. Ahmed --- Iman I. Al-Sheakli
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 4 Pages: 155-160
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Mouthwashes used widely as ancillary to mechanical oral hygiene methods. Little information providedabout the effect of mouthwashes on ions released from orthodontic brackets. Therefore, the present study has beenestablished to evaluate the effect of different mouthwashes on the ion release and the biocompatibility of twobrands of brackets.Materials and Methods: Eighty premolar stainless steel brackets were used (40 brackets from Dentaurum and 40brackets OrthoTechnology Company). They were subdivided into four subgroups (n=10) according to immersionmedia (deionized distilled water, Corsodyl, Listerine and Silca herb mouthwashes). Each bracket was stored in aclosely packed glass tube filled with 15ml of the immersion media and incubated for 45 days at 37ºC. Chromium,nickel, copper and manganese ions release were measured using Atomic absorption spectrophotometer, while ironions release were measured by using Iron kit and spectrophotometer. For statistical analysis, t-test, analysis ofvariance (ANOVA) and least significant difference (LSD) were used.Results: The results revealed that the ions released from Dentaurum brackets were significantly higher than that fromOrthoTechnology brackets in all type of immersion media except for Chromium ions in Corsodyl mouthwash. Therelease of copper and chromium ions was significantly higher in Listerine and Corsodyl mouthwashes than indeionized distilled water being related to the pH of the immersion media. While, the release of iron, nickel andmanganese ions in the three mouthwashes was comparable to that in deionized distilled water.Conclusions: The amount of released ions were below toxic levels and did not exceed the daily dietary intake, but itmay be recommended to avoid prolonged use of Listerine and Corsodyl mouthwashes in patients allergic tochromium


Article
The relation of maxillary root apices and the maxillary sinus floor among patients with different skeletal patterns in Iraqi samples

Authors: Iman I. Al_sheakli --- Karrar Hameed Al-sultany
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2018 Volume: 30 Issue: 4 Pages: 28-36
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Understanding the morphological characteristics between the floor of the maxillary sinus and the tips of the maxillary posterior roots is crucial in orthodontics involving diagnosis and treatment planning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distances from the maxillary posterior root apices to the inferior wall of the maxillary sinus, thickness and density of maxillary sinus floor using cone-beam computed tomography images and the relationships between roots and maxillary sinus according to gonial angle and skeletal pattern.Materials and methods: Three-dimensional images of each root were checked, and the distances were measured along the true vertical axis from the apex of the root to the sinus floor, and the thickness and density of maxillary sinus floor in 60 patients (30 males, 30 female) aged 18 to 25 years. Evaluation of the differences between groups which classified to gonial angle and skeletal pattern which were done according to the comparsion between the mean statistic tests.Results: results showed that the density of floor of maxillary sinus at the first molar roots region in class III were significantly lower than class I and II, also the distance between the floor of maxillary sinus and both distobuccal and palatal roots of first molar were significantly lower in class I than other classes, while the thickness of maxillary sinus floor at the distobuccal root of first molar were significantly higher in class III than other classes. In gonial angle difference, the maxillary sinus floor density and distance to the maxillary posterior roots had no significant difference in all groups, while the thickness of maxillary sinus floor at distobuccal and palatal of second molar roots region were significantly higher in large gonial angle than small and normal angles.Conclusion: subjects with class I skeletal pattern have small distance between the maxillary sinus floor and the maxillary posterior roots due to the pneumatisation of maxillary sinus causing more difficult and time consuming orthodontic treatment.

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Article
Evaluation of canine retraction rate and molar anchorage loss on implant and non-implant sides for Iraqi adult sample (A clinical and comparative study)

Authors: Qais A. A. Al-Jiburi قيس الجبوري --- Iman I. Al-Sheakli ايمان الشيخلي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 1 Pages: 121-126
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Various anchorage techniques designed for canine retraction. Intraoral conventional techniques notalways enough, and now implants are widely used to increase the intra oral anchorage. The purposes of this studywere to measure and compare the rates of canine retraction and molar anchorage loss with titanium mini-implantanchorage and conventional molar anchorage.Materials and methods: The sample comprised 20 Iraqi patients (10 female, 10 male; range, 18-25 years; mean age,19.7 years) who were scheduled for extraction of upper first premolars, After leveling and aligning, titanium miniimplants1.6 mm in diameter and 8 mm in length inserted in the left side of maxillary arches between the roots of thesecond premolars and the first molars while the non-implant side include banding of maxillary right first and secondmolars with heavy ligation of maxillary right second premolar, first molar and second molar. X-ray guide and a bitewing radiograph used to determine the implant position. The implants indirectly and immediately loaded and themolars were also loaded immediately with closed coil springs with a force of 150 g for canine retraction. Using the preand post retraction study models, the amount of canine retraction was measured from canine cusp tip while molaranchorage loss measured from molar central fossa by using acrylic plug fabricated from acrylic with reference wires1.0 mm SS embedded in the acrylic.Results: mean canine retraction amounts and rates were larger on the implant-anchorage side than those on themolar-anchorage side in both genders. While mean molar anchorage loss amounts were smaller on the implantanchorageside than that on the molar-anchorage side in both genders and there was highly significant difference forcanine retraction rate and molar anchorage loss between both sides in both genders.Conclusion: the Canine retraction proceeds at a faster rate when titanium mini-implants are used for anchorage


Article
Pharyngeal airway volume and its relationship to the facial morphology in nasal breathing and mouth breathing subjects (A comparative computerized tomography study)

Authors: Ahmed M. Al-Mayali احمد الميالي --- Iman I. Al-Sheakli ايمان الشيخلي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2014 Volume: 26 Issue: 3 Pages: 98-107
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The value of lateral cephalometric radiographs to evaluate the pharyngeal airway is limited because itprovided 2-dimensional (2D) images of complex 3-dimensional (3D) anatomic structures. Three dimensional analysesof the airway volumes are required to understand oral and pharyngeal adaptations in mouth breathing and nasalbreathing subjects. The aim of this study was to measure the pharyngeal airway volume and the size of the face,then compare between pharyngeal airway volume in mouth breathing and nasal breathing subjects and find thegender difference in each group, also to study the relation between pharyngeal airway volume and the size of theface.Material and Methods: Fifty patients including 28 males and 22 females with an age ranged between 18-35 yearssuffered from clinical symptoms of nasal obstruction and mouth breathing was detected by otolaryngologist andsent to be imaged by Brilliance™ 64, Philips multi-detector computed tomography. Twenty normal subjects (10 malesand 10 females) were selected as control. Angular and linear variables were measured in addition to the size of theface and the pharyngeal airway volume.Results: A statistically significant relationship between the pharyngeal airway volume and the mode of respirationand between pharyngeal airway volume and genders were detected. The pharyngeal airway volume was larger innasal breathers than in mouth breathers and it was larger in males than in females. The size of the face was larger inmales than females.Conclusion: CT volumetric images provide more reliable and accurate information for measurement of thepharyngeal airway volume, so the changes in the pharyngeal airway volume can be studied before and aftersurgery and this will aid in selection of the best treatment option in addition to control the relapse after orthodontictreatment with mouth breathing patients


Article
Quantitative assessment of Mutans Streptococci adhesion to coated and uncoated orthodontic archwires (In vitro study)

Authors: Aliaa Abdul Rhman Al-Lami علياء عبد الرحمن اللامي --- Iman I. Al-Sheakli ايمان الشيخلي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2014 Volume: 26 Issue: 4 Pages: 156-162
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The development of orthodontic biomaterials that attract less biofilm has been a goal for decades.Adhesion and colonization of cariogenic streptococci are considered to play key roles in the development ofenamel demineralization related to orthodontic materials. The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate theMutans streptococci adhesion to coated orthodontic archwires (Epoxy and Teflon) and uncoated archwires(stainless steel and nickel-titanium) with respect to incubation time in the presence and absence of saliva.Material and Method: Six types of archwires stainless steel and nickel titanium with two type of coating (Epoxy, Teflon)were used in this study. Twelve specimens of each archwire were incubated in sterilized unstimulated whole saliva(for the study group) and phosphate-buffered saline (for control group) for 2 hours, then incubated with suspensionof Mutans streptococci allowed to adhere for (5,90,180 minutes). Adhesion was quantitated by a microbial culturetechnique by treating the archwires with adhering bacteria with trypsin and enumerating the colony forming unit(CFU) counts of bacteria recovered after cultivation by using Dentocult SM kit.Results: There was significant difference among the tested archwire types in each time interval with the highestbacterial adhesion on the NiTi archwires in the absence of saliva. In the presence of saliva, the results revealed nonsignificantdifference at 5 min. while there was significant difference at 90 min and highly significant difference at 180min.Conclusion: The adherence of Mutans streptococci was decreased in the presence of saliva on different archwiresand the extended incubation time was significantly related to increase colony forming unit of Mutans Streptococci


Article
An Evaluation of Corrosion Pits in Esthetic Coated Stainless Steel Orthodontic Archwires in Dry and Wet Environment at Different Intervals (An In Vitro Study)

Authors: Shaimaa K. Mohsin شيماء منذر --- Iman I. Al-Sheakli ايمان الشيخلي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2016 Volume: 28 Issue: 1 Pages: 153-157
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The demand for esthetic orthodontic appliances is increasing; so the esthetic orthodontic archwireswere introduced. Among them, Teflon and Epoxy coated stainless steel archwires. The amount of force availablefrom the archwire depends on the structural properties and susceptibility to corrosion. All metallic alloys are changedduring immersion in artificial saliva, chlorhexidine mouthwash andtoothpaste, but their behaviors differ from one typeto another. They corrode at different rates, which lead to decrease the amount of force applied to the teeth. This invitro study was designed to evaluate the corrosion pits in stainless steel archwires coated with Teflon and with Epoxyin dry and after immersion in artificial saliva, chlorhexidine(0.2%) (Parodontax) and toothpaste media (Sensodyne) for(1, 7 and 28) days intervals. Moreover, this study is intended to compare the corrosion pits for each type of archwiresat these different media among all intervals.Materials and Methods: In this study, two hundred forty pieces of orthodontic wires of Teflon (Hubit) coated Stainlesssteel (120 pieces) and epoxy (Orthotechnology) coated Stainless steel (120 pieces), rectangular in cross section, size(0.019 x 0.025) inch and 15mm in length divided into four groups according to immersion media: (dry environmentgroup, artificial saliva group, chlorhexidine group and toothpaste group). The atomic force microscope was used tomeasure the corrosion pits for all samples at dry and wet conditions and after different immersion periods.Results: Statistical analysis showed that there was a highly significant increase in the corrosion pits of Teflon coatedstainless steel archwires (P ≤ 0.05) in wet environment at 28 days immersion period.The highest corrosion pits werefound in the toothpaste medium for the two archwire types at 28 days immersion period.Conclusion: We can conclude that Epoxy coatedstainless steel archwires are indicated to be used above Tefloncoated stainless steel archwires in terms of corrosion resistance. IfTeflon coated stainless steel archwires should to beused, they should be change in shorter periods than Epoxy coated stainless steel archwires type


Article
Validity of Digital and Rapid Prototyped Orthodontic Study Models

Authors: Faten F. Al-Samarrai فاتن فالح السامرائي --- Iman I. Al-Sheakli
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2017 Volume: 29 Issue: 3 Pages: 80-85
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The integration of modern computer-aided design and manufacturing technologies in diagnosis, treatment planning, and appliance construction is changing the way in which orthodontic treatment is provided to patients. The aim of this study is to assess the validity of digital and rapid prototyped orthodontic study models as compared to their original stone models.Materials and methods: The sample of the study consisted of 30 study models with well-aligned, Angle Class I malocclusion. The models were digitized with desktop scanner to create digital models. Digital files were then converted to plastic physical casts using prototyping machine, which utilizes the fused deposition modeling technology. Polylactic acid polymer was chosen as the printing material. Twenty four linear measurements were taken from digital and prototyped models and were compared to their original stone models “the gold standard”, utilizing the paired sample t-test and Bland-Altman plots.Results: Eighteen of the twenty four variables showed non-significant differences when digital models were compared to stone models. The levels of agreement between the two methods showed that all differences were within the clinically accepted limits. For prototyped models, more than half of the variables differed in non-significant amount. The levels of agreement were also within the clinically accepted limits.Conclusion: Digital orthodontic study models are accurate in measuring the selected variables and they have the potential to replace conventional stone models. The selected rapid prototyping technique proved to be accurate in term of diagnosis and might be suitable for some appliance construction


Article
The frontal sinus dimensions in mouth and nasal breathers in Iraqi adult subjects

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Abstract

Background: The frontal sinus area can be used as a diagnostic aid to recognize mouth breather subjects. The aimsof this study were to determine the gender difference in each group, to compare the frontal sinus area betweenmouth breather and nasal breather group, and to verify the presence of correlation between the frontal sinus areaand the cephalometric skeletal measurements used in this study.Materials and Methods: Cephalometric radiographs were taken for 60 adults (30 mouth breathers and 30 nasalbreathers) age range (18-25), for each group 15 males and 15 females, in the orthodontic clinic in the college ofDentistry at Baghdad University. The control group (nasal breather) with skeletal class I and ANB angle rangedbetween 2-4º, and have clinically class I occlusion. The cephalometric measurement for each group were taken, thecephalometric radiographs were analyzed by using AutoCAD 2007 program.Results and Conclusions: In comparison to nasal breather the mouth breather has larger Gonial angle giving atendency to posterior rotation with growth of the mandible. The mouth breather has less maxillary length than thenasal breather. No effect of gender in mouth breather on gonial, SNA and SNB angles, no effect of gender in nasalbreather on gonial angle, while the other cephalometric measurements were higher in males than females in eachgroup. The mouth breather showed more anteroposterior extent of anterior cranial base; also the mouth breathershow an increase in all facial height than the nasal breathers, the frontal sinus area is smaller in mouth breather thanin nasal breather. The frontal sinus area showed correlation for both groups (Mouth and nasal breather) with maxillaryLength, mandibular length, ramal length, S-N length, TAFH, UAFH, LAFH, TPFH, LPFH, and UPFH. There is only correlationof frontal sinus with the SNA and SNB angles in nasal breather and no significant correlation for both groups with thegonial angle

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