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Article
Impact of Glycated Haemoglobin on salivary glucose among type 1 diabetic mellitus patients aged 18-22 years

Authors: Juman D. Al- Khayoun --- Ban S. Diab
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2018 Volume: 30 Issue: 3 Pages: 54-58
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Diabetes mellitus consists of a group of diseases characterized by abnormally high blood glucose levels. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is a form of haemoglobin used to identify the average concentration of plasma glucose over prolonged periods of time. It is formed in a non-enzymatic pathway by normal exposure of hemoglobin to high levels of plasma glucose, The main alterations observed in the saliva of Type 1 diabetic patients are hyposalivation and alteration in its composition, particularly those related to the levels of glucose. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of Glycated haemoglobin level on the level of salivary glucose which may have an effect on oral health condition. Materials and methods: The total sample composed of 50 adults aged 18-22 years. Divided into two groups: 25 uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (HbA1c > 7), 25 controlled diabetes mellitus (HbA1c ≤ 7). Stimulated salivary samples were collected under standardized condition according to the criteria of Tenovuo and Lagerlöf (1994). Salivary glucose was estimated by using spectrophotometric analysis. The data were analyzed by using SPSS version 18 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) to specify the statistical differences between the two groups.Results: the data of the present study assessed the correlation coefficients of HbA1c and salivary glucose and found that among uncontrolled diabetic group the relation between HbA1c and salivary glucose was significantly in positive direction (r = 0.483 p<0.05). While among controlled diabetic group, there was no relation between HbA1c and salivary glucose as the correlation coefficient was found to be equal to zero.Conclusion: the measurement of glycosylated hemoglobin, that is one of the well-established means of monitoring glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus, had a positive effect on the level of salivary glucose as its level increase with increasing the severity of diabetic disease.

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Article
Dental caries, Mutans Streptococci, Lactobacilli and salivary status of type1 diabetic mellitus patients aged 18- 22 years in relation to Glycated Haemoglobin

Authors: Juman D. Al- Khayoun جمان الخيون --- Ban S. Diab بان صالح ذياب
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 1 Pages: 153-158
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: diabetic mellitus is one of the serious systemic diseases that may cause general systemic changes,which may be reflected in the oral cavity. The aims of this study were to assess the severity of dental caries, MutansStreptococci and Lactobacilli in addition to flow rate and pH among uncontrolled and controlled diabetic groups incomparison with non-diabetic control group.Materials and Methods: Study groups consisted of 25 uncontrolled diabetic patients (HbA1c > 7), 25 controlleddiabetic patients (HbA1c ≤ 7), in addition to 25 non-diabetic healthy looking individuals. Their age was (18-22) yearsfrom both genders. The diagnosis and recording of dental caries was according to severity of dental caries lesionthrough the application of D1_4MFS (Manji et al, 1989) and stimulated salivary samples were collected. Salivary flowrate and pH were estimated. Viable count of mutans streptococci (on Mitis- Salivarius Bacitracin Agar) andlactobacilli (on Rogosa) was determined.Results: The mean values of caries-severity were recorded to be highest among study groups compared to thecontrol with statistically highly significant difference (p<0.01). Lowest values of salivary pH and flow rate were amongstudy groups compared to the control with highly significant difference (p<0.01). Concerning Mutans Streptococciand Lactobacilli were found that the mean values of them for uncontrolled diabetic group were highly significanthigher than both mean values of controlled diabetic group and control group.Conclusion: Dental caries revealed higher percentage of occurrence and severity among uncontrolled diabeticgroup. Furthermore there was significant influence of the diabetic and the poor metabolic control on the salivaryflow rat, pH, mutans streptococci and Lactobacilli that have an effect on caries occurrence and severity


Article
The relation of salivary glucose with dental caries and Mutans Streptococci among type1 diabetic mellitus patients aged 18-22 years

Authors: Juman D. Al- Khayoun --- Ban S. Diab --- Ali Y. Al-Rubaii
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 3 Pages: 146-151
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Diabetic is a chronic systemic disorder of glucose metabolism. That could be diagnosed using fastingand/or random plasma glucose and Glycated Haemoglobin (HbA1c). Several biochemical and microbial alterationsof saliva could affect dental caries occurrence and severity among diabetic patients. The aim of the present studywas to assess the relation of salivary glucose with severity of dental caries and Mutans Streptococci, amonguncontrolled and controlled diabetic groups in comparison with non-diabetic control group.Materials and Methods: The total sample composed of adults aged (18-22) years. Divided into 25 uncontrolleddiabetic patients (HbA1c > 7), 25 controlled diabetic patients (HbA1c ≤ 7), in addition to 25 non-diabetic healthylooking individuals. Fasting blood sugar was determined for the diabetic patients. The diagnosis and recording ofdental caries was according to severity of dental caries lesion through the application of D1_4MFS (Manji et al, 1989)and stimulated salivary samples were collected under standardized condition (Tenovuo and Lagerlöf, 1994). Salivaryglucose was estimated using spectrophotometric analysis. Viable count of mutans streptococci (on Mitis- SalivariusBacitracin Agar) was determined.Results: salivary glucose among uncontrolled diabetic group and controlled diabetic group were highly significanthigher than control group (p<0.01). Analysis among uncontrolled diabetic patients and non-diabetic control grouprevealed that the salivary glucose correlate positively highly significant with caries experience represented DMFS(p<0.01), while among controlled diabetic group the correlation was not significant in positive direction concerningDMFS (p>0.05). The correlation between salivary glucose and Mutans Streptococci among three groups was highlysignificant in positive direction (p<0.01).Conclusion: There are significant correlations between salivary glucose, severity of dental caries and mutansstreptococci in uncontrolled diabetic group

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