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Article
Magnification in panoramic radiography

Author: Lamia H. AL-Nakib لمياء حامد النقيب
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2005 Volume: 17 Issue: 3 Pages: 45-47
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: It is known that the image of panoramic radiograph is larger than the structure it represents.Materials and methods: To quantify the magnification of the machine used in this study (Cranex 3+), horizontal curved wire of 150 mm. was fixed by wax on a dry skull between maxilla & mandible. Other 30 mm. long wires were fixed vertically, one in the midline & the others in the canine, premolar & molar regions bilaterally. The skull was positioned as the patient's head positioned so the area to be exposed is precisely within the zone of sharpness, the films were processed & the radiographs were viewed.Results: A comparison between real & radiographic wires length was done. The result revealed that horizontal magnification was 6.6-10%, while the vertical magnification was 26.6-30%, but the machine rotation was symmetrical.Conclusion: Carnex 3+ X-ray machine had a symmetrical rotation with 26.6-30% vertical magnification &6.6-10% horizontal magnification


Article
Computed tomography bone density in Hounsfield units at dental implant receiving sites in different regions of the jaw bone

Author: Lamia H. Al-Nakib لمياء حامد النقيب
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2014 Volume: 26 Issue: 1 Pages: 92-97
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Determination of local bone mineral density (BMD) with cortical thickness and bone height may offer acomprehensive description of the bone the surgeon will encounter when he or she actually sets the implant.Quantitative computed tomography (CT) (i.e., quantitative interpretation of values derived from Hounsfield units witha suitable calibration procedure) is the modality of choice to determine BMD. The aim of the present clinical study isto determine the local bone density in dental implant recipient sites using computerized tomography.Material and method: The sample consisted of (72) Iraqi patients whom referred to Al-Kharkh General hospital, SpiralCT scan Department for bone quality and quantity assessment after one week of dental implants insertion, theaverage of bone density was measured for 120 areas indifferent sectors of maxilla and mandible in Hounsfield unite.Results: As a mean, males show higher bone density than females, decreased with increased age significantly,mandible show significantly higher bone density than maxilla. Maxilla revealed no significant difference between thethree sectors, while in the mandible there was significant difference between posterior sector (613.1HU)and bothanterior (821.3 HU) and premolar sectors (779.6 HU) with no significant difference between anterior and premolarsectors.Conclusion: CT-Scan may provide a valuable aid to predict bone quality at potential implant sites and could beused to assess the change of bone density around dental implants

مع سماكة القشرة العظمية و ارتفاع العظم قد تقدم وصفا شاملا للعظم للجراح ليحدد امكانية زراعة الأسنان بالاعتماد على قياس ) BMD( معلومات أساسية : تحديد كثافة العظامإن الهدف من هذه الدراسة السريرية الحالية هو تحديد كثافة العظام المحلية في بعد غرز الزرعات السنية .)CT( الكثافة العظمية بوحدة هاونسفيلد بواسطة التصوير المقطعيبأسبوعبوحدةهاونسفيلد باستخدام التصوير المقطعي.طرق البحث: تم قياس متوسط كثافة العظام ل 27 مريض بوحدة الهاونسفيلد باستخدام الأشعة المقطعية في مستشفى الكرخ العام ، قسم الاشعة المقطعية ل 071 لمنطقة ما حولالزرعهفي مختلف مناطق الفكين العلوي والسفلي .النتائج:كثافة العظم تكون اكبر عند الرجال والأصغر سنا وفي الفك السفلي اكثر من لعلوي. ولا توجد فروقات محسوسة بين مناطق الفك العلوي, لكن في الفك السفلي هناك فرق بينالمقطع الخلفي عن المقطعين الأمامي والضواحك.الخلاصة: الأشعة المقطعية قد توفرمساعدة قيمة للتنبؤ بجودة العظام في مواقع زرع المحتملة ويمكن أن تستخدم لتقييم التغيرفي كثافةالعظم حول الزرعات السنية.


Article
Craniometric asymmetry assessment in class I and class II skeletal relationship patients using helical computed tomography sample aged between 18-35 years

Authors: Uday A. Taha --- Lamia H. Al-Nakib لمياء حامد النقيب
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 4 Pages: 60-65
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Asymmetry assessment is an important component of orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning.Several studies attempted to find the relationship between craniometric asymmetry and skeletal jaws relationshipand many authors found some extent of asymmetry in individuals with normal jaws relationship. The use of Computedtomography (CT) allows for the assessment of asymmetry on a dimensionally accurate volumetric image, aim of thestudy is to determine if there are differences in craniometric asymmetry between patient with skeletal class I andpatients with skeletal class II relationship using Helical CT scan.Materials and Methods: Ninety individuals with clinically symmetrical faces were imaged with Helical CT scan, andaging 18-35 years, divided into two groups, class Ι group consisted of 31 individuals and class ΙΙ group consisted of59individuals. Anatomical landmarks were defined and reference planes were established to determine thevariance of the landmarks using a coordinate plane system. Sagittal radiographs were used to determine theamount of the ANB angle. Asymmetry was analyzed by calculating the linear measurements and asymmetry indicesof the anatomical landmarks by using coronal and axial radiographs in both classes.Results: Clinically symmetrical faces demonstrated a computed tomographic significant asymmetry with the verticaldimensions being significantly larger than the bilateral dimensions and the amount of asymmetry was more at thelevel of the mandible and less at the maxillary area.Conclusions: The craniometric structures in terms of size and shape were larger in males than in females. The amountof asymmetry was independent on gender and skeletal jaws relationship and age


Article
Evaluation of the anterior loop of the mental nerve incidence and extension in different age groups in Sulaimania city using digital panoramic imaging system

Authors: Lamia H. Al-Nakib لمياء حامد النقيب --- Sarkawt Khidhir Rasul ساركت خضر رسول
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 1 Pages: 99-104
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The anterior loop of mental nerve is commonly described as that part of the neurovascular bundle thattransverses anterior and inferior to the mental foramen only to loop back to exit the mental foramen. The aim of thestudy is to evaluate the incidence and extension of anterior loop of mental nerve by using digital panoramic imagingsystem to avoid nerve damage during different surgical procedures in dentistry.Materials and Method: Panoramic image was taken for all 400 patients and stored in the computer. Then Horizontaland Vertical for the anterior loop extension when exist was measured and recorded in a special case sheetprepared for each subject.Results: Results indicated that out of 400 patients there were only 25 patients (6.25%) having anterior of the inferioralveolar nerve, 14 cases (56%) of them were males and 11 cases (44%) were females. The extension of the anteriorloop of mental nerve was with wide range, for horizontal extension it was 1.3-6.36mm with significant differencebetween right and left sides, and with vertical extension was between 1.44 -5.98mm with no significant differencebetween the right and left sides.Conclusion: No significant difference among subjects according to sex and the pattern of visualization of the anteriorloop was shown. The anterior loop was visible in 6.25% of the dental panoramic radiographs with 3.5% for males and2.75% for females.


Article
The value of lateral cephalometric image in sex identification

Authors: Aysar Razzaq Ali ايسر رزاق علي --- Lamia H. Al-Nakib لمياء حامد النقيب
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 2 Pages: 54-58
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Determination of sex and estimation of stature from the skeleton is vital to medicolegal investigations.Skull is composed of hard tissue and is the best preserved part of skeleton after death, hence, in many cases it is theonly available part for forensic examination. Lateral cephalogram is ideal for the skull examination as it gives detailsof various anatomical points in a single radiograph. This study was undertaken to evaluate the accuracy of digitalcephalometric system as quick, easy and reproducible supplement tool in sex determination in Iraqi samples indifferent age range using certain linear and angular craniofacial measurements in predicting sex.Materials and Method The sample consisted of 113of true lateral cephalometric radiographs for adults with agerange from 22-43 years old (51 males, 62 females), using certain linear and angular craniofacial measurements withthe aid of computer program “AutoCAD 2007”Results: The eleven parameters measured for males and females when compared are statistically significantlydifferent. All cranio-cephalometric measurements gave overall predictive accuracy of sex determination bydiscriminant analysis (86.7%). The stepwise selection method gave overall predictive accuracy of sex determinationby discriminant analysis (85.8%). Age showed no statistical difference among the studied age range except for thedistance from Mastoid to Frankfort plane.Conclusion: The lateral cephalometric measurements of craniofacial bones are useful to support sex determinationof Iraqi population in forensic radiographic medicine


Article
Corrеlation bеtwееn Dual-Еnеrgy X-Ray Absorptiomеtry and Panoramic Mandibular Indicеs in Prеdiction of Bonе Minеral Dеnsity in Postmеnopausal Fеmalеs

Authors: Safa Hasan Alwan صفا حسن علوان --- Lamia H. Al-Nakib لمياء حامد النقيب
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2016 Volume: 28 Issue: 3 Pages: 87-91
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Ostеoporosis is a systеmic disеasе of thе bonе that is charactеrizеd by rеducеd bonе mass, which lеadsto incrеasеd bonе fragility and fracturеparticularly in postmеnopausal womеn.Thе aims of study was toеvaluatе thеrеlationship bеtwееn mandibular radiomorphomеtric indicеs obtainеd on digital panoramic radiographswith thеbonе minеral dеnsitiеs of thе lumbar spinееvaluatеd using dual-еnеrgy X-ray absorptiomеtry (DXA) scan, in apopulation of ostеoporotic and non-ostеoporotic fеmalеs.Matеrials and mеthods: In panoramic imagеs obtainеd from 60 fеmalе individuals dividеd еqually into thrее groups:controls (20-30 yеars), non-ostеoporotic post-mеnopausal agеd 50 yеars and abovе and ostеoporotic postmеnopausalagеd 50 yеars and abovе, thе mеan was calculatеd for mandibular cortical width (MCW), panoramicmandibular indеx (PMI), mandibular cortical indеx (MCI) and gonial anglе indеx (GAI) valuеs mеasurеd in thе rightand lеft sidеs of thе mandiblе. Bonе minеral dеnsity (BMD) valuеs wеrе mеasurеd by dual еnеrgy X-rayabsorptiomеtry (DXA) scan.Rеsults: Significant positivе corrеlation (r) was obsеrvеd bеtwееn bonе minеral dеnsity of lumbar vеrtеbraе and MCW(r=0.706) and PMI (r=0.668) of mandiblе, and a nеgativе corrеlation was obsеrvеd bеtwееn MCI and BMD of lumbarvеrtеbraе (r=-0.716). Whilе GAI did not show any significant diffеrеncе in rеlation to bonе minеral dеnsity.Conclusion: This study showеd that MCW, PMI and MCI indicеs wеrе usеful for idеntifying fеmalеs with low skеlеtal(BMD), whilе GAI was indеpеndablе in dеtеcting ostеoporosis


Article
Thickness of Buccal Bone at Various Sites of the Mandible and Its Clinical Significance in Monocortical Screws Placement Using Multi-Slice Computed Tomography

Authors: Hawraa Noori Atallah حوراء نوري عطالله --- Lamia H. Al-Nakib لمياء حامد النقيب
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 4 Pages: 78-84
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background:Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of using miniplates and screws is the treatment of choice ofmandibular fractures. It is important to know both: the region where the bone provides a firm anchorage, and thetopography of the dental apices and inferior alveolar nerve to avoided imaging them when inserting the screw. Theaim of this study is to determine the thickness of buccal cortical plate and that of buccal bone at the parasymphysisand mandibular body, thereby determining the area that provide a firm anchorage and the maximum length ofmono-cortical screws that can be safely placed in these regions without injuring the tooth roots or mandibular nerve.Materials and Methods: The sample of the present study was 110 Iraqi subjects (77 males & 33 females) aged (18-35)years old who admitted to Computed Tomography scan unit in AL-Sadr Teaching Hospital in Al-Najaf city to getComputed Tomographic examination of facial bones. The conventional sections of CT (axial, coronal) used to dothe measurements and dental planning analysis also used. The thickness of buccal cortical plate and the thickness ofbuccal bone were measured at the level of root apex of (canine, first premolar, second premolar) and at the levelofroot apex and inferior alveolar canal in mesial and distal root of first and second molar.Results: There was no statistical significant difference in buccal cortical plate and buccal bone thickness betweenage and gender at most measured sites. Using of 4mm screw is safe in distal root region of 2nd molar at the level ofapex and that of inferior alveolar canal for both males and females. Moving slightly forward in position to the mesialroot of 2nd molar 1mm will be lost from safety margin, while making only the 3mm screw is safe. For the remaininganterior positions only the minimum screw length of 2 mm is safe.Conclusions: Thickness of buccal cortical plate and buccal bone in various sites could be measured precisely usingMultislice Computed tomography which can guide surgeons in selecting the proper screw length without causinginjury to tooth apex or inferior alveolar nerve.


Article
Prevalence and localization of the posterior superior alveolar artery in relation to the floor of the maxillary sinus and alveolar crest among sample of Iraqis using computed tomography

Authors: Abdullah Ahmed Ibrahim عبدالله احمد ابراهيم --- Lamia H. Al Nakib لمياء حامد النقيب
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2017 Volume: 29 Issue: 3 Pages: 54-58
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Posterior superior alveolar artery (PSAA) is branch of the maxillary artery. It usually supplies the lateral wall of the sinus and overlying membrane. Evaluation and awareness of the anatomy of maxillary sinus before surgery is crucial to avoid surgical complications. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence, location of the (PSAA) in relation to the floor of the maxillary sinus and alveolar crest using computerized tomography (CT) scans.Materials and Methods: This study included 180 Iraqi subjects (99 males and 81 females) with age more than 16 years old. CT scans for (right and left) Maxillary sinuses were done for each patient. The information obtained was assessed in a coronal multi planar reconstructions images (MPRs) in order to obtain the following parameters: prevalence rate of PSAA, distance from the lower border of the artery to the: alveolar crest, the floor of the sinus and the medial sinus wall.Results: The prevalence of PSAA on CT images was 73.61% among total sample. Distance from the lower border of the artery to the alveolar crest was (18.42± 4.07) mm, and to the sinus floor was (8.99 ±3.86) mm and to the medial sinus wall was (12.68 ± 2.81) mm.Conclusions: CT scan is valuable tool in evaluation and localization of the PSAA before maxillary sinus surgery


Article
Radiographic findings of oral and dental aspects of chronic renal failure of Iraqi patients under hemodialysis therapy

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Background: Chronic renal failure can give rise to a wide spectrum of oral manifestations, affecting the hard or softtissues of the mouth. The majority of affected individuals have disease that does not complicate oral health care. Themain aim of this study is to assess the response to therapy and to determine the radiographic manifestations in teethand jaws of individuals with chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis and to find possible preventive andtherapeutic strategies.Materials and methods: Thirty male patients with chronic renal failure who were continuously receiving therapy withongoing hemodialysis were included in this study and were divided into two subgroups according to the period oftherapy (those who had renal dialysis for less than a year, and 1 to 2 years). All patients were requested forpanoramic (OPG) radiographs with standardized parameters according to user manual of the machine thenquantify the frequency of abnormal dental and periodontal radiographic findings in both arches i.e. the alveolarbone resorption, presence of hypercementosis of the roots, lamina dura reduction or loss and dental condition, thenthe data were analyzed statistically by comparison with control normal subjects.Results: It has been established that the duration with the increase the abnormality in dental and periodontalradiographic findings as alveolar bone resorption, presence of hypercementosis of the roots, lamina dura reductionor loss, as well as other dental diseases.Conclusion: Panoramic radiographic view used in this study considers as a good monitor for jaw and dental changesassociated with patients affected with chronic renal failure treated with hemodialysis, and the results showed strongcorrelation between duration of hemodialysis and all studied variables. Clinicians should use oral health assessmenttools to determine individual treatment and approaches to promote the oral health of patients undergoinghemodialysis and improve their quality of life


Article
An Assessment of Sagittal Condylar Position of TMJ Dysfunction in Centric Occlusion by Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

Authors: Lamia H. Al-Nakib لمياء حامد النقيب --- Ako Omer Abdullah --- Saeed A.Abd Al-Kareem --- Sangar Hamid Ali
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2016 Volume: 28 Issue: 2 Pages: 58-62
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Background: Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a compound articulation formed from the articular surfaces of thetemporal bone and the mandibular condyle.CBCT imaging of TMJ is that it allows accurate measurements of thevolume and surface of the condyle. The aim of the study is to assess the sagittal position of mandibular condyle inpatients with temporomandibulardysfunction using Cone Beam Computed Tomography in centric occlusion.Materials and Methods: CBCT images for all patients were obtained in an upright position using New Tom GianoCBCT with different field of view (11 x 8), (11 x 5), and (8 x 8) and exposure factors was changed accordingly usingNNT version 5.1 software for sagittal reconstruction, anterior, superior and posterior joint spaces was measured.Results: There was a significant change in the anterior, posterior and superior joint spaces when compared to normalfunctioning TMJ. The sagittal position of the condyle in glenoid fossa could be affected by TMJ dysfunction and itwould be positioned centrally but slightly inferior to the normal position according to the results of this study. Therewas no significant difference in the sagittal condylar position in glenoid fossa between sexes. There was significantdifference in the value of anterior, posterior and superior TMJ spaces between right and left sides of the mandible inboth normal cases and TMJD.Conclusion: Sagittal section of Temporomandibular joint revealed that TMJ dysfunction affects the joint spaces insagittal plane. It means significant changes occur in the value of anterior, posterior and superior joint spaces whencompared to normal functioning TMJ

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