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Article
Lipid Profile and Menopausal Status

Authors: Ahlam Disher --- Lamia M. Al - Naama --- Fouad Hamad Al - Dahhan
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2008 Volume: 4 Issue: 2 Pages: 8-12
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Dyslipidemia is a major cause of cardiovascular disease, which in turn, is the most common cause of female morbidity and mortality. Postmenopausal women (natural and surgical) are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease, especially coronary artery atherosclerosis.
Objective: To observe the relationship between blood lipids: total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TGs), and very low density lipoprotein- cholesterol (VLDL-C), LDL-C/ HDL-C ratio (atherogenic index) and menopausal status, and to determine the co-factors that may explain this relationship
Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional study, which includes 279 women, age range from 35-55 years agreed to participate in this study. They were divided into 4 groups according to their menopausal status. These were pre-, peri post- natural and surgical post- menopausal. Data were collected from participants in a pre-coded questionnaire and an overnight fasting blood sample was collected for biochemical analysis.
Results: Postmenopausal women had higher levels of lipids than pre or peri-menopausal. TC concentration and LDL-cholesterol levels were higher in natural and surgical menopause than in pre and pri-menopausal women (p<0.01 and p<0.05 respectively). While LDL/HDL-C ratio (atherogenic index) were higher in the surgical postmenopausal women than in pre-menopausal group (p<0.05). No significant inter-group differences were found in HDL-C. Triglycerides, and VLDL levels were higher in surgical menopause group than in both pre- and peri-menopause groups (p<0.05). No significant differences were demonstrated in pre-, peri-, and natural menopausal women with regard to triglyceride and VLDL levels and LDL/HDL-C ratio.
Conclusion: Dyslipidemia is more frequent among women with natural and surgical menopause groups than in the other groups. This makes those women more susceptible to CVD. Certain co factors appear to have direct associations with lipid levels in each group and those were discussed.
KeyWords: Menapause, Lipid profile

Keywords

menapause --- lipid profile


Article
Serum Vitamin C Status In children with Type I Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Ahmed K. Hamza --- Salem Rahma --- Lamia M. AL-Naama
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2005 Volume: 2 Issue: 1 Pages: 123-131
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Serum vitamin C status was studied in 50 children (29males and 21females) with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus admitted to Basrah maternity and children hospital, from the period of June 2001 till May 2002. 54 healthy children (31 males and 23 females) admitted to the same hospital with acute illnesses like chest infection were randomly selected as a controls. Low serum vitamin C level was detected in (44%) of diabetic children compared to (7.41%) of the control group which was highly significant (P<0.001). The two groups differ significantly in the frequency of consuming fruits per week and serum C-reactive protein (P<0.01). In diabetic children with low serum vitamin C level, the frequency of fruit consumption per week was significantly lower than those with normal vitamin C level. In regard to serum C-reactive protein,(70.6%]of positive cases were presented in children with low serum vitamin C level while only(29.4%]of positive cases occurred in those with normal serum vitamin C level. There was no association between serum vitamin C and degree of glycemic control. After adjustments for differences in dietary intake of vitamin C and C-reactive protein, children with diabetes had significantly lower serum vitamin C concentration than did children without diabetes.

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Article
LIPID PROFILE CHANGES IN PREGNANCY INDUCED HYPERTENSION

Authors: Lamia M Al Naama --- Muhsin Al Sabbak --- Weam Al-Mahfooz
Journal: Basrah Journal of Surgery مجلة البصرة الجراحية ISSN: 16833589 / ONLINE 2409501X Year: 2005 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 50-59
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

We tested the hypothesis that the plasma lipid and lipoproteins concentrations are increased markedly in women with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) relative to women with uncomplicated pregnancy and that these lipids decrease postpartum and to clarify the relation of lipid profile changes with the severity of pregnancy induced hypertension.This study is a prospective, case-control study conducted at Basrah Maternity and Child Hospital extended through a period of 12 months from the first of August 2000 till the first of August 2001.Pre-labor venous blood samples were collected for 90 women with pregnancy-induced hypertension and 110 women with normal uncomplicated pregnancy with an age range (16-40) years and gestational age range (34-42) weeks after 12 hours fasting. Venous blood samples were also collected from only 30 women with PIH and 30 women with normal uncomplicated pregnancy after 24-48 hours postpartum. Serum was analyzed for concentrations of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C).Pre-labor serum (TG), (TC), (LDL-C) and (VLDL-C) were increased in women with PIH relative to uncomplicated pregnancies respectively P value (<0.001). (HDL-C) concentration does not differ between studied groups (P = 0.1). Concentrations of all lipids decreased significantly (P value <0.001) in both groups within the first 24-48 hours postpartum. However the levels of these lipids remained higher in women with PIH but were statistically not significant. Serum triglyceride and VLDL concentrations but not total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C were significantly higher in severe PIH group in comparison with mild PIH. There was no correlation between the age, parity and the lipid profiles changes in both groups. There was a positive correlation between each of the (TG), (TC), (LDL-C) and (VLDL-C). (HDL-C) does not correlate significantly with other different types of lipid. In conclusion, plasma lipids and lipoproteins but not HDL-C are increased in PIH relative to normal pregnancy and hypertriglyceridemia found in severely PIH may contribute to endothelial dysfunction in PIH.

Keywords

LIPID --- PREGNANCY --- HYPERTENSION


Article
CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND BIOCHEMICAL ‎EVALUATION OF BONE SECONDARIES

Authors: Thamir A Hamdan --- Lamia M Al-Naama --- Falih W Hashim
Journal: Basrah Journal of Surgery مجلة البصرة الجراحية ISSN: 16833589 / ONLINE 2409501X Year: 2004 Volume: 10 Issue: 2 Pages: 43-53
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

The skeleton is one of the commonest sites for metastasis. Bone secondaries account for more than one third of the ‎malignant disease of bone.‎Seventy-six patients with bone secondaries were admitted in the orthopaedic department of Basrah Teaching ‎Hospital from February 2000 to June 2002, age range 14-86 years; 34 were males and 42 were females. The ‎dominant sites of bone metastases were spine, 60 patients (79%) and pelvis, 16 patients (21%). The common ‎primary sites were breast, 19 patients (25%) and lung, 11 patients (14.4%); 9 patients (11.2%) had undetected ‎primary site. Most secondaries (90%) were osteolytic in type and the most common histopathological type was ‎adenocarcinoma, 47 patients (63%). In 63 patients (83%), pain was the dominant presenting feature. Late ‎presentation was a major problem; it ranges between 4-8 months. Another problem was lack of clinical awareness ‎in the early stage of the illness.‎Serum and urinary biochemical markers of bone metabolism were significantly high in patients with bone ‎secondaries than control group, no difference whether the metastasis was single or multiple and whichever the ‎primary site or histopathological subtype. Special interest with urinary hydroxyproline, it was significantly elevated ‎in patients with bone secondaries, some of them had negative radiography. Prognosis was poor with short life ‎expectancy.‎

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Article
Serum Ceruloplasmin, Copper, Zinc and Copper Zinc Ratio Levels in Different Types of Malignancy

Authors: Jamal A Abdul-Barry --- Lamia M Al- Naama --- Zenib.A Al- Manaseer --- Hashim S Al- Khayat
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2009 Volume: 6 Issue: 2 Pages: 377-391
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

This study aimed to know the levels of serum ceruloplasmin (Cp), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) and Cu/Zn ratio concentrations in different type of malignancy and to clarify the relation ships of those parameters when used as a markers for detection the severity of malignancy. Study design: A prospective case-control study, conducted through a period of 8 months, from October 2000 to May 2001, during which 184 patients admitted to the Surgical Ward of Basrah General and Teaching Hospitals.There were 100 patients with different types of malignancy including 43 patients with gastro intestinal tract cancer (GIT), 18 females having breast cancer, 18 patients with urinary system malignancy and the reminder 21 patients having other types of malignancy. The other 84 patients suffered from surgical ailments other than malignancy serve as a control group. Venous blood sample was collected from each patient for measurement Cp, Cu, Zn, and Cun ratio by using standard methods. Results: Serum (Cp) level was significantly elevated (P‹0.05) in all types of malignang with respect to age (less than 45 years and between 45-65 years olds), sex, smoking and nutritional habit when compared with non malignant patients. Serum Cu concentrations not-significantly elevated (p>0.05) in all types of malignant patients in comparison with non malignant subjects. There was significant increase in its levels in specific type of malignant and within specific limits including age mainly less than 45 years, smoking and nutritional habit, particularly among those consuming fruits and vegetables 3-5week. Serum Zn levels showed significant decrease (p>0.05) in malignant patients according to age, sex, smoking and nutritional habits mainly in patients characterized by less frequent intake of fruits and vegetables less than 3 times per week. Serum Cun ratio was highly significantly elevated (p>0.05) in all types of malignancy with respect to age, sex, smoking and nutritional habit particularly those consuming fruits and vegetables frequency >3 times and 3-5 times per week. Conclusion: On the basis of this study, it can be concluded that, substantial differences in those parameters studied in malignant and-non malignant patients and in different types of malignancy were important and useful for the measurement of the severity of malignancy.

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Article
Blood glucose and lipid profile levels in Ramadan

Authors: Lamia M Al-Naama --- Jamal Ahmed Abdul-Barry --- Abdul-Kadar Abdul-Wahab
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2008 Volume: 5 Issue: 2 Pages: 284-291
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

The sequence of alterations in the concentrations of blood glucose and the compositions of different serum lipids following fasting in Ramadan is not known We therefore monitored the concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) as well as blood glucose. Fasting blood samples were taken from 50 healthy volunteers at the beginning, during Ramadan and then 30 days following Ramadan. Blood analysis was determined for glucose and lipid profile. Results showed non significant increase in the levels of TC, TG, and LDL-C during the first 9 days of fasting in Ramadan. This was followed by a decrease in their concentration after 18 days of fast, which tend to rise progressively by the end of Ramadan reaching their initial values 30 days later. No changes were found in VLDL-C through out the study. HDL-C concentration showed a gradual and highly significant decrease (P< 0.001) in its value from start to the end of Ramadan reaching near initial values 30 days following Ramadan. Blood glucose level remains unchanged during the 18 days of fasting in Ramadan, but later showed a progressive decrease towards the end of Ramadan that remains even after 30 days. These changes although unlikely would affect normal people, may be significant in hyperlipidemic patients. Physicians working in Muslim countries should be aware that fasting in Ramadan might influence some laboratory findings.

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Article
Serum Potassium, Magnesium, Sodium and Chloride Levels in Elderly Population

Authors: Jamal A. Abdl Barry --- Lamia M. Al-Naama --- Sarkis S. Strak
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2007 Volume: 4 Issue: 3-4 Pages: 323-330
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

A total of 110 elderly patients aged 72 + 6.5 years ( 62 males and 48 females) were prospectively studied. Measurements of serum potassium, magnesium, sodium and chloride were done and the effects of biological factors (age, sex, weight) and a large set of pathological conditions were examined. For comparison; another 100 subjects ( 63 males and 37 females ) whom were found free of any disease and / or alcoholic and smoking habits considered as a control group. Their age range was 68 + 8 years. Results showed a significant decreased ( P< 0.05) in the concentration of serum potassium level in hypertensive and in patients with renal failure. While a significant increased (P < 0.05) was correlated with myocardial infarction. No significant alteration in the concentration of plasma potassium was found in other pathologic populations. Serum magnesium level was significantly lowered ( P<0.05) in diabetic patients, however, its value was unchanged among other pathological conditions. Low serum sodium value was observed in association with renal failure. Other pathological conditions had no effects on serum sodium level. Decreased concentration of serum chloride was observed mainly in renal failure. No significant changes in serum chloride levels was found in relation to other pathological conditions. Therefore our data suggest that, the decrease of potassium, magnesium sodium and chloride levels in the aged population is either merely related to an age- associated pathology or may be a normal physiological event occurring during the process of aging.

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Article
Smoking and urinary bladder cancer: A case-control study in Basrah
التدخين وسرطان المثانة: دراسة مقارنة بالعين الضابطة في محافظة البصرة

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Abstract

Background: The primary and well established risk factor for urinary bladder cancer is cigarette smoking. ‎Objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the association between cigarette smoking and the ‎development of urinary bladder cancer in Basrah.‎Methods: A case control study was conducted to examine the association between the risk of urinary bladder cancer and ‎various characteristics of smoking: the smoking status (current or ex-smoker), smoking intensity (cigarette per day), ‎duration, total exposure (pack-years), type of cigarette (filtered or unfiltered), inhalation, and environmental tobacco ‎smoke exposure. The study population composed of 87 patients with newly diagnosed bladder cancer cases and 357 ‎controls. Cases and controls were matched for age, sex, and residence.‎Results: An increased risk of urinary bladder cancer was found for both current and ex-smoker (for current smoker OR ‎‎= 2.98; 95% CI = 1.68-5.28 and for ex-smoker OR = 4.05; 95% CI = 2.19-7.48). The study also revealed a significant ‎positive trend in urinary bladder cancer risk with smoking intensity, pack-years, and environmental tobacco smoke. ‎Conclusion: The results of the present study are consistent with the findings of the previous epidemiological studies and ‎confirm that smoking is a major risk factor for urinary bladder cancer and preventive strategies should be directed ‎toward smoking as risk factor for urinary bladder cancer in Basrah. ‎

خلفية البحث: يعد التدخين من عوامل الخطورة الرئيسية والمعروفة لسرطان المثانة ، وكان هدف الدراسة الحالية هو لتقييم الاقتران بين التدخين ‏والاصابة بسرطان المثانة في محافظة البصرة.‏طرق العمل: تم اقامة دراسة مقارنة بالعينة الضابطة لفحص الاقتران بين خطورة الاصابة بسرطان المثانة ومختلف حالات التدخين (التدخين الحالي ‏والتدخين السابق، شدة التدخين ،طول فترة التدخين ، التعرض الكلي للتدخين، نوع السكائر ، طريقة الاستنشاق والتدخين السلبي). شملت الدراسة ‏‏87 مريضا مشخصين حديثا كمصابين بسرطان المثانة و357 شخصا كعينة ضابطة متوافقة مع المرضى من خلال العمر والجنس ومحل الاقامة.‏‏ النتائج:وجدت الدراسة زيادة في خطورة الاصابة بسرطان المثانة لدى المدخين الحاليين والسابقين (للمدخين الحاليين ‏OR = 2.98; 95% CI = 1.68-5.28 ‎‏ والمدخنين السابقين ‏OR = 4.05; 95% CI = 2.19-7.48‎‏ كما اظهرت الدراسة علاقة ‏معنوية ايجابية بين خطر الاصابة بسرطان المثانة وشدة التدخين والتعرض الكلي والتدخين السلبي.‏الاستنتاجات:‏كانت نتائج الدراسة الحالية متوافقة مع الدراسات الوبائية السابقة مؤكدة كون التدخين عامل خطورة رئيسي لسرطان المثانة وان الاجراءات الوقائية ‏يجب ان توجه للأخذ بعين الاعتبار ان التدخين عامل خطورة مهم للإصابة بسرطان المثانة في محافظة البصرة. ‏


Article
Glycaemic Control In Diabetes Mellitus
السيطرة الأيضية عند مرضى السكر

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Abstract

Objective: To evaluate the degree of glycaemic control among diabetic patients.Methods: The study included 156 diabetic patients (64 with insulin – dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and 92 with non insulin – dependent diabetes mellitus ( NIDDM) ), and 120 control subject. The parameters measured were fasting blood glucose (FBG) and the level of glycated haemoglobin (Hb A1c).Results: HbA1c level was significantly higher among diabetic patients (both IDDM and NIDDM) compared to controls (P<0.001). Also, 43.8% of IDDM patients and 63.0% of NIDDM patients were in poor glycaemic control.Conclusion: substantial proportion of diabetic patients are in poor metabolic control , and hence, more prone to early diabetic complications.

الهدف: تقييم مستوى السيطرة الايضية عند مرضى السكرالطريقة: شملت الدراسة 156 من مرضى السكر، منهم 64 مريضاً مصابا بالسكر المعتمد على الانسولين و 92 مريضاً بالسكر غير المعتمد على الانسولين ، بالاضافة الى 120 من الاصحاء كمجموعة ضابطة. تم قياس مستوى السكر في الدم ومستوى خضاب الدم نوع (HbA1c) A1c.النتائج: كان مستوى HbA1c عالياً وبشكل معنوي عند مرضى السكر (في كلا النوعين) مقارنة بالاصحاء (P<0.001). وكان 43.8 % من مرضى السكر المعتمد على الانسولين و 63.0 % من مرضى السكر غير المعتمد على الانسولين بدرجة سيطرة أيضية سيئة.الخاتمة: نسبة مهمة من مرضى السكر في درجة سيئة من السيطرة الايضية مما يجعلهم اكثر عرضة للمضاعفات المبكرة للسكري.


Article
EVALUATION OF LIPID AND LIPOPROTEIN PROFILE IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES
تقييم نمط الدهون و البروتينات الذهنية لدى مرضى السكر من النوع 2

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Abstract

ABSTRACTObjective: To evaluate the pattern of lipid and lipoprotein profile in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D).Methods: In this prospective study, which was carried out in Basrah, Southern Iraq, serum concentrations of glucose“fasting blood sugar” (FBS), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low densitylipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG) and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) weremeasured in 92 patients (43 males and 49 females) with T2D and 120 control subjects (35 males and 85 females).Results: Patients with T2D have significantly higher serum concentrations of TC, LDL-C, TG, VLDL-C and LDLC/HDL-C ratio (P<0.001) and significantly lower HDL-C serum concentration (P<0.001) compared to controlsubjects. Male patients with T2D showed significantly higher TC, LDL-C serum concentrations and LDL-C/HDL-Cratio in comparison to control subjects (P<0.001), while serum HDL-C concentration was significantly lower amongT2D patients compared to controls (P<0.001). No significant differences were seen in serum TG and VLDL-Cconcentrations between male patients and control subjects (P>0.05). In females, serum levels of TC, LDL-C, TG,VLDL-C, and LDL-C/ HDL-C ratio were significantly higher (P<0.001), and serum HDL-C level was significantlylower (P<0.05) in patients with T2D than in control subjects.Conclusion: T2D has marked effects on lipid and lipoprotein profile causing a diversity of dyslipidaemia, thatmight lead to atherosclerosis, and hence, increasing the risk of coronary heart disease.

1فرع الكيمياء الحياتية/كلية الطب/جامعة البصرة، 2قسم المختبرات السريرية/ دائرة صحة البصرة/ العراقالهدف: تقييم التغييرات في نمط الدهون و البروتينات الذهنية لدى مرضى السكر من النوع 2.طرق العمل: في هذه الدراسة والتي أقيمت في البصرة، جنوب العراق، تم قياس المناسب الدموية التالية: سكر الدم، الكولسترول الكلي، كولسترول البروتينات الدهنية عالية الكثافة، كولسترول البروتينات الدهنية واطئة الكثافة، الدهون الثلاثية وكولسترول البروتينات الدهنية واطئة الكثافة جدا" لدى 92 من مرضى السكر من النوع 2، منهم 43 من الذكور و 49 من الإناث، بالإضافة الى 120 من الأصحاء، منهم 35 من الذكور و 85 من الإناث، كمجموعة ضابطة.النتائج: عند مرضى السكر من النوع 2، كانت مستويات الكولسترول الكلي، كولسترول البروتينات الدهنية واطئة الكثافة، الدهون الثلاثية، كولسترول البروتينات الدهنية واطئة الكثافة جدا" ونسبة كولسترول البروتينات الدهنية واطئة الكثافة إلى كولسترول البروتينات الدهنية عالية الكثافة مرتفعة بشكل معنوي، بينما كان مستوى كولسترول البروتينات الدهنية عالية الكثافة منخفضا" بشكل معنوي بالمقارنة مع الأصحاء. وأظهر الذكور مستويات مرتفعة للكولسترول الكلي، كولسترول البروتينات الدهنية واطئة الكثافة و نسبة كولسترول البروتينات الدهنية واطئة الكثافة إلى كولسترول البروتينات الدهنية عالية الكثافة بالمقارنة مع الذكور الأصحاء، بينما كان تركيز كولسترول البروتينات الدهنية عالية الكثافة منخفضا" بشكل معنوي لدى المرضى الذكور بالمقارنة مع الأصحاء، بينما لم توجد فروق معنوية في مستويات الدهون الثلاثية وكولسترول البروتينات الدهنية واطئة الكثافة جدا" بين مرضى السكر و الأصحاء. أما لدى الإناث، فقد كانت مستويات الكولسترول الكلي، الدهون الثلاثية، كولسترول البروتينات الدهنية واطئة الكثافة، كولسترول البروتينات الدهنية واطئة الكثافة جدا" ونسبة كولسترول البروتينات الدهنية واطئة الكثافة إلى كولسترول البروتينات الدهنية عالية الكثافة مرتفعة بشكل معنوي، بينما كان مستوى كولسترول البروتينات الدهنية عالية الكثافة منخفضا" بشكل معنوي بالمقارنة مع الأصحاء. الاستنتاجات: إن لمرض السكر من النوع 2 تأثيرات ملحوظة على نمط الدهون والبروتينات الدهنية في الدم، ومؤديا" لاضطرابات دهنية متعددة في الدم مما قد يؤدي الى تصلب الشرايين، و بالتالي احتمال زيادة خطر الإصابة بمرض القلب التاجي.المجلة الطبية لجامعة البصرة ص27-32

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