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Article
Effect of Active Medium Temperature on the Output Characteristics of Pulsed Free-Running R6G and RB Dye Laser

Author: M.A. Ahmed
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Applied Physics المجلة العراقية للفيزياء التطبيقية ISSN: 18132065 23091673 Year: 2005 Volume: 1 Issue: 1 Pages: 30-33
Publisher: iraqi society for alternative and renewable energy sources and techniques الجمعية العراقية لمصادر وتقنيات الطاقة البديلة والمستجدة

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Abstract

In this work, the effect of active medium temperature on output characteristics of a pulsed dye laser was studied. Two dyes, R6G and RB, were used as laser active medium. Under free-running operation, 35mJ maximum output energy and 100Ps pulse duration were obtained with presence of oxygen as a quencher. Results presented in this work showed that output characteristics such as laser pulse energy, emission linewidth, beam divergence and overall efficiency are reasonably affected by temperature. Optimum values of such features requires system to operate at temperature of 10°C which represents the optimum operating temperature. These results may benefit to determine the optimum operating temperature of a pulsed dye laser due to system design considerations.


Article
Numerical Study on the Convective Heat Transfer of Nanofluid Flow in Channel with Trapezoidal Baffles

Authors: M. A. Ahmed a --- Munjid K. Mohammed
Journal: Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences مجلة الأنبار للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19979428 Year: 2018 Volume: 7 Issue: 3 Pages: 185-194
Publisher: University of Anbar جامعة الانبار

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Abstract

This article presents a numerical study on forced convection of nanofluid flow in a two-dimensional channel with trapezoidal baffles. One baffle mounted on the top wall of channel and another mounted on the bottom wall of channel. The governing continuity, momentum and energy equations in body-fitted coordinates are iteratively solved using finite volume method and SIMPLE technique. In the current study, SiO2-water nanofluid with nanoparticles volume fraction range of 0- 0.04 and nanoparticles diameters of 30 nm is considered for Reynolds number ranging from 100 to 1000. The effect of baffles height and location, nanopar-ticles volume fraction and Reynolds number on the flow and thermal fields are investigated. It is found that the average Nusselt number as well as thermal hydraulic performance increases with increasing nanopartiles volume fraction and baffle height but accompanied by increases the pressure drop. The results also show that the best thermal- hydraulic performance is obtained at baffle height of 0.3 mm, locations of baffles at upper and lower walls of 10 and 15 mm, respectively, and nanoparticles volume fraction of 0.04 over the ranges of Reynolds number.


Article
Protective effect of aqueous extract of Alhagi maurorum in spermatogenesis and antioxidant status of adult rats exposed to carbon tetrachloride
التأثير الوقائي للمستخلص المائي لنبات العاقول في عملية تكوين النطف ومستوى مضادات الاكسدة في الجرذان البالغة المعرضة لرباعي كلوريد الكربون

Author: M.A. Ahmed ميسر عبدالله احمد
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences المجلة العراقية للعلوم البيطرية ISSN: 16073894 Year: 2019 Volume: 33 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-7
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the efficiency of aqueous extraction of Alhagi maurorum leaves against oxidative stress induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) on spermatogenesis and the level of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde in adult rats. Plant Leaf's dried and then extracted. Experiment included 24 male rats divided into 4 groups 6 subjects in each group. Groups treated orally for 30 days as following: first was control group which administered with 1 ml of physiological saline 0.9%, second group administered once with CCl4 3 ml/Kg, third and fourth groups administered with aqueous extract 300 mg/kg and aqueous extract together with CCl4 respectively. The results showed that CCl4 caused a significant decrease in sperm count, sperm vitality, normality, glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), significant increase in sperm mortality, abnormality and malondialdehyde (MDA) compared with control group. While aqueous extract treatment caused no significant difference in compare to control group. Groups treated with aqueous extract together with CCl4 showed a significant increase in sperm count, vitality, normality and GSH and decreasing in mortality, abnormality and MDA in compare to CCl4 group. It could be concluded that the aqueous extract of Alhagi maurorum have a positive effect on male reproduction and antioxidants in rats exposed to oxidative stress.

هدفت الدراسة إلى التقصي عن كفاءة المستخلص المائي لنبات العاقول Alhagi maurorum ضد الإجهاد التأكسدي المحدث بوساطة رباعي كلوريد الكربون (CCl4) في عملية تكوين النطف وحالة مضادات الأكسدة في ذكور الجرذان البالغة. جففت اوراق النبات ومن ثم تمت عملية الاستخلاص. تضمنت التجربة 24 جرذاً من الذكور قسمت إلى 4 مجموعات 6 عينات في كل مجموعة. تم معاملة المجموعات لمدة 30 يوما على النحو الاتي: الأولى كانت مجموعة السيطرة التي أعطيت 1 مل المحلول الفسلجي 0,9% والمجموعة الثانية أعطيت CCl4 3 مل/كغم من وزن الجسم لمرة واحدة، المجموعة الثالثة والرابعة أعطيت المستخلص المائي لوحده 300 ملغم/كغم من وزن الجسم والمستخلص المائي سوية مع CCl4 على التوالي. أدت المعاملة بمركب CCl4 انخفاضاً معنوياً في عد النطف، النطف الحية، النطف الطبيعية، مستوى الكلوتاثايون والسوبر اوكسايد ديسميوتيز، وزيادة معنوية في نسبة النطف الميتة، المشوهة ومستوى المالوندايالديهايد MDA بالمقارنة مع مجموعة السيطرة. بينما لم تظهر المعاملة بالمستخلص المائي لوحده فروقا معنوية للمتغيرات المدروسة بالمقارنة مع السيطرة. وأدت المعاملة بالمستخلص المائي للعاقول سوية مع CCl4 لزيادة معنوية في عد النطف، النطف الحية والطبيعية ومستوى GSH وانخفاضا معنويا في نسبة النطف الميتة والمشوهة ومستوى MDA بالمقارنة مع مجموعة CCl4. نستنتج من ذلك أن للمستخلص المائي لنبات العاقول تأثيراً إيجابياً في عملية التكاثر ومستوى مضادات الاكسدة في الجرذان المعرضة للإجهاد التأكسدي.

Keywords

Alhagi maurorum --- CCl4 --- spermatogenesis --- GSH --- SOD --- MDA


Article
Numerical Study on Hydrothermal Performance Factor Using Jet impingement and Nanofluid

Authors: Ibrahim K. Alabdaly a --- , M. A. Ahmed b*
Journal: Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences مجلة الأنبار للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19979428 Year: 2019 Volume: 7 Issue: 4 Pages: 308-315
Publisher: University of Anbar جامعة الانبار

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Abstract

In this study, thermal-hydraulic performance of a confined slot jet impingement with Al2O3-water nanofluid has been numerically investigated over Reynolds number ranges of 100-1000. Two triangular ribs are mounted at a heated target wall; one rib located on the right side of the stagnation point and another one located on left side of the stagnation point. The governing momentum, continuity and energy equations in the body-fitted coordinates terms are solved using the finite volume method and determined iteratively based on SIMPLE algorithm. In this study, effects of Reynolds number, rib height and rib location on the thermal and flow characteristics have been displayed and discussed. Numerical results show an increase in the average Nusselt number and pressure drop when Reynolds number and rib height increases. In addition, the pressure drop and average Nusselt number increases with decrease the space between the stagnation point and rib. The maximum enhancement of the average Nusselt number is up to 39 % at Reynolds number of 1000, the rib height of 0.3, rib location of 2 and nanoparticles volume fraction of 4%. The best thermal-hydraulic performance of the impinging jet can be obtained when the rib height of 0.2 and rib location of 2 from the stagnation point with 4% nanoparticles volume fraction.


Article
Dental arches dimensions, forms and the relation to facial types in a sample of Iraqi adults with skeletal and dental class I normal occlusion

Authors: Haider M.A. Ahmed حيدر احمد --- Fakhri A. Ali فخري عبد علي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: special issue 1 Pages: 99-107
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The face is a three dimensional object, facial structures are arranged to give the face its normal form.The teeth are arranged in an arch that’s based on the jaw which is a part of the facial structure. The dental arch hascertain forms depending on several factors including the skeletal form of the jaw and it is calculated in terms ofdifferent ratios of several arch dimensions. The aim of this study is to establish normative values for the Maxillary andMandibular Dental arches dimensions represented by dental arch width, length and to find out the most frequentdental arch form and facial type and the role of gender differences and to find out if there is a the relationshipbetween the facial type and dental arches form and which is the most frequent facial type and dental arch form.Materials and methods: The sample was selected from Baghdad University, college of Dentistry. A total of 72 Iraqiadult Dental students fit the criteria of this research with an age range between 18 and 25 years. The samplecomposed of one hundred forty four Dental casts, seventy two frontal photographs, seventy two profile photographsand One hundred forty four Dental casts’ photographs six linear measurements for Maxillary dental cast and six linearmeasurements for Mandibular Dental cast and two liner measurements for frontal and profile facial photographs.Orthodontics is one of the fields that took advantage of high speed personal computers such as Pentiums by utilizingspecialized orthodontic programs (software) which have automated some of the more laborious tasks in diagnosisand treatment planning, storage and sorting of information. So the use of computers is obligatory in our modern lifethat’s why it was used in almost everything in this study from obtaining the record and analyzing them for typing anddirecting this thesis. Specialized computer software for orthodontic record analysis (AUTO CAD 2007) were used,which simplified the analyzing process and reduced the time and effort spent on taking measurements directly fromthe records to facilitate work and to gain more accurate results.Results: It had been found that all of the maxillary dental arch dimensions are greater than mandibular dental archdimensions in the total sample and both genders and all of the measured dental arch dimensions have asignificantly greater mean value in males than in females also in general facial measurements were higher in femalesthan males with a high significant difference except in the nasion gnathion distance in which it was not significantdifferences between both genders. The most frequent facial type in males and females is the Mesoprosopic one,followed by the Euryprosopic while the least frequent is the Leptoprosopic face type while the mid arch form is themost frequent arch form and it is usually associated with Mesoprosopic face type in both genders followed by thewide dental arch form and the narrow dental arch form.Conclusions: It was concluded that the relation between facial type and dental arch form is a perfect positivecorrelation and as the facial type graduated from Leptoprosopic to Mesoprosopic to Euryprosopic then the MaxillaryDental arch form increases from narrow to mid to wide


Article
Protective effect of Silymarin against kidney injury induced by carbon tetrachloride in male rats
التأثير الوقائي للسلمارين ضد اصابة الكلى الناجم عن رباعي كلوريد الكربون في ذكور الجرذان

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Abstract

The herbal drugs have a protective effect for kidney function against chemical toxicity. 24 male rats divided into 4 groups and treated as following, control group administrated orally with 1ml/kg. B.W physiological solution (0.9%), One dose Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) 3 ml/kg. B.W, Silymarin 150 mg/kg. B.W and Silymarin150 mg/kg. B.W with CCl4 3 ml/kg. B.W for 30 days. Oxidative stress resulted by CCl4 caused increasing in Creatinine, Urea, total protein, Albumin, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels decreasing in Glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in serum and congestion, degeneration and desquamation in kidney tissue. We concluded that Silymarin showed protective effect via increasing GSH, decreasing creatinine, Urea, total protein and MDA levels in serum and protect kidney tissue in rats.

تمتلك العقاقير الطبية تأثيراً وقائيا لوظائف الكلى ضد سمية المواد الكيميائية. تم تقسيم 24 من ذكور الجرذان إلى أربع مجموعات وعوملت كالاتي، مجموعة السيطرة تم معاملتها فمويا بالمحلول الملحي الفسلجي (0,9%)، مجموعة CCl4 أخذت جرعة مفردة من مادة رباعي كلوريد الكربون CCl4(3 مل/كغم وزن جسم)، مجموعة السلمارين (150 ملغم/كغم وزن جسم) ومجموعة السلمارين مع CCl4 ولمدة ثلاثين يوما. الجهد التاكسدي الناجم عن CCl4 تسبب بزيادة في مستوى الكرياتنين، اليوريا، البروتين الكلي، الألبومين، المالوندايالديهايد وانخفاضا في مستوى الكلوتاثيون والسوبر اوكسيد دسيميوتيز في مصل الدم واحتقان دموي وتحطم وتوسف في نسيج الكلى بينما اظهر السلمارين تاثيرا وقائيا من خلال زيادة مستوى الكلوتاثيون والالبومين وخفض الكرياتنين واليوريا والبروتين الكلي والمالوندايالديهايد في مصل الدم وحماية نسيج الكلى في الجرذان.

Keywords

Silymarin --- CCl4 --- Kidney toxicity --- Antioxidant


Article
Natural date vinegar as a natural dye in staining and preservation of some tapeworm specimens and other parasite's eggs
خل التمر الطبيعي كصبغة طبيعية لتصبيغ وحفظ بعض نماذج الديدان الشريطية وبيوض بعض الطفيليات الأخرى

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Abstract

Natural date vinegar as a natural dye in staining and preservation of some tapeworm specimens and other parasite's eggs G.Y. Al-Emarah Sh. J. K. Al-Ali M. A. Ahmed Coll. of Vet. Med. /Unive. of Basrah. Coll. of Sci./ Unive.of Basrah.AbstractPreparation of Specimens is one of the important technique in the investigation study of parasites infection and this process is complicated so this study deals with staining and preservation of tapeworm's specimens(Moniezia expansa adult worm) and preserve other parasite's eggs (Diphyllobothrium latum and Toxocara canis) by using a simple method and inexpensive, available, non toxic, unharmed and locally produced material (Natural Date Vinegar).The results showed that the Natural Date Vinegar had the ability to preserve eggs specimens that were used in the study (100 %) ; it also showed that the Natural Date Vinegar had the ability to stain and preserve about (75%) of tapeworm's specimens which kept their shape and their internal structure after 6 years from preparation and they were compared with other specimens stained by Aceto Carmin which their internal structure appeared unclearly after the same period of time .Key words : Diphyllobothrium latum, Toxocara canis, Moniezia expansa, Natural Date Vinegar, staining, preservation .

خل التمر الطبيعي كصبغة طبيعية لتصبيغ وحفظ بعض نماذج الديدان الشريطية وبيوض بعض الطفيليات الأخرى غازي يعقوب الامارة شيرين جواد كاظم العلي ميسون عبد القادر احمد كلية الطب البيطري / جامعة البصرة كلية العلوم / جامعة البصرةالخلاصةان تحضير عينات الطفيليات من الامور المهمة في دراسة علم الطفيليات وهي عملية معقدة لهذا فأن هذه الدراسة تضمنت تصبيغ و حفظ بعض عينات الديدان الشريطية البالغة (Moniezia expansa ) وحفظ بيوض بعض الطفيليات (Diphyllobothrium latum , Toxocara canis) باستخدام طريقة بسيطة و مادة رخيصة و متوفرة و غير سامة و غير مضرة و هي خل التمر الطبيعي المصنع محلياً . اظهرت النتائج قدرة خل التمر الطبيعي على حفظ عينات بيوض الطفيليات المستخدمة في الدراسة و بنسبة ( 100 % ) اذ احتفظت العينات بشكلها و بتراكيبها الداخلية بعد 6 سنوات من تحضيرها كما اظهرت النتائج قدرة خل التمر الطبيعي على تصبيغ و حفظ عينات الديدان الشريطية البالغة و بنسبة ( 75 % ) اذ احتفظت العينات بشكلها و بتراكيبها الداخلية بعد 6 سنوات من تحضيرها و قد تم مقارنتها مع عينات اخرى تم تصبيغها بصغة الكارمن الحامضية و التي ظهرت تراكيبها الداخلية غير واضحة بعد مرور نفس الفترة الزمنية .الكلمات المفتاحية : خل التمر الطبيعي - تصبيغ - حفظ - Moniezia expansa - Diphyllobothrium latum - Toxocara canis


Article
CAUSES AND TREATMENT OF DYSTOCIA IN IRAQI AWASSI EWES
مسبباث وعلاج حالاث عسر الولادة في النعاج العواسية العراقية

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Abstract

A one hundred thirty two Awassi ewes aged between 1.5-4 years old suffering from dystocia, were brought by farmer to Veterinary Teaching Hospital related to College of Veterinary Medicine- University of Mosul-Mosul governorate- Iraq, treated during the lambing seasons for three years started from November 2010 to end of December 2012. Results of this study were recorded ring womb as main causes of dystocia, the maximum percentage was 81.8 %( 108,132). The other causes of dystocia were fetal mal-position 8.3% (11,132), narrow pelvic 5.3 %( 7,132), monster fetus %3.0(132,4), complicated cases (interfering more than one cause) 1.5%(2,132). although several methods of treatment have been tried, correction and manual treatment, hormonal treatment, cesarean section and fetotomy: Cesarean section had higher a positive response during treatment 61.2%, correction and manual traction recorded as second best treatment of dystocia 24.2%, hormonal treatment 12.8% and fetotomy 0.7%. It could be concluded that ringworm (maternal origin) was the major causes of dystocia in Iraqi Awassi ewes; cesarean section appears to be a safe and successful procedures for management of dystocia if performed as early as possible.

Keywords

Dystocia --- Awassi --- treatment

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