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Article
Evaluation of Hematocrit Level, Red Blood Cells and White Blood Cells Counts in Blood from Patients with Different Severities of Periodontal Diseases

Authors: Maha Abdul Aziz Ahmed --- Chinar Jabbar Ali
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2018 Volume: 30 Issue: 3 Pages: 1-6
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Anemia of chronic disease (ACD) occurs in the presence of chronic infection, inflammatory conditionsor neoplastic conditions despite of adequate iron and vitamins storage. Gingivitis is the inflammation of the gingiva,periodontitis is the inflammation in the periodontium that extend deeper with loss of connective tissue attachmentand supporting bone. The main pathogenesis of periodontal diseases and ACD is immune activation.Aims of study: Determine and compare the clinical periodontal parameters (plaque index (PLI), gingival index (GI),bleeding on probing (BOP), probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL)). Evaluate thehematocrit (Hct) level, red blood cells (RBCs) count and white blood cells (WBCs) count. Assess the correlationsbetween the clinical periodontal parameters and hematological parameters at patients had gingivitis, chronicperiodontitis (CP) with different severities (mild, moderate and severe) with healthy periodontium subjects.Materials and Methods: 35-50 years old, 150 male subjects were included in this study. They were divided into threestudy groups: group of 30 patients with gingivitis, group of 90 patients with CP which subdivided into (Mild CP=30patients, Moderate CP =30 patients, Severe CP =30 patients) and control group 30 subjects with clinically healthyperiodontium. Blood samples were collected then by automated blood analyzer the Hct, RBCs and WBCs wereevaluated.Results: Comparisons among groups and subgroups revealed significant differences in Hct and WBCs, while RBCswas non-significant. Means values of RBCs count showed reduction in mild and severe CP subgroups. while, the Hctand WBCs mean values increased in patients with periodontal disease. The correlations between the clinicalperiodontal parameters with WBCs and RBCs were almost non-significant but, with Hct was mostly significantnegative correlations.Conclusion: Inflammatory and immune responses in periodontal diseases caused change in different hematologicparameters which could contribute to the development of anemia of chronic disease.


Article
Salivary α-Amylase and Albumin Levels in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis and Poorly or Well Controlled Type II Diabetes Mellitus

Author: Maha Abdul Aziz Ahmed مها عبد العزيز احمد
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2016 Volume: 28 Issue: 1 Pages: 114-120
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Recent studies suggest that chronic periodontitis (CP) and type2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) arebidirectionally associated. Analysis of saliva as a mirror of oral and systemic health could allow identification of αamylase (α-Am) and albumin (A1) antioxidant system markers to assist in the diagnosis and monitoring of bothdiseases. The present study aims at comparing the clinical periodontal parameters in chronic periodontitis patientswith poorly or well controlled Type 2Diabetes Mellitus, salivary α-Am, A1, flow rate (FR) and pH then correlatebetween biochemical, physical and clinical periodontal parameters of each study and control groups.Materials and Methods: 80 males, with an age range of (35-50) years were divided into four groups, (20 subjectseach): two groups had well or poorly controlled Type 2Diabetes Mellitus both of them with chronic periodontitis,group of patients with only chronic periodontitis and control group with healthy periodontium and systemicallyhealthy. From all subjects unstimulated whole salivary samples were collected to measure FR, pH, Al and α – Am,then clinical periodontal parameters (plaque index, gingival index, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth andclinical attachment level)were recorded.Results: Patients had chronic periodontitis with poorly controlled Type 2Diabetes Mellitus demonstrated the highestmedian values of all clinical periodontal parameters and highest increase in levels of salivary α-Am and Al withlowest median values of FR and pH, in addition to the highly significant differences among the study and controlgroups regarding biochemical and physical parameters. Positive correlations were revealed between α-Am with Aland both of them with all clinical periodontal parameters but, they were negative with FR and pH.Conclusion: Patients with poor glycemic control had more severe periodontal tissue break down with decrease in FRand pH also obvious increase in levels of A1 and α- Am so, these biochemical markers will provide an objectivephenotype to allow practitioners for early diagnosis, which is essential for improved prognosis and effective delay ofclinical complications associated with chronic periodontitis and DM and an important strategy to lower theincidence of both diseases world wide


Article
An Assessment of Salivary Leptin and Resistin Levels in Type Two Diabetic Patients with Chronic Periodontitis (A Comparative Study)

Authors: Deelan Amanj Sabir --- Maha Abdul-Aziz Ahmed مها عبد العزيز احمد
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 4 Pages: 107-114
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitusand chronic periodontitis hold a close relationship that has been the focus ofmany researches. Currently there is an appreciation to the role of adipose tissue-derived substances "the adipokines"in immune-inflammatory responses; also, there is an interest in using the simple non-invasive saliva in diagnosing andlinking oral and general health problems. The current study aims to determine the periodontal health status in thechronic periodontitis patients with and without poorly or well controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus, measure the salivarylevels of two adipokines "leptin and resistin", pH and flow rate and then correlate between these clinical periodontal,biochemical and physical parameters in each study and control groups.Materials and Methods: Seventy five males were recruited for the study, with an age range of (35-50) years. Thesubjects were divided into four groups: two non-diabetic groups: one of them with healthy periodontium andsystemically healthy (Control, 15 subjects) and the other with chronic periodontitis (20 patients) and two type 2diabetic groups: well controlled (20 patients) and poorly controlled (20 patients) both of them with chronicperiodontitis.Unstimulated whole salivary samples were collected from all of the participants; salivary flow rate andpH were measured and then biochemically analyzed for assessment of resistin and leptin levels.Clinical periodontalparameters included: the plaque index, the gingival index, the bleeding on probing, the probing pocket depth andthe clinical attachment level had been recorded for all subjects at four sites per tooth except for the third molars.Results: The results of clinical periodontal examination revealed that the group of chronic periodontitis with poorlycontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus had the worst periodontal health status. The biochemical analysis demonstratedthat the lowest level of salivary leptin was foundin the chronic periodontitis with poorly controlled type 2 diabetesmellitus group. In addition, the highest level of salivary resistin was demonstrated in chronic periodontitis with wellcontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus group. When the salivary flow rate and pH were measured, it was found that theywere decreased in the study groups as compared to the control group. A non-significant moderate negativecorrelation between salivary leptin with pH in the control group was found. While, salivary resistin demonstrated ahigh significant moderate positive correlation with the gingival index in the non-diabeticchronic periodontitis groupand a non-significant moderate negative correlation with salivary flow ratein the control group. Finally, the studyfound that the correlation between salivary leptin and resistin was non-significant weak negative in each of the studyand control groups.Conclusion: It can be concluded that poorly controlled type 2 diabetic patients have more periodontal tissuedestruction and less salivary flow rate than well controlled type 2 diabetic patients and non-diabetic patients all ofthem with chronic periodontitis. Salivary Resistin and Leptin hormones may be useful biochemical markers ofperiodontal tissue destruction and this will provide better opportunities in early diagnosis, monitoring and efficientmanagement of periodontal diseases and T2DM.

Keywords

T2DM --- CP --- resistin --- leptin and saliva


Article
Antibacterial Effect of Aqueous and Alcoholic Ginger Extracts on Periodontal Pathogen Aggregatibacter Actinomycetem Comitans [An in Vitro Study] (Part 1)

Authors: Sana'a M. Awad سناء عواد --- Maha Abdul-Aziz. Ahmed مها عبد العزيز احمد
Journal: Tikrit Journal for Dental Sciences مجلة تكريت لعلوم طب الاسنان ISSN: 20731213 Year: 2017 Volume: 5 Issue: 2 Pages: 1-10
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Among natural food sources with antimicrobial activities, gingerrhizome has been used as widely grown food spices and medicinalcrops for centuries. Furthermore, it possess antifungal andantioxidant properties due to the phenols – related constituents(gingerols) that constrain the growth of many Gram positive andGram negative bacteria including some periodontal bacteria. TheActinomycetem comitans is a portion of the normal microbiota innumerous healthy individuals but is also a major etiological agentin some aggressive and chronic types of periodontitis.The present study was conducted to test the effect of aqueous andalcoholic ginger extracts on the growth of Aggregatibacteractinomycetem comitans in comparision to 0.2% chlorohexidinegluconate mouth wash and distilled water in vitro, determinationof ginger extracts minimum inhibitory concentration andminimum bactericidal concentration and detection of activeingredients of ginger extracts by using the high-performance liquidchromatography as well as chemical elements.


Article
Periodontal health status of patients with Maxillary Chronic Rhinosinusitis (Part 1: Clinical study)

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Abstract

Background: Periodontal diseases (PD) are inflammatory conditions of the tissues supporting the teeth, most often gingivitis and periodontitis. Maxillary chronic rhinosinusitis (MCRS) is the inflammation of the maxillary sinuses which is last for at least 12 consecutive weeks duration. Aims of study: Distribution of periodontal diseases among patients with Maxillary chronic rhinosinusitis according to gender and age.Materials and methods: Males and females subjects (25-45 years), divided into two groups; 150 patients suffer from MCRS and 130 subjects without MCRS. Clinical periodontal parameters; Plaque Index (PL.I), Gingival Index (G.I), Probing Pocket Depth (PPD), Clinical Attachment Level (CAL) and Bleeding On Probing (BOP) recorded for four sites per tooth except third molars for all subjects, according to this examination groups were divided into four subgroups: clinically Healthy periodontium, Gingivitis, Chronic periodontitis CP.1, when PPD mean is (4-6 mm) and CP.2, when it is (> 6mm).Results: (75.33%) of patients with MCRS had periodontal diseases, highest percentage (48%) had Gingivitis, number of females more than males, percentages of females with clinically Healthy periodontium and Gingivitis were higher. Subjects without MCRS demonstrated highest percentage (56.92%) with clinically Healthy periodontium. Significant and highly significant differences between the 2 groups in PL.I, G.I, PPD and CAL at all subgroups except BOP score1 revealed non significant differences. Conclusion: 75.33% of patients with MCRS have periodontal diseases with greater PL.I, G.I, PPD and CAL when compared with subjects without MCRS. There is relation between periodontal diseases and MCRS


Article
Time-related salivary cathepsin B levels and periodontal status in different orthodontic force magnitudes

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Abstract

Background: Biologically active substances, such as Cathepsin B (CAB) which is a lysosomalcystein protease may beinvolved in periodontal metabolism in the degradation of organic bone matrix containing collagen fibers in responseto mechanical stress from orthodontic appliance. The aims of study were to determine and compare salivary levelsof CAB, pH as well as clinical periodontal parameters (Plaque index PLI and gingival index GI) with differentorthodontic force magnitudes at different time intervals.Materials and methods: A twenty-four patients (both gender) with age range (17-23) years had Angle's Class IIdivision 1 malocclusion with GI <0.5 enrolled in this study. The level of salivary CAB and pH, in addition to the clinicalperiodontal parameters (PLI and GI) were measured before (baseline), 1 hour (1H), 1 day (1D), 1week (1W), 2 weeks(2W) and 3 weeks (3W) after fixed orthodontic appliance placement with different forces applied to the teeth (F1 (40gm), F2 (60 gm) and F3 (80 gm)).Results: The highest mean concentration of salivary CAB was (12.057) at F1 in 1D visit with highly significantdifferences among the visits as well as among the forces (p≤0.05). Weak correlations were revealed between all pairsof forces as well as between each visit with the baseline visit about salivary CAB except the strong negativecorrelations between F1 with F3 at 3W and baseline with 3W visits at F3. Maintenance of good oral hygiene duringthe study period demonstrated that the highest mean values of PLI and GI were (0.2) and (0.25) respectively, inaddition to the non-significant differences regarding pH among the visits.Conclusion: The concentration of salivary CAB was increased following fixed orthodontic appliance insertion. Thevery light continuous orthodontic force could produce significant increase of this enzyme activity and give enougheffectiveness to produce tooth movement as compared to the higher forces


Article
Evaluation of Serum Homocysteine and Nitric Oxide Levels in Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and Periodontal Diseases

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Abstract

ovary syndrome (PCOS) and periodontal diseases arecommon chronic inflammatory disorders. PCOS is a complicatedcondition affects overall health and causes broad spectrumchanges that affect periodontal health status. Available evidencesuggests that oxidative stress might comprise a link for theassociation between periodontal diseases and components of themetabolic syndrome. Both homocysteine (Hcy) and nitric oxide(NO) are considered to reflect the strength of oxidative stress. Theaims of the study were to compare the periodontal health conditionamong the study groups (gingivitis, gingivitis +PCOS, chronicperiodontitis (CP) and CP + PCOS group) by measuring theclinical periodontal parameters (Plaque Index (PLI), GingivalIndex (GI), Bleeding on Probing (BOP), Probing Pocket Depth(PPD) and Clinical Attachment Level (CAL), and measure serum(Hcy) and (NO) and compare their levels between study groups ,then correlate between these parameters with each other and withclinical periodontal parameters in order to determine the effect ofPCOS on periodontal health status and levels of serumHcy and NO.


Article
Measurement of serum Superoxide dismutase levels in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome and chronic periodontitis

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Abstract

Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most important reproductive and endocrine disorders in women at reproductive age. It's associated with metabolic disorder, obesity, insulin resistance and oxidative stress chronic periodontitis and PCOS both of them associated with low chronic grade of inflammation. The prevalence of periodontal disease seems to be higher in women with PCOS. Superoxide dismutase enzyme (SOD) is an important circulating marker and protecting enzyme helping the body tissues to get rid of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that damage the tissue. Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to measure and compare the levels of (SOD) among group of chronic periodontitis patients with PCOS, group of chronic periodontitis without PCOS and a third group who were systemically and periodontally healthy. Material and Method: This study consist of (60) women at reproductive age ranged between (25-40) years old. They divided into three groups Group I consist of 20 women systemically healthy and with healthy periodontium, group II consist of 20 women with chronic periodontitis and systemically healthy and Group III consist of 20 women with chronic periodontitis and (PCOS). We evaluated the periodontal health of the groups through measuring these important indices: Plaque index, gingival index, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment loss. SOD antioxidant marker was measured colormeterically for the three groups. Results: this study showed higher means of periodontal parameters (plaque index, gingival index, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment loss (1.275±0.246, 1.295±0.239, 0.24±0.16, 6.47±0.345, 4.125±0.328 respectively). Highly significant differences were found using t-test in inter group comparison. (P≤0.001) regarding pocket depth and clinical attachment loss .Higher mean of (SOD) level was found for G3 (137.72±29.769) U/mL . F-test was used for intragroup comparison and highly significant difference was found (P≤0.001). Positive but weak correlation where found among (SOD) level, bleeding on probing in Group I and Group II , also among (SOD) level, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment loss. Conclusion: (PCOS) associated with oxidative stress and more prone to periodontal diseases with high level of antioxidant agent like (SOD) level to compensate the high level of (ROS)

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