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Article
Effects of Ethanol-Gasoline Blends on Exhaust and Noise Emissions from 4-Stroke S.I.Engine

Authors: Maher A.R. Sadiq --- Yassar K. Ali --- Aimen Rashad Noor
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2011 Volume: 29 Issue: 7 Pages: 1438-1450
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Considering pollution problems and energy crisis today, investigationshave been concentrated on lowering the concentration of toxic components incombustion products and decreasing fuel consumption by using renewablealternative fuels. In the present work, the effect of ethanol addition to gasoline onthe exhaust emissions and noise level has been experimentally investigated atvarious engine loads.Results of the engine test indicated that using ethanol-gasoline blended fuelsincreases the power output of the engine dramatically (up to 50 %). While the COand HC emissions decrease as a result of the leaning effect caused by the ethanoladdition; and the CO2 emission increases because of the improvement ofcombustion. Also, it was noted that the noise level emission increases slightly withthe increase of ethanol content. Finally, the results showed that ethanol can be usedas a supplementary fuel to gasoline in modern spark ignition engines without majorchanges, and it can help to save our environment from toxic pollutants and to savea considerable part of the available oil.


Article
ETHANOL AS AN OCTANE ENHANCER FOR THE COMMERCIAL GASOLINE FUELS

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Abstract

Considering pollution problems today, investigations have been concentrated on lowering the concentration of toxic components in combustion products. A gasoline lead additive at a concentration of 0.6 g/l is used to provide a gasoline with an octane number of 98. In many countries methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is used instead of lead to produce gasoline with the same octane number. Presently, 15% by volume of MTBE is added to unleaded gasoline to provide a gasoline with an octane number of 98. However, the leaded gasoline is still used in many countries.The purpose of this research is to experimentally study the possibility of using ethanol as a lead / MTBE replacement for spark ignition engines fuels. The effect of ethanol addition to unleaded gasoline on the research octane number, performance and pollutant emission of the spark ignition engine is studied. A Ricardo E6/US engine is used in this study. Results showed that the use of 15.% by volume of ethanol is a good alternative for replacing lead or MTBE in gasoline fuel and the resulted blended fuel satisfies the global specifications. The results of the standard ASTM methods showed that with increasing the ethanol content, the research octane number of the blended fuel increases, while the Reid vapor pressure of the blended fuel initially increases to a maximum value at 10 % by volume ethanol and then decreases. The results also showed that the addition of ethanol, (from 0% to 30% by volume), increases the break power, break thermal efficiency and break specific fuel consumption, and reduces NOx, CO, and HC emissions. The higher useful compression ratio, which produced maximum break power, is directly proportional to ethanol percentage in the blended fuel.

باستخدام المضافات للوقود. يتم استخدام نسبة 0.6 غرام من الرصاص لكل لتر من الكازولين لإنتاج وقود الكازولين ذو العدد الاوكتاني 98 في بعض الدول. وفي بعض الدول يستعاض عن الرصاص بمادة (methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE واستخدامها مع الكازولين لزيادة عدده الاوكتاني. حاليا يتم إضافة 15%حجم من مادة ( MTBE ) إلى الكازولين للحصول على الكازولين ذو العدد الاوكتاني 98. و مازال استخدام الرصاص مع الكازولين لرفع عدده الاوكتاني يستعمل على نطاق ضيق من بعض دول العالم.تضمن هذا البحث دراسة عملية لاستخدام الايثانول كبديل إلى MTBE والرصاص اللذان يتم استخدامهما مع وقود الكازولين لرفع عدده الاوكتاني لتجنب ظاهرة الطرق. تم دراسة تأثير إضافة الايثانول بنسب حجميه مختلفة إلى وقود الكازولين على العدد الاوكتاني للخليط الناتج وأداء المحرك والملوثات الناتجة وبشكل مفصل. أظهرت نتائج التجارب التي أجريت على محرك الإشعال بالشرارة Ricardo E6/US إن إضافة نسبة 15% حجم من الايثانول إلى الكازولين هو خيار جيد لاستخدام الايثانول كبديل لكل من MTBE والرصاص، وعند هذه النسبة فإن الخليط الناتج يحقق المواصفات العالمية للوقود. كذلك إن إضافة الايثانول بنسبة من ((0%-30% حجم إلى الكازولين يسبب زيادة القدرة المكبحية للمحرك وكفائتة الحرارية ويقلل الاستهلاك النوعي المكبحي للوقود ويقلل جميع الملوثات وإن نسبة الانضغاط النافعة العليا تزداد طرديا مع زيادة نسبة الايثانول الحجمية.

Keywords

RON --- Ethanol --- Lead --- MTBE --- Alternative fuel --- Pollution

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