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مقالة
The Rhetorical Purposes of Tense Shift in Qur'anic Verses with Reference to English

المؤلف: Mahmood Abbas Dawood
ﺎﻠﻤﺠﻟﺓ: Journal of Tikrit University for the Humanities مجلة جامعة تكريت للعلوم الإنسانية ISSN: 18176798 السنة: 2008 المجلد: 15 الاصدار: 11 الصفحات: 560-575
الجامعة: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت - جامعة تكريت

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الخلاصة

ABSTRACTThe Glorious Qur’an maintains the highest possible standard of rhetoric in its speech, to the extent that it is impossible to find its parallel in human works. Muslims consider the Qur'an as miraculous and inimitable in that the Qur'anic text cannot be reproduced in another language or form. Furthermore, an Arabic word may have a range of meanings depending on the context, to the extent that not a single word in the Qur'an can be exchanged for another without affecting the depth of meaning conveyed by the original word. This paper deals with one of these miraculous characters, that lies in the different forms of verbs that shift from a tense to another within the same verse.The paper is presented in three main sections, an introduction and conclusions. The introduction summarizes the views of Muslim writers and exegeses on such linguistic phenomenon, which they call Iltifat.The first section discusses the tense shift in English preceded by definitions of some basic terms. The second section deals with the occurrence of the present verb after the past tense in the same verse, giving sufficient examples from the glorious Qur'an and shedding light on the rhetorical purposes behind such uses. The third section discusses the reversing of the present –future tense, where the past tense is used to express present or future. The purposes and the contexts of such uses are clarified in this section.At the end of the paper, there are the major findings that the researcher has reached at.

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مقالة
Reduplication (Twin Words) in Turkish with Reference to English

المؤلف: Mahmood Abbas Dawood
ﺎﻠﻤﺠﻟﺓ: Journal of Tikrit University for the Humanities مجلة جامعة تكريت للعلوم الإنسانية ISSN: 18176798 السنة: 2013 المجلد: 20 الاصدار: 9 الصفحات: 646-663
الجامعة: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت - جامعة تكريت

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الخلاصة

ABSTRACTIn order to share ideas and feelings effectively besides using gestures and intonation in speech, vocabulary is also considered as a useful way. The more vocabularies you have, the clearer and more accurate ideas you express. Word formation processes are the most common ways to enrich vocabulary. This ability to adopt, understand, and use such a new word results from the fact that these word-formation processes are based on certain rules and regulations. These processes are very important for language users, because the constant creation of new terms and new uses of old terms is a sign of vitality, flexibility, and creativeness. This paper has been conducted to mention the similarities and differences between English and Turkish word formation in general and the process of reduplication in particular. At the beginning, the researcher gives a general idea of word formation in English and Turkish then explains the morphological rules that determine the reduplication process in the languages under study. The phonological and the semantic properties have also been discussed throughout this paper. Sufficient examples have been given in both languages to clarify the idea.At the end of the paper, there are the major findings and conclusions that the researcher reached as a result of the comparison between English and Turkish as far as the process of reduplication is concerned.

الكلمات المفتاحية


مقالة
The Miraculous Eloquence in Using Passive Voice in theGlorious Qur'an with Reference to English

المؤلفون: Hasan Sha'ban Ali --- Mahmood Abbas Dawood
ﺎﻠﻤﺠﻟﺓ: Journal of Surra Man Raa مجلة سر من رأى ISSN: 18136798 السنة: 2008 المجلد: 4 الاصدار: 11 الصفحات: 173-188
الجامعة: university of samarra جامعة سامراء - جامعة سامراء

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الخلاصة

There are innumerable aspects of the Qur’anic revelation. The revelation explicitly or implicitly brings out the miraculous character of the Qur’an.

This research discusses one of these miraculous aspects which is the structure of the passive verb in the glorious Quran. It has been presented in four sections, an introduction and a conclusion. The introduction summarizes the uses of passive voice in Arabic which have been divided into the following: summarization, knowing the subject, glorifying the subject, the humiliation of the subject when the subject is already unknown, and other purposes like parallel sentences. There is also a summary of passive in English and the purposes behind employing the passive voice. Various examples are given to illustrate these purposes.
The fourth sections discuss some rhetorical aspects of using passive in the glorious Qur'an as follows.
The first section negotiates how the passive verb plays a great role in describing both transcendental and unseen events to help the reader to get the deep sense of the context. The second section deals with passive verbs in the glorious Quran in terms of the meaning of generalization with special attention to the object. The third section discusses the passive verb in the context of denial and faith. The last section concentrates on the objectives of the structure of the passive verb in the glorious Quran which have the sense of glorifying the subject. At the end of this paper there are the major conclusions that the researcher arrive.
1. Introduction

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مقالة
Relative Clauses Reduction in English and Arabic

المؤلفون: Mahmood Abbas Dawood --- Dr. Nawfal Saeed Majeed
ﺎﻠﻤﺠﻟﺓ: Journal of Tikrit University for the Humanities مجلة جامعة تكريت للعلوم الإنسانية ISSN: 18176798 السنة: 2008 المجلد: 15 الاصدار: 2 الصفحات: 549-563
الجامعة: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت - جامعة تكريت

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الخلاصة

ABSTRACTReduction is used by native speakers to avoid redundancy and achieve cohesive style in both spoken and written forms. Non-native learners are required to develop the skill of employing deletion in speech and writing if they want to show a complete mastery of the language.The study undertaken here contrast English and Arabic relative clauses reduction in order to describe and explain, as far as the available data permits, what similarities and differences these clauses show. The data analyzed for comparison are derived from adequate description of the languages under investigation. The comparative analysis based its techniques on syntactic criteria. Two kinds of reduction are presented in this study: optional and obligatory. Obligatory deletion refers to the removal of an item or items from a structure or else the sentence will be ungrammatical. The second kind is optional which must be known where to apply since its application in some structures may result in ambiguous sentences. The two languages are compared, as far as relative clauses reduction is concerned, as an attempt to get the major points of similarities and differences. Some of the problems of second language learning are ascribed to the phenomenon of transference of the native language structure to the foreign language. It is assumed that the transference often causes difficulty or ease in learning the structure of the foreign language. The findings arrived at can be utilized by classroom teachers, linguists, textbook writers and students of English and Arabic.

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مقالة
Spelling Errors Made by Second Year Students / College of Education / University of Tikrit

المؤلفون: Mahmood Abbas Dawood --- Dunia Tahir Hameed
ﺎﻠﻤﺠﻟﺓ: Journal of Tikrit University for the Humanities مجلة جامعة تكريت للعلوم الإنسانية ISSN: 18176798 السنة: 2009 المجلد: 16 الاصدار: 8 الصفحات: 584-609
الجامعة: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت - جامعة تكريت

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الخلاصة

Abstract
Spelling errors are the most common type of mistake in the written work of Arabic learners of English. Spelling is a particular problem, partly because of the differences in the writing systems of Arabic and English as well as because in English the relationship between sounds and writing is not regular. The present study aims at : (1) examining the sources of spelling errors of the students of second year in English department, College of Education, Tikrit University.(2) Studying and analyzing of spelling errors made by second year students will help identifying the strategies that they use in English spelling, obtain information on common difficulties in spelling English as a second language as an aid to teaching or in the preparation of spelling teaching materials
The test is limited to:(1) Choosing the right spelling word from 3 words.(2) The sample of the students will be limited to the second year students, College of Education, Tikrit University.(3) The academic year 2008-2009.
The Procedures adopted in this study include (1) Specifying spelling test.
2. Constructing an achievement test to internalize the errors made in spelling. (3) Classifying errors.(4) Analyzing results statistically. 5. Drawing Conclusions.

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مقالة
An Analysis of Errors Made by EFL College Students in Using Speech Act of Directives

المؤلفون: Mahmood Abbas Dawood --- Marwan Mizher Sahab
ﺎﻠﻤﺠﻟﺓ: Journal of Surra Man Raa مجلة سر من رأى ISSN: 18136798 السنة: 2018 المجلد: 14 الاصدار: 55 الصفحات: 793-3-793-26
الجامعة: university of samarra جامعة سامراء - جامعة سامراء

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الخلاصة

The study deals with English speech act of directives. It aims at (1) identifying and classifying the errors made by the EFL College students in using speech act of directives (2) Finding whether there are significant differences in students’ performance between the two areas of the test .To achieve these aims, a diagnostic test has been conducted on forty students from the fourth stage at the College of Education for Humanities - University of Tikrit for the academic year 2017/2016. In order to ensure the face validity, the test is exposed to a jury of specialists in the fields of linguistics and methodology of teaching EFL who agreed upon its validity and suitability. Twenty students are randomly chosen for the pilot study which revealed that the time needed to complete the test items is 50 minutes. As for the clarity of the items, it is noticed that most of the items are clear and the students find no difficulty in answering the test items. As for reliability, the items are divided into two halves (odd and even). Using the Pearson correlation formula, it is found out that the test reliability is 0.76 . After applying the Spearman Brown formula, it is found out the test reliability is 0.86 . This shows that the test is quite reliable and acceptable. The results of this study show that EFL College students make errors of different sources of the test . It is also clear that EFL College students encounter more and complex errors at the first part of the test ( Intended Speech Act) and that their performance is inefficient in this area .The study ends up with a number of recommendations and suggestions for further work in future .

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مقالة
The Rhetorical Meaning of Conditional Ayas with Reference to English

المؤلفون: Abdulrazak Ahmed Wadi --- Ruqaiya Esa Mahmood --- Mahmood Abbas Dawood
ﺎﻠﻤﺠﻟﺓ: Journal of Surra Man Raa مجلة سر من رأى ISSN: 18136798 السنة: 2014 المجلد: 10 الاصدار: 36 الصفحات: 279-302
الجامعة: university of samarra جامعة سامراء - جامعة سامراء

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الخلاصة

Conditional construction is one of the most important and difficult subjects in both Arabic and English. Both languages include various conjunctions that are used in different contexts with different meanings and purposes. They are used with request, warn, wish, offer….etc.This paper deals with the eloquent and rhetorical use of conditional sentences in the Glorious Qur'an. In the same way it concentrates on those conjunctions which are commonly used in English especially "if".This study aims at studying conditionals in Arabic in general and the Glorious Qur'an in particular with reference to English showing the differences and similarities between the two languages in this respect. The paper is divided into three main sections.Section one is devoted to the conditional sentences in the Glorious Qur'an. The conditional conjunctions are mentioned in different ayas to clarify the rhetorical meaning. A special focus is given to the rhetorical meaning of conditional sentences and how the meaning varies according to the structure and the ayah.Section two deals with the conditional sentences in English. The most common conditional conjunctions are mentioned. The structure and meaning of the conditional sentences are clarified giving sufficient examples. Section three concludes with the major findings and conclusions that the researcher has arrived at through comparing the conditional structures in both languages.

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