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Experimental Study for Commercial Fertilizer NPK (20:20:20+TE N: P: K) in Microalgae Cultivation at Different Aeration Periods

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Abstract

Recently, microalgae have become a promising source in the production of biofuel. However, the cost of production is still the main obstacle to develop of this type of source. Although there are many extensive studies on the requirements provided for the cultivation of the microalgae, the study of the process, via the variables that affect the cultivation of microalgae, being still one of the important tasks to improve the production of biofuel. The present article is a serious attempt to investigate of use commercial fertilizer NPK (20:20:20+TE N: P: K) as considered a cheap nutrient medium in growth Chlorella vulgaris by comparison with traditional nutrient (Chu.10 medium). In addition, the current study addresses effect of different sparging periods of filtered air on the microalgae production. The experimental data showed that the use of the NPK fertilizer as cultivation medium in Chlorella vulgaris culture gives more growth rate of microalgae than that produced if the cultivation process was operated with Chu.10 medium. For example the maximum biomass concentration reaches to 0.3249 g L-1 when cultivated in NPK fertilizer, whereas reached to 0.212 g L-1 for cells cultivated in Chu.10 medium. In addition, the results proved that the aeration system in the cultivation can plays an important role in the activity of the microalgae with NPK medium, since it creates a convenient environment with low concentration of oxygen in the medium. The study showed that increasing aeration period for such a type of microalgae increases the growth rate.


Article
Laboratory Preparation of Simulated Sludge for Anaerobic Digestion Experimentation
التحضير المختبري للوحل الافتراضي لاختبار الهضم اللاهوائي

Authors: Mahmood K. H. Al-mashhadani محمود خزعل حمادي --- Stephen J. Wilkinson ستيف ولكنسن --- William B. Zimmerman وليم زيمرمان
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2015 Volume: 21 Issue: 6 Pages: 131-145
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Health and environmental factors as well as operational difficulties are major challenges facing the development of an anaerobic digestion process. Some of these problems relate to the use of sludge collected from primary and secondary clarifier units in wastewater treatment plants for laboratory purposes.The present study addresses the preparation of sludge for laboratory purposes by using a mixture that consists of the digested sludge, which is less pathogenic, compared to the collected sludge from the primary or secondary clarifier, and food wastes. The sludge has been tested experimentally for 19 and 32 days under mesophilic conditions. The results show a steady methane production rate from the anaerobic digester which used sludge with a rate of 1.5 l/day and concentration around 60%, with comparatively low H2S gas content (10 ppm). The methane produced from the digester that used only digested sludge decreases during the experimental period.

العوامل الصحية والبيئية بالاضافة الى الصعوبات التشغيلية هي تحديات رئيسية لا زالت تواجه تطوير عملية الهضم اللاهوائي. بعض هذه المشاكل تتعلق باستخدام الوحل الذي يؤخذ من وحدات الترسيب(الكلاريفاير) الابتدائية والثانوية في وحدات معالجة المياه الثقيلة للاغراض المختبرية. البحث الحالي يتناول تحضير الوحل للاغراض المختبرية مستخدما خليط من الوحل المعالج بايلوجيا في الهضم اللاهوائي, والذي يكون اقل تسبباً للامراض بالمقارنة مع المأخوذ من وحدات الترسيب الابتدائية والثانوية, مع مخلفات الطعام. الوحل المقترح اختبر تجريبيا لمدة 19 يوما و32 يوما تحت ظروف حرارية متوسطة. النتائج بينت استقرارية معدل انتاج الميثان من الهضم اللاهوائي المستخدم الوحل مع معدل 1.5 لتر/يوم وبتركيز 60% تقريبا, مع محتوى قليل من غاز كبريتيد الهيدروجين ( 10 جزء بالمليون). بينما معدل انتاج الميثان المنتج من الهاضم الذي يستخدم الوحل المعالج بيالوجيا فقط يتناقص خلال الفترة التجريبية.

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