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Article
Effects of Herbs – Containing Phytoestrogens on Rat Testis: A Histological, Histochemical and Biochemical Study

Author: Malak A. Al-Yawer
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2010 Volume: 9 Issue: 4 Pages: 562-572
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Estrogens has traditionally been known as the female hormone, but this idea has been challenged inearly 1990’s and an essential physiological role for estrogen in male fertility was identified.Phytoestrogens are naturally occurring non-steroidal plant chemicals that can act like the femalehormone estrogen. The herbs ( anise alfalfa and vervain ) chosen in this study containphytoestrogens.OBJECTIVE:Previous studies demonstrated controversy of the effects of phytoestrogens on the rat testes .Hence,the present investigation was undertaken to investigate the influence of typical dose of herbs containingphytoestrogen on the rat testis.MATERIALS AND METHODS:Twenty-four apparently normal mature male rats were divided into four groups of 6 animals each. Thefirst "control" group received only 4ml of distilled water as a placebo. The second group received40mg/kg of anise seed; the third group received 53.3 mg/kg of dried herb of vervain and the fourthgroup received 400 mg /kg of alfalfa seeds. All experimental groups received the doses through orogastrictube daily for fourteen days. Testicular histology was evaluated by light and enzymehistochemistry. Plasma FSH and testosterone concentrations were taken to support our results.RESULTS:Histological examination of anise, alfalfa and vervain – treated groups showed an increase in the heightof germinal epithelia. There was marked lipoprotein lipase activity in the whole of the interstitial tissuewhich is more in amount in experimental groups than that in control group. Acid phosphatase granuleswere infiltered the seminiferous epithelia mildly in control group , moderately in anise and vervaingroups and markedly in alfalfa group. The number of interstitial cells showing marked acidphosphatase activity was higher in all experimental groups than that in control group. Alkalinephosphatase exhibited intense activity in the boundary tissue of the seminiferous tubules in testes ofcontrol and experimental groups but it appeared thicker in the latter.CONCLUSION:The low dose and short duration of treatment used in our study made these phytoestrogen – containingherbs to have a stimulatory effect on leydig cell steroidogenesis. This study also demonstrated thataniseed being the most potent of the three herbs followed by alfalfa in stimulating testosteronesynthesis. This is possibly attributed to the coumarin constituent of aniseed and alfalfa


Article
Effects of Herbs – Containing Phytoestrogens on Rat Testis: A Histological, Histochemical and Biochemical Study

Author: Malak A. Al-Yawer
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2011 Volume: 10 Issue: 4 Pages: 562-572
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Estrogens has traditionally been known as the female hormone, but this idea has been challenged in early 1990’s and an essential physiological role for estrogen in male fertility was identified. Phytoestrogens are naturally occurring non-steroidal plant chemicals that can act like the female hormone estrogen. The herbs ( anise alfalfa and vervain ) chosen in this study contain phytoestrogens.OBJECTIVE:Previous studies demonstrated controversy of the effects of phytoestrogens on the rat testes .Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to investigate the influence of typical dose of herbs containing phytoestrogen on the rat testis.MATERIALS AND METHODS:Twenty-four apparently normal mature male rats were divided into four groups of 6 animals each. The first "control" group received only 4ml of distilled water as a placebo. The second group received 40mg/kg of anise seed; the third group received 53.3 mg/kg of dried herb of vervain and the fourth group received 400 mg /kg of alfalfa seeds. All experimental groups received the doses through oro-gastric tube daily for fourteen days. Testicular histology was evaluated by light and enzyme histochemistry. Plasma FSH and testosterone concentrations were taken to support our results.RESULTS:Histological examination of anise, alfalfa and vervain – treated groups showed an increase in the height of germinal epithelia. There was marked lipoprotein lipase activity in the whole of the interstitial tissue which is more in amount in experimental groups than that in control group. Acid phosphatase granules were infiltered the seminiferous epithelia mildly in control group , moderately in anise and vervain groups and markedly in alfalfa group. The number of interstitial cells showing marked acid phosphatase activity was higher in all experimental groups than that in control group. Alkaline phosphatase exhibited intense activity in the boundary tissue of the seminiferous tubules in testes of control and experimental groups but it appeared thicker in the latter.CONCLUSION:The low dose and short duration of treatment used in our study made these phytoestrogen – containing herbs to have a stimulatory effect on leydig cell steroidogenesis. This study also demonstrated that aniseed being the most potent of the three herbs followed by alfalfa in stimulating testosterone synthesis. This is possibly attributed to the coumarin constituent of aniseed and alfalfa.


Article
Observations on the ultrastructure of a rat mammary gland treated with harmal and borage

Authors: Salim R. Hamoudi ** --- Shatha M. Al-Faisaly*** --- Wasan Al- Saidi * --- Malak A. Al- Yawer **Ph.D
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2007 Volume: 49 Issue: 1 Pages: 151-156
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background : It had been indentified by histological, histochemical and morphometrical studies that peganum harmala is a mammogenic herb and borage officinalis is a lactogenic one . To complete our investigation about these two herbs , we performed electron microscopical study . Materials and methods : Rats were grouped according to their physiological status into three groups . Each group was subdivided in to three subgroups : one control and two experimental . The two experimental group were treated daily; the 1st one with an aqueous extract of peganum harmala seeds and the 2nd with an aqueous extract of borage officinalis flowers . After two weeks of treatment , mammary glands were employed for electron microscopical study . Results : In virgin rats , the epithelial and myoepithelial cells were partially differentiated when harmal was given and completely differentiated when borage was given . In pregnant rats , harmal and borage optimize mammary parenchymal growth and induce lactation when these herbs were given. In lactating rats ,these herbs exhibited a picture similar to control lactating group but the budding of lipid droplets and the swelling of secretary vesicles were markedly increased . Conclusion: Both harmal and borage stimulate the release of prolactin and induce galactogenesis during pregnancy and promote it during lactation . Key Words : Mammary gland , Electron microscope , Harmal , Borage


Article
Herbal activation of mammary gland; a comparative

Authors: Fadhil A Al-Khafaji --- Huda M Al-Khateeb* --- Malak A Al-Yawer
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2007 Volume: 49 Issue: 1 Pages: 144-146
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Seventy five adult virgin female Norway rats (60 experimental and 15 controls) were used toevaluate the effect of seeds of three herbs (Fennel, Cumin and Garden cress) on their mammaryglands. Experimental animals were fed with these herbs (each type of herb seeds was given to twentyexperimental rats) for fourteen days. Rats were sacrificed and mammary gland sections wereobtained, stained then morphometrically assessed. Serum prolactin level was performed too.Results revealed that Garden cress seeds are the strongest lactogenic agent among the three. BothFennel and Cumin seeds were shown to be very weak galactagogues.


Article
Garden Cress Seed Could be A Factual Galactagogue

Authors: Malak A Al-Yawer --- Huda M Al-Khateeb --- Fadhil A Al-Khafaji
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2006 Volume: 5 Issue: 1 Pages: 62-67
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Trivial number of books, concerning traditional medicine, had mentioned a galactagogual role of Garden cress seeds. Others ignore that. This controversy, in addition to the steroid (family of sex hormones) contents of the seeds, directed us to evaluate the role of this herb in mammogenesis and lactogenesis. METHODS: Twelve parameters were used to assess the effect of Garden cress seeds on the mammary gland of young adult virgin rats. These parameters comprise gross assessment, histological examination (routine/ haematoxylin and eosin stain and special stain/ PAS), enzymatic histochemical study (alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase and lipoprotein lipase cytochemical localization), biochemical estimations (hormonal assay of FSH, LH, prolactin, estrogen and progesterone) and morphometrical measurements. RESULTS: All parameters significantly exhibited a strong mammotrophic and lactogenic effects of Garden cress seeds on the non-primed mammary gland of adult virgin rat. CONCLUSION: Garden cress seeds are most probably a real galactagogue and might be useful in induction of lactation


Article
The Role of Parity on Some Macroscopical and Microscopical Variables in Placentas of Normal and Preeclamptic Women

Authors: Lina A. Hussain --- Malak A. Al-Yawer --- Huda M. Al-Khateeb
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2014 Volume: 13 Issue: 4 Pages: 578-583
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND: The placenta is a dynamic organ, throughout gestation, it continuously undergoes different changes in structure and function to support the prenatal life. The anomalies of the placenta are usually associated with pregnancy complicated diseases which could lead to fetal complications. Hence, a careful examination of placenta in-utero as well as post-partum provides much insight into the prenatal health of the baby and the mother and can give information which could be useful in the management of complications in mother and the newborn, especially in a community like ours, where antenatal mothers still come unbooked to the labour room.OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was designed to elicit some morphometrical variables of delivered placentas ( both gross and microscopic) in normal and preeclamptic pregnancies with regard to the role of parity (birth order) as a physiological change in women's life that may affect placental morphometrical variables.PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of twenty- four placentas were freshly collected. They were grouped into two major groups (normal and preeclamptic) and each group was further subdivided according to parity into primi and multi subgroups (6 placentas for each subgroup). The placentas were grossly examined for (shape, insertion of umbilical cord,diameter and central thickness). Then tissue samples were fixed, processed , sectioned and stained by heamatoxylin and eosin stain to study the following microscopical variables as number of (villi, syncytial knots and fetal capillaries) .RESULT:Studying placentas had circular to oval shape. The percentage of central insertion of umbilical cord was increased in control group, mainly in multi one. While marginal insertion was increased mainly in primi preeclamptic. There was a significant reduction in diameter of placentas of preeclamptic group, mainly at primi. The placental thickness was significantly increased in preeclampsia. Statistical analysis for histomorphometrical variables had got an increased in number of villi, syncytial knots and fetal capillaries with preeclampsia and parity. The number of fetal capillaries was significantly increased with preeclampsia (mainly in primi subgroup).CONCLUSION: In our study, the definite changes in macroscopical and microscopical variables in placentas of normal and preeclamptic women could be attributed to placental insufficiency especially in preeclamptic group and this may be a compensatory repair mechanisms to factors like hypoxia in order to provide better fetal growth.


Article
Immunohistochemical Study of Leydig Cells in the Testicular Interstitial Tissue of Rats Treated with Tribulus Terrestris Using P450scc.

Authors: Issam T. Abdul-Wahaab --- *,Malak A. Al-Yawer --- *,Fadhil A. Al – Khafaji*
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2015 Volume: 14 Issue: 1 Pages: 140-144
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND: Tribulus terrestris has been commonly used in folk medicine to energize, vitalize and improve sexual function and physical performance in men and laboratory rats.OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of Tribulus terrestris on the number of Leydig cells.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tribulus terrestris was given to mature male rats as an oral single herbal suspension in a dose of 2.0mg /1000gbody weight for 14 days to stimulate spermatogenesis. Formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections were performed for histological, immunohistochemical and morphometrical studies.RESULTS: Histological study revealed wider seminiferous tubules and increased spermatocytes population with an increased sperm density inside the lumen of the tubules. Morphometrically, the diameters of seminiferous tubules and thickness of the germinal epithelia were significantly increased in Tribulus terrestris treated rats than that of the control group. There was no significant difference between the number of Leydig cells in the control and experimental groups.CONCLUSION: The activity of Leydig cells, manifested by the increments in the diameters, thickness of germinal epithelia and the density of the sperms inside seminiferous tubules, was increased but their number remain unaffected in spite of using the aphrodisiac agent, Tribulus terrestris.


Article

Authors: Issam T. Abdul-Wahaab --- Malak A. Al-Yawer --- Fadhel A. Al – Khafaji
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2015 Issue: 2 Pages: 309-312
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND: Coriandrum Sativum is a native of Mediterranean region and is grown in North Africa, central Europe, and Asia as culinary herb and medicament. In addition to the other health-supporting reputation, coriander has hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and aphrodisiac effects.OBJECTIVE:To study the effect of Coriandrum Sativum on process of spermatogenesis.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Coriandrum sativum was given daily to mature male rats in a dose of 50mg/ 100g body weight for 14 days. 10% formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections were performed for histological and morphometrical studies.RESULTS: Histological study showed wider seminiferous tubules & increased spermatocytes population with an increased sperm density in the lumen of the tubules. Morphometrically, the diameters & thickness of the germinal epithelia of the seminiferous tubules were significantly increased in coriander treated rats than that of the control group.CONCLUSION: Coriandrum sativum appeared to be stimulant to the process of spermatogenesis.


Article
Correlations of morphological (macroscopic and microscopic) parameters of placenta with maternal age and parity
ارتباط المتغيرات الشكلية (العيانية والمجهرية) للمشيمة مع عمر الأم وتكرار الحمل

Authors: Nameer F AL-Kalifa م.د. نمير فاضل غائب --- Malak A Al-yawer ا.د. ملاك الياور
Journal: Diyala Journal of Medicine مجلة ديالى الطبية ISSN: 97642219 Year: 2016 Volume: 10 Issue: 2 Pages: 35-43
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

Background: Placenta is a chief cause of maternal and perinatal mortality and significant factor in fetal growth retardation. It undergoes different variations in weight, volume, structure, shape and function continuously throughout the gestation tosupport the prenatal life. Cautious examination of placenta can give information which can be useful in the management of complications in mother and the newborn. Objective: The present work has been attempted towards determination of the morphological ( macroscopic and microscopic) parameters of human full-term placentae and their relation with different parity and age group of mothers.Patients and Methods: A whole of 40 placentae were recently collected.They were divided into four groups (10 women each); primigravida age<35 years, primigravida age>35 years, multigravida<35 years; multigravida > 35years.Neonataland placental weights,placental thickness and number of cotyledons were measured.Tissue for histological examination wasobtained to study the parameters of microscopic morphometry (number of apoptotic cells, number of terminal villi, number of syncytial knots, number of fetal capillaries and thickness of trophoblastic basement membrane).Results: Placental and neonatal weights were within normal range. They were augmented with maternal age and parity. Number of cotyledons was higher than those reported by other authors in other populations but it was still within normal range and it was significantly decreased in multigravida> 35.Placental thickness was within normal range and it was significantly decreased in multigravida> 35. All microscopic parameters were increased with maternal age and parity.. Conclusion: There were correlations between microscopic and macroscopic parameters. Thelength of stem villi were less in multigravida> 35 since placental thickness was decreased in this group. All microscopic parameters were increased with maternal age and parity.These variations may have some important bearing on the placental inadequacy in higher age group and parity of mother.

خلفية الدراسة: المشيمة هي السبب الرئيسي للوفيات للأمهات وحديثي الولادة وعاملا مهما في تأخر نمو الجنين. فإنها تخضع لتغيرات مختلفة في الوزن ,الحجم ,الهيكل,الشكل والعمل باستمرار طوال فترة الحمل لدعم الحياة قبل الولادة. الدراسة المتأنية للمشيمة يمكن أن تعطي المعلومات التي يمكن أن تكون مفيدة في معالجة المضاعفات للأم والمولود الجديد.أهداف الدراسة: لتحديد المتغيرات الشكلية (العيانية والمجهرية) للمشيمة البشرية كاملة النمو وعلاقتها مع تكرار الحمل ، والفئة العمرية للأمهات.المرضى والطرائق : اربعون مشيمة جمعت طازجة. تم تقسيمهم إلى أربعة مجاميع (10 نساء لكل منهم )؛ ولادة اولى اصغر من 35 سنة، ولادة اولى اكبر من 35 سنة، ولادة متكررة اصغر من 35 سنة,ولادة متكررة اكبر من 35 سنة. تم قياس أوزان الأطفال حديثي الولادة والمشيمة و ملاحظة شكلها كما تم قياس سماكة المشيمة وحساب عدد الفصوص كذلك تم الحصول على انسجة مشيمية لفحصها نسيجيا لدراسة معايير قياس الأشكال المجهرية (عدد الزغبات الجنينية ،عدد الخلايا ذو الموت الخلوي المبرمج، عدد العقد المخلوية، عدد الشعيرات الدموية الجنينة وسمك الغشاء القاعدي للأرومة الغاذية)النتائج: كانت اوزان المشيمة واوزان حديثي الولادة ضمن المعدل الطبيعي. وكانت هناك زيادة طردية مع عمر الأم وتكرار الحمل وكانت عدد الفصوص أعلى من تلك التي ذكرت من قبل مؤلفين آخرين في الشعوب الأخرى ولكنها ضمن المعدل الطبيعي وانخفضت عدد الفصوص بشكل ملحوظ في ,ولادة متكررة اكبر من 35 سنة وكان سمك المشيمة ضمن المعدل الطبيعي وانخفض بشكل ملحوظ في ,ولادة متكررة اكبر من 35 سنة. جميع المحددات المجهرية ازدادت مع عمر الأم و تكرار الحمل.الاستنتاجات: كانت هناك علاقة بين المحددات العيانية والمجهرية اذ كان طول الزغب الجذعي أقل في ولادة متكررة اكبر من 35 سنة لانخفاض سمك المشيمة في هذه المجموعة. وزادت جميع المحددات المجهرية مع عمر الأم و تكرار الحمل . ويمكن أن يعزى هذا إلى انخفاض التروية المشيمة مع الزيادة في عمر الأم وتكرار الحمل.


Article
Effects of Tribuls Terrestris (Quttub) and Clomiphene Citrate on Ovaries of Female Mice; Histological and Histochemical Study
تأثيرات نبات القطب وعقار الكلومفين على مبايض أنثى الفأر؛ دراسة نسجية وكيميانسجية

Authors: Ali Mohsin Al-Waeli د. علي محسن الوالي --- Malak A. Al-Yawer د. ملاك اكرم --- Fara’id Y.S. Haddad د. فرائد يوسف حداد
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2011 Volume: 24 Issue: 4 Pages: 349-360
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background: Tribuls terrestris increases levels of various hormones in steroid family including testosterone, DEHA, and estrogen and for this reason improves sport performance, fertility in men and women, sexual function in men and women. There is, at present, lack of scientific confirmation of these supposed benefits. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the possible effect(s) of Tribuls terrestris on the mouse ovarian morphology and function, alone and in combination with other ovulation modulator agent (clomiphene citrate).Materials & Methods: A total of 49 sexually mature healthy Norway albino female mice were used in this study; 25 for pilot study and 24 for the experimental study. Experimental animals were divided into 4 groups, each contained 6 animals. The 1st group was given Tribuls terrestris, the 2nd group was given clomiphene citrate, the 3rd group was given the two agents together, and the 4th group was control. Treatment was given daily for 10 days via orogastric intubation. Histological, histochemical, cytological and morphometrical studies were carried out. Results: demonstrated that Tribuls terrestris alone causes an increase in the number and size of the mature follicles, with no significant change in the total follicular number, with obvious progesterone and some estrogen effects on the otherwise normal vaginal smears. On the other hand, clomiphene alone revealed no mature follicles and no corpora lutea, with strong estrogen-like effect and minimal progesterone effects on the vaginal smears. When Tribuls terrestris and clomiphene were given together, mature follicles and corpora lutea appeared in relatively large numbers, with estrogen and progesterone effects on the vaginal cytology.Conclusion: Tribuls terrestris can stimulate ovulation when given alone, and oppose the anti-ovulatory effect of clomiphene and resume ovulation when given in combination with it.Keywords: Tribuls Terrestris (Quttub), Clomiphene Citrate, Mice Female Ovaries

الخلفية البحثية: إن عشب القطب يسبب زيادة في نسبة هورمونات مختلفة تابعة لعائلة الاستيرويد ومن ضمن هده الهورمونات هورمون التستسترون و DEHA وهورمون الاستروجين ولهذا السبب فأنه يزيد اللياقة البدنية والاخصاب والوظائف الجنسية لدى الرجال والنساء. في الوقت الحاضر لا يوجد أي إثبات علمي لهذه المنافع المفترضة لذلك تهدف دراستنا إلى اختبار التأثيرات المحتملة لعشب القطب و الكلوموفين على مبيض الفأر ووظيفته كل على حدة، وكذلك اختبار تأثيرهما معا على مبيض الفأر. طرائق العمل: استخدمت في هذه الدراسة تسعة وأربعون أنثى فأر نرويجية بيضاء ناضجة جنسيا، خمسة وعشرون منها خصصت للدراسة الأولية و أربعة وعشرون للدراسة التجريبية. قسمت حيوانات الدراسة التجريبية الى أربعة مجاميع (تتكون كل مجموعة من ست حيوانات تجريبية). أعطيت حيوانات المجموعة الأولى عشب القطب المطحون المعلق بالماء المقطر، وأعطيت حيوانات المجموعة الثانية عقار الكلومفين المطحون المعلق بالماء المقطر، فيما أعطيت حيوانات المجموعة الثالثة العاملين المذكورين سوية أما المجموعة الرابعة فهي حيوانات ضبط أعطيت ماء مقطر لفترة عشرة أيام متتالية عن طريق الأنبوب الفموي المعدي. أجريت بعدها دراسات نسجية وكيميانسجية وخلوية وقياس شكلية لكل المجاميع.النتائج: عشب القطب لوحده قد سبب زيادة ملحوظة في عدد وحجم الجريبات الناضجة بدون تغيير معتمد إحصائيا في العدد الكلي للجريبات. مع بعض التأثيرات المودقية (estrogenic effects) على نتائج المسحات المهبلية. من جانب آخر، نتج عن إعطاء الكلومفين لوحده عدم تكون جريبات مبيضية ناضجة ولا أجسام صفراء، مع تأثيرات مودقية قوية وتأثيرات هرمون حملية (progesterone effects) شبه معدومة على نتائج المسحات المهبلية. أما عند إعطاء عشب القطب مع عقار الكلومفين سوية، فقد تكونت الجريبات المبيضية الناضجة والأجسام الصفراء بأعداد كبيرة نسبيا، مع تأثيرات مودقية وهرمون حملية ملحوظة على نتائج المسحات المهبلية.الاستنتاج: عشب القطب يستطيع تحفيز التبويض عندما يعطى لوحده، ومعادلة التأثير المثبط للتبويض لعقار الكلومفين عندما يعطى معه في نفس الوقت.

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