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Article
تحسين تصحيح لحساب معامل انتقال المادة في الأعمدة الفقاعية
A MODIFIED CORRELATION TO EVALUATE LIQUID MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENTIN AN IMPINGING-JET TALL BUBBLE COLUMN

Author: Dr. Mohammad F. Abid
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences مجلة تكريت للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 1813162X 23127589 Year: 2006 Volume: 13 Issue: 3 Pages: 54-77
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

An impinging-jet bubble column has been installed in Al-Mansoor Co.-Baghdad for measurements of the ozone mass transfer applications in water treatment Two injectors were used to produce turbulent gas-liquid jets in the working fluid by placing them at an intersecting angle of 1200 . The impact of the two jets increased the gas-liquid mass transfer rates. Experiments are conducted at different ranges of Reynolds number for gas and liquid such that 12.8
KEY WORDS
Mass transfer, impinging-jet bubble column, water treatment

Keywords


Article
تحليل استقرارية مفاعل الطبقة المتساقطة
STABILITY ANALYSIS IN A FALLING FILM REACTOR

Author: Dr. Mohammad F. Abid
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences مجلة تكريت للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 1813162X 23127589 Year: 2008 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-16
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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An industrial scale falling film reactor (FFR) using gaseous SO3/ liquid Alkylbenzene –as operating system- is analyzed for multiplicity and stability. The analysis has shown that up to 5 steady state solutions may exist. The existence of a highly multiplicity states is explained by the coupling between absorption and reaction. The system kinetic parameters have found to play an effective role on the stability behavior. An analytic solution is found for a special case of the liquid reactant in excess, this solution is performed by using eigen analysis. A mathematical procedure is also introduced to estimate the bifurcation points.

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Article
Scale Effects on the Hydrodynamics of Bubble Column
تاثير تغير قطر العمود على الخواص الهايدروديناميكيه لعمود فقاعي

Authors: Farah S. Jameel --- Mohammad F. Abid
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2009 Volume: 27 Issue: 10 Pages: 2142-2164
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

The main object of this study is to investigate the influence of the columngeometric and operating variables ( i.e., column diameter, superficial gas velocityand liquid viscosity) on the hydrodynamic parameter ( i.e. , gas holdup, bubbledynamics and liquid phase axial dispersion coefficient ). The experimental dataobtained showed that the gas holdup increases linearly with superficial gasvelocity at both homogeneous and heterogeneous regimes but the rate ofincreasing is slower at the heterogeneous one. The bubble rise velocity was foundto decrease with increasing superficial gas velocity until a transition point wasreached and after that the relationship was linearly increasing. It was observedthat with an increase in liquid phase viscosity and increase in column diameters, adecrease in gas holdup and an increase in bubble size were obtained. It wasobserved that increasing axial position led to an increase in bubble diameter and adecrease in bubble rise velocity. Axial dispersion coefficient which is measuredby tracer response technique was found to increase with gas superficial velocity,increases with column diameter, increases with axial position and decreases withliquid viscosity. This work also presents a theoretical analysis that is used tocalculate the axial dispersion coefficient. The measured axial dispersioncoefficient was generally consistent with the predictions of the well establishedcorrelations from the literature. The validity of the model was settled bycomparing its predication with the objective function of the well-Known empiricalcorrelation formulated by ( Hikita and Kikukawa , 1974) .The comparison showsthat the present model is statistically significant at a 95% confidence level byusing goodness – of – fit test .Also a statstical analysis was performed to get a general correlation for the gasholdup (εg) as a function of the parameters studied:= 0.15325 Fr 0.29617 Ga 0.09223 Bo -0.0424 g eWhere the correlation coafficient ( R ) was equal to ( 0.957) and the absoluteerror (3.5%).

الدراسة الحالية تتضمن التحري عن تاثير الظروف التشغيلية والابعاد الهندسية للاعمدة ( قطرالعمود , السرعة السطحية للغاز وتاثير لزوجة السائل ) على الخواص الهيدروديناميكية ( الغازالمحتبس , ديناميكية الفقاعه ومعامل التشتت الطولي للسائل ) .15 و 30 ) سم وبمدى سرعة , تم اجراء العمل التجريبي في ثلاثة اعمدة مختلفة الاقطار ( 7.510 ) سم/ ثا يغطي كلتا انظمة التدفق المتجانسة والاضطرابيه . – غاز سطحية يتراوح بين ( 1ارتفاع السائل كان 100 سم عن الموزع في كل التجارب ولكل الاعمدة .المحتوى الحجمي للغاز تم قياسه بمعدل كلي اما سلوكية الفقاعة ( قطر الفقاعة وسرعة60 و , ارتفاعها) والمعاملات الطولية لتشتت السائل فقد قيست بثلاثة مواقع محورية ( 3090 ) سم عن موزع الغاز . استخدمت سوائل متنوعة لتغطي مدى واسع من قيم اللزوجة وهي50 % و 65 % لتمثيل سلوك السوائل المعززة , % : الماء المقطر ,الكليسرين عند التراكيز 20لاندماج الفقاعات .من البينات التجريبية وجد بأن :الغاز المحتجز يزداد بزيادة سرعة الغاز السطحية وبمعدل زيادة في النظام ·الاضطرابي يقل عن معدل زيادتة في النظام الطباقي كما ان الغاز المحتجز اظهرنقصان بزيادة قطر العمود .قطر الفقاعة وسرعة ارتفاعها زادا بزيادة قطر العمود وقد اختلفت سلوكية قطر الفقاعة ·وسرعة ارتفاعها في النظام الطباقي عنها في النظام الاضطرابي , حيث في الاول كانايقلان بزيادة سرعة الغاز السطحية اما علاقتهما بالنظام الاضطرابي فقد كانت طرديةمع سرعة الغاز السطحية .تضمنت الدراسة الحالية اشتقاق موديل رياضي لغرض التنبؤ بقيم معامل التشتت الطوليGoodnes- of fit test للسائل وتم مقارنة نتائج الموديل باستخدام طريقة جودة الموافقة(Hikita and Kikukawa ( مع احدى العلاقات التجريبية المستلة من الادبيات (( 1974ووجد ان نتائج الموديل تقترب بنسبة لا تقل عن 95 % من نتائج العلاقات التجريبية . كماو تم اجراء التحليل الاحصائي للوصول الى علاقة تجريبية عامة للمحتوى الحجمي للغازكدالة للمتغيرات المدروسة := 0.15325 Fr 0.29617 Ga 0 .09223 Bo -0.0424 g eهذه العلاقة التجريبية اعطت معامل ارتباط ( 0.957 ) وخطأ مطلق متوسط مقداره. ( 3.5%) تاثير لزوجة السائل كان واضحا في تقليل مقدار الغاز المحتبس وزيادة سرعة الفقاعة ·وحجمها .زيادة الارتفاع المحوري عن موزع الغاز كان يؤثر ايجابيا على زيادة الغاز المحتبس ·وسلبيا على سرعة الفقاعة .المعامل الطولي لتشتت السائل كان يتناسب طرديا مع كل من ( سرعة الغاز السطحية ·والارتفاع المحوري ) وعكسيا مع زيادة لزوجة السائل .تضمنت الدراسة الحالية اشتقاق موديل رياضي لغرض التنبؤ بقيم معامل التشتت الطوليGoodnes- of fit test للسائل وتم مقارنة نتائج الموديل باستخدام طريقة جودة الموافقة(Hikita and Kikukawa ( مع احدى العلاقات التجريبية المستلة من الادبيات (( 1974ووجد ان نتائج الموديل تقترب بنسبة لا تقل عن 95 % من نتائج العلاقات التجريبية . كماو تم اجراء التحليل الاحصائي للوصول الى علاقة تجريبية عامة للمحتوى الحجمي للغازكدالة للمتغيرات المدروسة := 0.15325 Fr 0.29617 Ga 0 .09223 Bo -0.0424هذه العلاقة التجريبية اعطت معامل ارتباط ( 0.957 ) وخطأ مطلق متوسط مقداره. ( 3.5%)


Article
Experimental Study of Simultaneous Heat and Mass Transfer in Falling Film and Bubble Mode (LiCl) Absorbers
دراسة معامل انتقال الحرارة والكتلة عند تصمیم معدات الامتصاص ( العمود الشعاعي) (عمود الطیف المتساقطة)

Authors: Kamal M. Ahmad --- Orooba .N. Abdullah --- Mohammad F. Abid
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2012 Volume: 30 Issue: 4 Pages: 529-545
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

The study involves lithium-Chloride absorption process for the falling film andbubble columns absorbers, working at the same operating conditions. The resultsobtained were used to analyze the transfer process during the absorption of watervapor in the aqueous solution of LiCl.The performance of both absorbers was investigated for various solution flow rates(0.1-0.5)kg/min , various gas flow rates (1-9) lit/min and inlet solution concentration(40-50) wt% . Results showed that bubble absorber is superior to the falling filmmode for mass and heat transfer and that the efficiency of bubble columns is morethan that of falling film absorbers. Increasing the solution flow rates rarely affectedthe mass transfer, but improved the heat transfer. To evaluate the performance ofmass and heat transfer, experimental results obtained were plotted as Nusselt andSherwood number versus operating conditions respectively for falling film andbubble modes. A power law correlations were obtained for the objective functions(i.e., mass and heat transfer coefficients ) with correlation coefficient between (0.91and 0.97) .

معاملات انتقال الكتلة والحرارة تعتبر احدى القيم الاساسية المطلوبة لتصميم معدات الامتصاصوالتبادل الحراري اضافة الى استخدامها كمقاييس معيارية في تحديد كفاءة اداء تلك المعدات. وتتأثرقيم هذه المعاملات بالظروف التشغيلية والابعاد الهندسية للمعدة.البحث يهتم بدراسة تأثير الظروف التشغيلية على كفاءة أداء أنواع مختلفة من أعمدة الامتصاص(ألعمود الفقاعي وعمود الطبقة المتساقطة ) .9 لتر/دقيقة. - - تدفق الغاز (بخار الماء) من 10.9 كغم/دقيقة. - - تدفق السائل (محلول كلوريد الليثيوم) من 0.153050 ) % وزناً . - - تركيز السائل ( 40أظهرت النتائج البحثية و إن كفاءة عمود الفقاعي تزداد عنها في عمود الطبقة المتساقطة ومع الظروف التشغيلية المذكورة (Sh and Nu) كما تم استنتاج علاقات تجريبية للمجاميع اللابعدية. 0.97- للعلاقات مع النتائج العملية بحدود 0.91 (R) اعلاه. تم قياس معامل الارتباط


Article
Removal of Methyl Violet Dye From Synthetic Wastewater Using a Hybrid Detoxification Process
تنقية المياه من صبغة المثيل البنفسجية باستخدام الطريقة الهجينة لازالة السمية

Authors: Mohammad F. Abid --- Amir A, Abdul-Rahman --- Noor H. Hamza
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2014 Volume: 32 Issue: 6 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 1544-1561
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

The aim of the present study was to design a solar reactor and analyze its performance for removal of methyl violet dye (MV) from water with titanium dioxide as the photocatalyst. The solar reactor was made up of a flat-plate colorless glass of dimensions 1000 x 750 x 4 mm. The base of the reactor was made of aluminum. Various operating parameters were studied to investigate the behavior of the designed reactor like initial dye concentration (CMV=10-50 mg/L), loading of catalyst (CTiO2=200-800 mg/L), suspension flow rate (QL=0.3-2 L/min), pH of suspension (5-10), and H2O2 concentration (CH2O2=200-1000 mg/L). The operating parameters were optimized to give higher efficiency to the reactor performance. The designed reactor when operating at optimum conditions offered a degradation of MV up to 95.27% within one hours of operation time, while a conversion of 99.95% was obtained in three hours. The effluent from the photocatalytic reactor was fed to a LPRO separation system which produced a permeat of turbidity value of 0.09NTU. The product water was analyized using UV-spectrophotometer and FTIR. The analysis results confirmed that the water from the Hybrid-system could be safely recycled and reuse. It was found that the kinetics of dye degradation was first order with respect to dye concentration and could be well described by Langmuir-Hinshelwood model.

يهدف البحث الى دراسة كفاءة مفاعل الطبقة الساقطة في ازالة صبغة المثيل البنفسجية من المياه باستخدام ضوء الشمس وثاني اوكسيد التيتانيوم كعامل مساعد. ثم بحث تأثير المتغيرات التشغيلية (تركيز الصبغة, تركيز العامل المساعد, معدل تدفق السائل, حامضية المحلول, تركيز بيروكسيد الهيدروجين) على كفاءة اداء المفاعل في ازالة الصبغة. بعد ايجاد افضل الظروف التشغيلية التي تؤدي الى اعلى كفاءة للمفاعل وقد وجد ان المفاعل يحقق ازالة بمقدار95.27% بعد ساعة من التشغيل و99.95% بعد ثلاث ساعات من التشغيل. ثم دراسة حركية التفاعل للتفاعل الضوئي ووجد ان قانون سرعة التفاعل من الدرجة الاولى بالنسبة لتركيز الصبغة وتطابق مع موديل Langmuir-Hinshelwood , كما وجدت علاقة تجريبية تربط بمعدل الازالة الصبغة مع المتغيرات التشغيلية.


Article
Parametric Study on Intrinsic Reaction for Straight Run Heavy Naphtha Hydrodesulfurization over CoMo/Al2O3 Catalyst

Authors: Mohammad F. Abid --- Mohammed K. Abdullah --- Salah M. Ali
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2018 Volume: 36 Issue: 2 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 146-153
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

The present study aimed to investigate the intrinsic reaction of hydrodesulfurization (HDS) for a real Straight Run Heavy Naphtha (SRHN) over CoMo-S/Al2O3 catalyst in a fixed- bed reactor. Influence of the process parameters on sulfur removal was investigated by regulating the temperature (T = 320-380 oC), pressure (P = 20 to 35 bar), weight hour space velocity (WHSV = 2.5 to 5.0 h-1) and catalyst average particle size (dp =361 to 3950 μm). Mears and Weisz-Prater criteria were estimated and utilized to validate the intrinsic reaction condition. Operating variables were optimized at (T = 360 oC, P = 30 bars, WHSV = 2.5 h-1, dp= 361 μm) to obtain an optimum sulfur removal of 93.4% under intrinsic reaction conditions. Experimental results showed that % activity of sulfur removal increases to 93.4% as temperature increased to 360oC but it reduces to 90.3% as space velocity increased to 5.0 h-1. Kinetic parameters of the intrinsic reaction rate were estimated and compared with published data. Long-time test was performed on the sulfided catalyst to investigate its activity.


Article
Optimum Conditions of Photocatalysis Process in a Wastewater Treatment
افضل الظروف التشغيلية في معالجة المياه الملوثة باستخدام المفاعل الشمسي

Authors: Mohammad F. Abid --- Noor H. Hamza --- Amir A. Abdul-Rahman --- Kadhum N. Abid
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2014 Volume: 32 Issue: 13 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 3241-3256
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

The aim of the present study was to investigate the optimum operating conditions which yield the best performance of the photocatalysis process for the degradation of the synthetic dye in wastewater. The solar reactor was made up of a flat-plate colorless glass of dimensions of (1000 x 750 x 4 mm). The base of the reactor was made of aluminum. This geometry enables the light entering the liquid film from almost any direction to be reflected and can also be employed for the photocatalytic reaction. Various operating parameters were studied to investigate the behavior of the designed reactor like initial dye concentration (C=10-50 mg/L), loading of catalyst (CTiO2=300-800 mg/L), suspension flow rate (QL=0.3-2.0 L/min), pH of solution (5-9), and H2O2 concentration (CH2O2=200-1000 mg/L). The operating parameters were optimized to give higher efficiency to the reactor performance. Optimum parameters of the photocatalysis process were loading of catalyst (400mg/L), suspension flow rate (0.5L/min), H2O2 concentration (400mg/L), and pH=5. The designed reactor when operating at optimum conditions offered a degradation of MV up to 0.9527 within one hours of operation time, while a conversion of 0.9995 was obtained in three hours. The product water was analyzed using UV-spectrophotometer and FTIR. Analysis of the results confirmed that produced water from the solar reactor system could be safely recycled and reuse.

يهدف البحث لدراسة افضل الظروف التشغيلية التي تؤدي الى اعلى كفاءة للمفاعل في تكسير وازالة المواد العضويةالسامة (صبغة المثيل البنفسجية) في المياه الملوثة. المفاعل الشمسي يتكون من لوحة مسطحة من زجاج شفافةعديمة اللون بابعاد((1000x750 x 4 mm . قاعدة المفاعل مصنعة من الالمنيوم . هذا التصميم يسمح لضوء الدخول الى طبقة السائل من اي اتجاه تقريبا ومن ثم الانعكاس من على طبقة الالمنيوم . تم دراسة تاثير المتغيرات التشغيلية المختلفة على سلوك المفاعل في ازالة الصبغة مثل تركيز المادة العضوية من 10 الى50 ملغم/لتر, تركيز العامل المساعد النانوي (TiO2) من 200 الى 800ملغم/لتر, تركيز (H2O2) من 200 الى 1000 ملغم/لتر, حامضية المحلول (pH) من 5 الى 9, تدفق جريان المحلول من 0.3 الى 2 لتر/دقيقة . وجد ان افضل الظروف التشغيلية التي تؤدي الى اعلى كفاءة للمفاعل هي عندما يكون تركيز العامل المساعد 400ملغم/لتر, تدفق جريان المحلول 0.5 لتر/دقيقة, تركيز العامل المؤكسد 400ملغم/لتر وحامضية المحلول (pH) هي 5. تم الحصول على نسبة ازالة 95.27% بعد ساعة واحدة من التشغيل ونسبة ازالة99.95% بعد ثلاث ساعات من التشغيل عند افضل الظروف التشغيلية . ثم تم تحليل المياه الناتجة باستخدام FTIR,UV- spectrophotometer. حيث ان تحليل النتائج أكدت أن المياه المنتجة من نظام مفاعل الشمسي يمكن إعادة تدويرها وإعادة استخدامه ابأمان.


Article
STUDYING THE PERFORMANCE OF A HYDRO TREATING PROCESS FOR A MIXTURE OF GAS OIL AND LIGHTER FRACTIONS

Authors: Mohammad F. Abid --- Waleed H. Abohameed --- Shakir M. Ahmed --- Salah M. Ali --- et al.
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Journal for Engineering Sciences مجلة القادسية للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19984456 Year: 2017 Volume: 10 Issue: 4 Pages: 468-485
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

In the present study the applicability of hydrodesulfurization of a mixture of crude oil fractions (e.g., naphtha, kerosene, and gas oil ) in a single hydrotreating reactor packed with NiCoMo/Al2O3 under various operating parameters such as temperature (310-370 oC), pressure (40-55 bars), weight hour space velocity (1.2 to 3.6 h-1), and hydrogen-to- liquid hydrocarbon ratio (150-300 vol/vol). Experimental results showed that temperature and pressure have a positive effect on process performance while weight hour space velocity gives a different trend. The optimum value of (H2/Hydrocarbon) ratio was found experimentally to be 200 vol/vol after which the increase in this ratio cause reduction in HDS% because decrease in contact between H2 gas and Hydrocarbon in reactor. Results showed that the best conditions (350 oC, 50 bars, 1.2 h-1, and 200 vol/vol) in which gave the hydrotreating (HDS) efficiency of 95.8%.The results confirmed the applicability of the NiCoMo/Al2O3 catalyst for HDS reaction of a mixture of middle distillate (e.g., naphtha, kerosene, and gas oil). It was found that at higher pressure and temperature (i.e., T> 350 oC; P> 50 bars) a thermodynamic equilibrium was established. As observed, there is a 1.6% reduction in gas oil less than that of the conventional method. However, kerosene, heavy naphtha, and light naphtha undergo increases of 0.6%, 0.75%, and 2.75% respectively over these from conventional method. These results reveal that the quantity of fractions is almost the same for both methods. As it can be observed, that measured properties of the oil fractions produced by the proposed method are almost the same as those produced by conventional method. However, specific gravity (sp.gr) of the oil cuts produced by present study (i.e. sp.gr of kerosene, heavy naphtha, and light naphtha 0.785, 0.728, 0.655 respectively) is somewhat less than sp.gr of the same fractions produced by conventional methods (i.e. sp.gr of kerosene, heavy naphtha, and light naphtha 0.788, 0.738, 0.65 respectively), which gives a clear indication of properties improvement of these fractions. Experimental results confirmed the applicability of the proposed method for HDS of a mixture of Iraqi middle distillates (i.e., naphtha, kerosene, and gas oil) simultaneously in a single fixed bed reactor


Article
Removal of Cr (VI) and Cu (II) Ions from Synthetic Wastewater by Solar Photocatalytic Reactor

Authors: Mohammad F. Abid --- Luma H. Mahmood --- Noor H. Hamza --- Sukaine J. Mohamed
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2018 Volume: 36 Issue: 4 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 417-423
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Heavy metal ions in wastewater have promoted increasing concern on environmental and health risks. The present work was devoted to investigate the feasibility of utilizing solar light to degrade Cr (VI) and Cu (II) ions in synthetic wastewater. The effect of the key process parameters on the quality of product was studied by varying the pH (3, 5, 7, 9, and 11), H2O2 (50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/L) and TiO2 loading (0.9, 1.3, and 1.7 g/L). Experimental results revealed that after 120 min of solar illumination the highest reduction of Cr (VI) ions was 97.0% obtained under (pH = 3, catalyst loading = 1.3 g TiO2/L, and H2O2 =100 mg/L) and for Cu (II) ions the highest reduction was 97.7% at (pH = 11, catalyst loading = 1.3 g TiO2/L, and H2O2 =200 mg/L). Empirical correlations were suggested for the photoreduction of Cr (VI) and Cu (II) ions as functions of the studied operating parameters with correlation coefficients of 0.946 and 0.948, respectively.


Article
SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF UNSUPPORTED CATALYST FOR GAS OIL DESULFURIZATION

Authors: Mohammad F. Abid --- Mohammed A. Hamza --- Shakir M. Ahmed --- Salah M. Ali
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Journal for Engineering Sciences مجلة القادسية للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19984456 Year: 2018 Volume: 11 Issue: 3 Pages: 357-371
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

Unsupported MoS2 catalysts were synthesized for the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of real feed gas oil using different temperatures and pressures. Hydrothermal method was utilized to prepare by using molybdenum trioxide and sodium sulfide. The characterization of the catalyst was identified by XRD, SEM, and BET techniques. It was found that BET surface and pore volume were positively affected by pressure and temperature that could improve the activity of MoS2. Kinetic analysis showed that HDS reaction over MoS2 follow pseudo-first order kinetics. Experimental results revealed that the HDS activity of the unsupported MoS2 catalyst was better than supported CoMo/Al2O3 catalyst under the same operating conditions.

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