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Article
Desulfurization of gas oil using a solar photocatalytic microreactor

Author: Mohammad Fadhil Abid
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2015 Volume: 16 Issue: 1 Pages: 49-62
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The present work is devoted to investigate the performance of a homemade Y-shape catalytic microreactor for degradation of dibenzothiophene (DBT), as a model of sulphur compounds including in gas oil, utilizing solar incident energy. The microchannel was coated with TiO2 nanoparticles which were used as a photocatalyst. Performance of the microreactor was investigated using different conditions (e.g., DBT concentration, LHSV, operating temperature, and (H2O2/DBT) ratio). Our experiments show that, in the absence of UV light, no reaction takes place. The results revealed that outlet concentration of DBT decreases as the mean residence time in the microreactor increases. Also, it was noted that operating temperature showed a positive impact on the degradation rate of DBT while LHSV showed a different image. The results reported an optimum (H2O2/DBT) ratio which gave maximum conversion of DBT which vary with initial concentration. Kinetic study was carried out which confirmed that desulfurization of DBT followed a pseudo-first order reaction at 30 and 50oC, respectively. However deviation from linearity was observed at 60oC. Comparison between microreactor´s performance and performance of batch reactors from published literature were illustrated. The Comparison confirmed the unique characteristics of the microreactor.


Article
Kinetic study and Modeling of heavy Naphtha Catalytic Reforming process in AL-Daura Refinery

Authors: Mohammad Fadhil Abid --- Haider Majeed Khother
Journal: Journal of Petroleum Research & Studies مجلة البحوث والدراسات النفطية ISSN: 22205381 Year: 2017 Issue: 15 Pages: 1-27
Publisher: Ministry of Oil وزارة النفط

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Abstract

In the present work, kinetics and modeling of heavy naphtha catalytic reforming process in Al-Daura refinery-Midland refineries Company were studied. A proposed reaction scheme involving (15 pseudo components) connected together by a network of 30 reactions for components in the C6-C8+ range have been modeled. In the present work, kinetics and modeling of heavy naphtha catalytic reforming process in AL-Daura refinery-Midland refineries Company were studied. A proposed reaction scheme involving (15 pseudo components) connected together by a network of 30 reactions for components in the C6-C8+ range have been modeled. The proposed model has been solved numerically using the 4th order Runge–Kutta approach. Alteration of components and temperature, with time and reactor length was evaluated. Results showed that the rate of formation of aromatics is becoming slower as the reactants proceed to the third reactor. The catalytic reaction rates in the reformer are well represented by the Hougen-Watson Langmur-Hinshelwood (HWLH) type form. The deactivation of catalyst causes the reactor behavior to continue changing over a longer period of time. This clearly seems to pay off in the scenario where coke deposition plays such a major role. It was also found that the rate of coke formation increases with the progress from first to the last bed, so keeping a decreasing inlet temperature profile from first to the last bed would lead to more uniform coke content in each bed. The production rate of reformate has a negative impact on the octane number. Temperature drop across the first reactor (~ 45oC) is larger than the temperature drops across the other two reactors (10-12oC). This could be related to the endothermic reaction rate which is faster in the first reactor. The results show that perfect agreement of temperatures, compositions, and fractions molar flow rate at the exit of the third reactor is obtained between predicted values and industrial values.This confirmed the reliability of the present model.


Article
Improvement of Antiknocking Characteristics of Iraqi Gasoline

Authors: Mohammad Fadhil Abid --- Mohammad Ibrahim --- Ahlam Saaid --- Shakir Mahmood Ahmed
Journal: Journal of Petroleum Research & Studies مجلة البحوث والدراسات النفطية ISSN: 22205381 Year: 2013 Volume: 124 Issue: 7th Pages: 10-26
Publisher: Ministry of Oil وزارة النفط

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Abstract

Tetraethyl lead (TEL), which is a common additive to the Iraqi pool gasoline, is usually classified- among the most toxic selective additive even when it is added at low doses (~ 1.5-2.0 %v/v). The present work was devoted to prepare and investigate the effect of phenyl tert-butyl ether as an alternative selective additive to the Iraqi pool gasoline produced in Doura Refinary-Midland Refineries Co. Comparing with other additives-except TEL-, it was found that phenyl tert-butyl ether increased RON of Doura pool gasoline by (5.7 to 10%) at a dose of 5%v/v and it increased RON by (4.5 to 11.9%) at a dose of 8%v/v. Moreover, it appears to have no adverse human health effects which make the suggested additive promising for increasing the anti-knocking characteristic of Iraqi gasoline.

رابع اثيلات الرصاص , يستخدم حاليا في رفع العدد الاوكتاني لمنتوج الكازولين من مصافي النفط العراقيه, يعتبرمن اخطرالمضافات سمية وتاثيرا على البيئة الحياتية حتى عند اضافته بنسب حجمية قليلة ( 2- 1.5%) وخاصة في المدن المزدحمة بالسيارات. الدراسة الحالية تهدف الى تحضيرمادة مضافة- صديقة للبيئة- ولها كفائة عا لية نسبيا في رفع العدد الاوكتاني للكازولين العراقي. تم تحضير مادة- فنيل ترت بيوتايل ايثر- واجراء كافة التحليلات لتحديد المواصفات الفيزياوية. لتحديد كفائة المادة ، تم اضافتها بنسب حجمية مختلفة الى الكازولين الحوضي المنتج في مصفى الدورة ومقارنتها مع كفائة بعض المضافات المجربة على الكازولين الحوضي لمصفى الــــدورة. وجد ان العــدد الاوكتاني للكازولين العراقــي يـــزداد بنسبـــــة (5.7 - 10%) اكثر من المضافات الاخرى-عدا اثيلات الرصاص- عند اضافة 5% حجما. وعند اضافة 8% حجما تتحقق زيادة (4.5 –11.9 % ) اكثر من المضافات الاخرى- عدا رابع اثيلات الرصاص. ان المادة المحضرة تعتبر واعدة الاستخدام كون تاثيراتها البيئية قليلة جدا اضافة الى كفائتها العالية.


Article
Experimental Study and Analysis on Degradation of Oily Sludge from Process Equipment by Continuous Hybrid Treatment
الحمأة الزيتية من معدات العمليات بواسطة المعالجة الهجين المستمرة

Authors: Mohammad Fadhil Abid محمد فاضل --- Luma Hussein Mahmod . لمى حسين محمود --- Samer Talib Breesam سامر طالب --- Wasen Samie وسن سامي
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2018 Volume: 24 Issue: 7 Pages: 35-49
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

It is well known that petroleum refineries are considered the largest generator of oily sludge which may cause serious threats to the environment if disposed of without treatment. Throughout the present research, it can be said that a hybrid process including ultrasonic treatment coupled with froth floatation has been shown as a green efficient treatment of oily sludge waste from the bottom of crude oil tanks in Al-Daura refinery and able to get high yield of base oil recovery which is 65% at the optimum operating conditions (treatment time = 30 min, ultrasonic wave amplitude = 60 micron, and (solvent: oily sludge) ratio = 4). Experimental results showed that 83% of the solvent used was recovered meanwhile the main water which was separated from solid particles was reused. Three types of sonic probes were used to compare effects of their amplitude created. Results revealed that beyond optimum ultrasound intensity, the treating time has an adverse effect on process efficiency. Results proved that usage 0.05% NaOH during the proposed hybrid process increased the oil recovery from 50 to 65%. The proposed hybrid treatment method could represent an environmentally friendly treatment of waste sludge produced from an oil refinery.

من المعروف أن مصافي النفط تعتبر أكبر مولد للحمأة الزيتية التي قد تسبب تهديدات خطيرة للبيئة إذا تم التخلص منها دون المعالجة المسبقة. ويمكن القول من خلال هذا البحث أن عملية هجينة ( تشمل المعالجة بالموجات فوق الصوتية إلى جانب تعويم الزبد) قد تبين أنها معالجة خضراء فعالة للحمأة الزيتية المأخوذة من أسفل خزانات النفط الخام في مصفاة الدورة وهذه الطريقة قادرة على الحصول على عائد مرتفع من استرداد النفط الأساسي الذي هو 65٪ في ظروف التشغيل المثلى (وقت المعالجة = 30 دقيقة، الموجات فوق الصوتية السعة = 60 ميكرون، و (المذيبات: الحمأة الزيتية) نسبة = 4وأظهرت النتائج التجريبية أن 83٪ من المذيب المستخدم تم استعادته بينما تم إعادة استخدام الماء الرئيسي الذي تم فصله عن الجسيمات الصلبة. واستخدمت ثلاثة أنواع من مولدات الموجات الصوتية للمقارنة بين مديات السعة التي تم إستخدامها.وقد كشفت النتائج أنه بعد القيمة المثلى لشدة الموجات فوق الصوتية ، فإن وقت المعالجة له تأثير سلبي على كفاءة العملية. وأظهرت النتائج أن استخدام 0.05٪ وزنامن هيدروكسيد الصوديوم خلال العملية الهجينة المقترحة يؤدي الى زيادة في استرداد النفط من 50 إلى 65٪. يمكن أن تمثل طريقة المعالجة الهجينة المقترحة في هذا البحث معالجة صديقة للبيئة وفعالة لحمأة النفايات الناتجة من مصفاة النفط.

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