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Article
Effect of two types and two concentrations of cryoprotectants on ovine oocytes morphology and viability post-vitrification

Authors: Muhammad –Baqir M-R Fakhrildin --- Raghad H. A. Al-Moussawi.
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2013 Volume: 3 Issue: 6 Pages: 32-37
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Oocyte vitrificationisapromisingtechnique.Thechoiceofappropriatetypesandconcentrationsofcryoprotectants is essential for the success of the oocytes vitrification.Objective:This study aimed to investigate the effect of vitrificationonviabilityandmorphologyofoocytesandto compare the effect of several cryoprotectants on the viability and morphology of oocytes during vitrificationandpost-thawing.Methods:The sheep ovaries were collected from the local abattoir. Only normal and viable oocytes were included in this study. By using cryotop, immature oocytes that were viable with normal morphology were vitrifiedwith 15% DMSO and 15% EG supplemented with 0.0 M, 0.25M, or 0.5 M of either sucrose or trehalose as control and treated groups. Oocytes viability and morphology were assessed post-aspiration and post-thawing.Results:From the results of the present study, the percentage of post-thawing normal and viable oocyte reported with the use of 0.5M trehalose and EG in vitrificationsolution(VS)significantly)P<0.05)higherthanthepercentage of post-thawing normal and viable oocyte reported with use of 0.25 M trehalose and EG.Conclusion:Vitrificationissimpletechniqueandeasytoperformbutitneedssomeexperiencetopreventanyoocyte loss during vitrificationandthawingprocessing.Theuseof0.5Mofeithersucroseortrehalosein vitrificationsolutionimprovesthepercentageofpost-thawingviableandnormaloocytes.


Article
Effect of Adenosine Triphosphate on in vitro Fertilization in Mice as a model for Human Being

Authors: Muhannad A. Mashkor Muhammad-Baqir M-R. Fakhrildin --- Muhammad –Baqir M-R Fakhrildin --- Nawal K. Al-Ani
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2015 Volume: 5 Issue: 1 Pages: 24-29
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Back ground:Optimal IVF and embryo culture conditions depend on the composition of culture media being the most important determinants of successful in vitro interaction of the gametes and subsequent embryo development. ATP is fundamental factor to maintain the life, by providing energy, and controlling the cell function and metabolism.Objective:To investigate the effect ATP supplied to culture medium on fertilization rate and in mice as model for human being.Materials and Methods:The female mice (90) were superovulated using superovulation program (SOP) to produce large number of oocyte were divided into three groups, G1 inseminated with vassal sperm in vitro alone (control) , G2 inseminated with vassal sperm in vitro using SMART enriched with ATP(1.25mM). While, G3 inseminated with vassal sperm in vitro using SMART medium enriched with ATP (2.5mM). Mouse spermatozoa were collected from both vas deferens. Then sperm parameters were assessed after 30 min. IVF technique was performed for 3 groups.Results: The results of the present study appear, significantly increment (P<0.05) in the IVF (%) was observed when using 2.5 mM ATP as compared to 1.25 mM ATP and control group.Conclusions: The result showed that addition of high ATP concentration (2.5 mM) enriched to the culture medium improved percentage of in vitro fertilization.

Keywords

ATP --- in vitro fertilization --- mice.


Article
Influence of different concentrations of Sildenafil Citrate on histological parameters of mice epididymis
تأثير تراكيز متعددة لسترات السلدينافيل على المتغيرات النسجية لبربخ الفئران

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Abstract

sildenafil citrate (SC) is widely used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction and maintains a sufficient erection for satisfactory sexual performance. Very limited literatures were published about effects of SC on histological changes of epididymes in human or laboratory animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different concentrations of SC for different administration periods on some histological parameters of mice epididymes. Seventy five male mice (7-8) weeks old, weighing (23-25)g were used in the present study. The possible effect of SC was tested through the treatment groups of mice with different doses of SC (2, 4, 8, 16)mg/Kg body weight, and for different periods (1, 3, 5) weeks. Histological examination of epididymes were carried out and compared with those belong to untreated group. Results revealed no significant differences (P>0.05) in epididymal weight, tubules diameters and thickness of epithelial layer between treated groups and control group. Conclusion in this study, SC has no effect on epididymis histology

أستخدم عقار سترات السلدينافيل (الفياغرا) بشكل واسع لعلاج فشل الانتصاب لدى الذكر وكذلك ادامة الانتصاب للحفاظ على الكفاءة الجنسية . فقد نشر عدد قليل جداً من المصادر حول تأثيرات سترات السلدينافيل على التغيرات النسجية للبرابخ في الانسان والحيوانات المختبرية . لذلك هدفت هذه الدراسة الى التحقق من تأثير تراكيز مختلفة لسترات السلدينافيل لفترات تجريع مختلفة على بعض المتغيرات النسجية لبرابخ الفئران . شملت هذه الدراسة خمس وسبعون ذكر فأر بعمر (7-8) اسابيع وبوزن (23-25)غم ولمعرفة تأثير سترات السلدينافيل التي أختبرت خلال المجاميع المعاملة للفئران تم تقسيم الذكور الى مجاميع اعتماداً على تراكيز سترات السلدينافيل المختلفة (2 ، 4 ، 8 ، 16(ملغم/كلغم ولفترات مختلفة (الاسابيع الأول والثالث والخامس) . وبانتهاء فترة التجريع أخذت البرابخ خارج جسم الحيوان وتم تحضيرها للمقاطع النسيجية . أظهرت نتائج الدراسة الحالية فروقات غير معنوية في أوزان البرابخ وأقطار نبيبات البرابخ وفي سمك طبقة الخلايا الطلائية لنبيب البربخ بين مجموعة السيطرة وجميع مجاميع المعاملة . نستنتج من نتائج هذه الدراسة ان التجريع بسترات السلدينافيل لم يعطي تأثيرات على انسجة بربخ الفئران .


Article
Assessment of in vitro fertilization and early embryonic development using SMART medium enriched with coenzyme Ql0

Authors: Muhammad-Baqir M-R .Fakhrildin --- NahlaA. AL-Bakri --- Mudhafar A-Hussen Muhammad
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2014 Volume: 4 Issue: 1 Pages: 37-42
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

BackgroundZygote produce from once a sperm fertilizes an egg cell. Then, the zygote (unicellular) will begin chain of cellular cleavages to produce multicellular mass, its embryo, the differentiated to different tissues and organism.The development of the embryo is called embryogenesis.Coenzyme Q10, is an antioxidant produced in the body. It boosts cellular energy and may enhance the immune system. CoQ10 is present and measurable in seminal fluid,the concentration of CoQ10 directly correlates with both sperm count and motility. It is beneficial inthe prevention and treatment a wide range of health problems.ObjectivesThe present study was aimed to investigate the possibility of using coenzyme Q1O to improvein vitro fertilization (IVF), and early embryonic development (ED) in mice as a model for human beingMethodsSuperovulation program was achieved to mature healthy female mice with age 10-12 weeks and weight 24-26 gm. After sacrificing female, oocytes were collected and incubated within C02 incubator for less than 1 hour. Sperm were collected from vas deference of males. Sperm parameters were assessed after 30 min. of incubation. Mature oocytes were divided intothree groups accordingto theconcentrations of CoQ10 including G1 (control group; SMART medium only), G2 (treated group; SMART medium enriched with 20 M CoQ10) and G3 (treated group; SMART medium enriched with 40 M CoQ10). IVF technique was performed for 3 groups, and assessment of IVF (%), embryonic development stage (%) and abnormal embryo morphology (%) for each embryo stage.ResultsResults of the present study appeared significant increment (P<0.05) in the percentages of IVFfor both treated groups as compared to the control groups.Also, significant increase (P0.05%) in the 8-cells embryo stage were assessed among control and treated groupsConclusionFrom the results of the present study it wasconcluded that the coenzyme Q1O (40µM) enriched to the culture medium improved percentage of in vitro fertilization and no effect on embryonic development.

Keywords

Fertilization --- Embryo --- Smart --- coenzyme Q10


Article
Role of Clomiphene Citrate and Tamoxiphene Citrate in Mice Sperm Motility

Authors: Raeʼd Abdalelah Abbas --- Muhammad-Baqir M-R. Fakhrildin --- Mohammad Oda Salman
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2014 Volume: 4 Issue: 2 Pages: 1-5
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Both clomiphene citrate and tamoxiphene citrate, as an anti estrogen, is the mostcommon prescribed medication for male infertility.In humans, ant estrogens interferewith the normal negative feedback of sex steroids at the hypothalamus and pituitary,thereby increasing endogenous gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) secretionfrom the hypothalamus and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizinghormone (LH) secretion directly from the pituitary.Objective:The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of clomiphene citrate (CC)and tamoxiphene citrate (TC) administered to male mice on quality of sperm motilityand activity.Materials and Methods:Ninety six male mice were divided into two major groups, and every one of thesegroups was subdivided into three minor groups involving control and two treatedgroups. In the CC study, 48 mice were administrated orally 0, 0.0125 mg and 0.025mg as control (G 1), low dose (G 2) and high dose (G 3) for 42 days. While, in theTC study, 48 mice were administrated orally 0, 0.01 mg and 0.02 mg as control (G1), low dose (G 2) and high dose (G 3) for 42 days. Then, the male mice weresacrificed, both vas deferens were collected and assessment sperm motility andactivity.Results: The results of present study appeared that the use high dose of CC or TCsignificantly increment (P<0.05) sperm motility and activity as compared to controlgroups.Conclusions:Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that the administration of highdose of either CC or TC increases sperm motility and activity.


Article
Effect of L- carnitine and Co Enzyme Q10 Addition to SMART Pro- Medium on Human Sperm Parameters During In Vitro Sperm Activation

Authors: Majida H. M. Al Shammari --- Jabbar H. Yenzeel --- Muhammad-Baqir M-R. Fakhrildin
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2015 Volume: 5 Issue: 1 Pages: 14-19
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

This study was designed to assess the effect of different concentrations of L-carnitine and Co enzyme Q10 (COQ10) supplied to SMART Pro- medium on human sperm motility and sperm grade activity ( progressive, non-progressive and immotile) during in vitro sperm activation.Eighty seven samples of semen of infertile and fertile men were randomly collected from the subjects at the High Institute for Infertility Diagnosis and Assisted Reproductive Technologies / Al- Nahrain University. The mean age of the men was (32.034 ± 0.57) years with mean duration of infertility (4.644 ± 0.25) years. Seminal fluid analyses were done involving macroscopic and microscopic examinations according to WHO criteria. Swim-up technique was dependent for in vitro sperm activation , the washed samples were divided before using centrifugation swim-up technique into 3 groups: control group (G1) without L-carnitine and CoQ10. While, in G2, G3 two concentrations of L-carnitine and CoQ10 (20 μg , and 40 μg ) were used. Moreover, all groups within post-activation enriched with SMART- Pro media. The sperm motility and sperm grade activity were evaluated after the addition of L-carnitine and COQ10. The results showed a significant (P<0.05) differences were showed in sperm motility and sperm grade activity of post-activation when compared with the pre-activation. In G2 and G3, with dose of ( 20 μg and 40 μg) of L- carnitine and CoQ10, the results showed a significant (P<0.05) increase in the percentages of sperm motility, progressive sperm motility in spite of the increase in the percentages of sperm motility, progressive sperm motility in G3 compared to G2, there was non significant (P>0.05) differences between G2 and G3. The results for non-progressive sperm motility% and total progressive sperm motility millions/ mL. for 40 μg ( G3) groups were significantly (P< 0.05) decreased when compared to control group (G1) with non-significant (P>0.05) differences between 20μg (G2) group, with significant (P< 0.05) decreased in immotile sperm percentage in post-activation when compared to the pre-activation. From the results of the study, it can be concluded that the addition of 40 μg of L-carnitine and CoQ10 to washed sperms can improve sperm motility and sperm grade activity in vitro. Data were analyzed statistically using complete randomized design (CRD) (one way ANOVA).


Article
Effect of Vitrification Technique and Different Biochemical Materials on In Vitro Maturation Outcomes

Authors: Muhammad –Baqir M-R Fakhrildin --- Anam R. Al-Salihi --- Hayder Abdullah K. Al-Sarray
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2015 Volume: 5 Issue: 1 Pages: 46-53
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:In vitro maturation (IVM) is a culture technology that enables the immature oocytes to reach metaphase II (MII). Vitrification of immature oocytes followed by in vitro maturation can offer advantages, such as to avoid the use of large doses gonadotropins and also be an alternative approach to the use of endocrine stimulation to obtain pre-ovulatory oocytes in all cycles.Objective:The objective of the study is to determine the effect of vitrification technique and several biochemical materials on outcomes of in vitro maturation.Materials and Methods:Normal and viable immature oocytes divided into two major groups including: control group and vitrification technique group. Post-thawing, each major group subdivided into four in vitro maturation (IVM) groups using SMART medium with special additives involving: (G1) group: contained gonadotropins (Gn) only, (G2) group: supplemented with Gn and sucrose (4%), (G3) group: consisted of Gn, sucrose (4%) and follicular fluid (FF) (5%), and (G4) group: contained Gn, sucrose (4%) and FF (10%).Then, assessed the results of in vitro maturation.Results:The results of in vitro maturation for control group shows non significant differences (P>0.05) among all groups. While, a significant increase (P<0.05) in percentage of IVM was achieved when compared G3 and G4 groups with G1 and G2 groups in vitrification technique. Therefore, comparison the results of IVM between control group vitrification technique group appeared a significant difference (P<0.05) in G1 groups and also between G2 groups. However, non significant difference (P>0.05) was appeared between G3 groups and also between G4 groups when comparing between control group and vitrification technique group.Conclusions:Vitrification of immature oocytes were appeared as a promise technique for preservation of oocytes. As well as, the addition of follicular fluid (FF) to maturation medium produced the best results for in vitro maturation (IVM).


Article
Effects of Metformin on Sperm Parameters in Mice: as a model for human being

Authors: Muhammad –Baqir M-R Fakhrildin --- Mohammad 0. Selman --- Ahmed. Kh. Rashid
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2016 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 45-60
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Metformin is anti-hyperglycemic effect due to decrease of hepatic glucose production. Another effect, leading decrease insulin resistance, regarded a safe drug, treatment of choice for overweight.Objective:To investigate the effects of 3 concentration of MF administered orally to male mice on sperm parameters as model for human being.Materials and Methods:In current study, 80 male mice were taken with age ranging between 1.5-2 month and weights ranging between 25-30 grams males classified into four groups of a control group (G1) and treated group (G2, G3 and G4) doses of MF were employed, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 mg/mice daily to groups, given orally for 6 weeks and then the animals were scarified.ResultsResults have revealed a significant difference (P < 0.05) in sperm concentration for 3 groups compared to G1 group. Progressive motility (%) appeared with significant difference (P< 0.05) for G3 group as compared to other treated and G1 group. Furthermore, the result illustrated a significant decreased (P< 0.05) in the abnormal sperm morphology for G3 group compared with treated and control. However, sperm agglutination (%) confirmed that the G3 group exhibited highly statistical significant decrease (p≤0.001) compared to G1, G2 and G4.ConclusionsFrom results of the present study, it was concluded that the administration of MF doses reduce sperm concentration .while, 0.4mg dose improve certain sperm parameters.


Article
DETECTION OF ANTISPERM ANTIBODIES IN SERA OF IRAQI MALES AND FEMALES AND THEIR ROLE IN FERTILIZING CAPACITY
التحري عن الأجسام المضادة للنطف في مصل دم الذكور و الإناث ألعراقيين وعلاقتها بالقدرة الإخصابية

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Background: Antisperm antibodies (ASAs) have a main role in the immunological infertility. Antisperm antibodies negatively affect sperm movement and interfere with fertilization and may cause abortion .Objective: to Investigate the occurrence of antisperm antibodies in sera of men and women and their role in fertilizing capacity.Method: Sixty men and thirteen women were involved in this study . Indirect immunofluorescent test kit was used . As a counterstain , Evans blue pigment was used . The fluorescent microscope was used . For sixty males, seminal fluid analyses were performed. For thirteen females, direct microscopic vaginal tests were done. Results: Forty five men (75%) and ten women (76.9%) showed positive reactions and antibody titres were either 1/10 or 1/32 . Conclusions: Serum antisperm antibodies play a significant role in autoimmune infertility and should be treated.Keywords: serum, antisperm antibodies, infertility, immunity

خلفية الدراسة: إنَ المسبب الرئيس للعقم المناعي هو وجود الأجسام المضادة للنطف حيث تجعل حركة النطف بطيئة جدا" و تتداخل بعملية الإخصاب و قد تتسبب بالإجهاض . هدف الدراسة: تهدف هذه الدراسة إلى التحري عن الأجسام المضادة للنطف في مصل المرضى من كلا الجنسين و بيان دورها في التسبب في العقم .طريقة العمل: تم التحري عن هذه الأجسام بإجراء الاختبار المناعي غير المباشر . استخدمت أجسام معلمة للأجسام المضادة للنطف . استخدمت صبغة الإيفانس الزرقاء كصبغة مضادة . كشف عن هذه الأجسام باستخدام مجهر الفلورسنت . اشتملت الدراسة على ثلاثة و سبعين مراجعا" لمعهد أبحاث الأجنة و علاج العقم (ستين رجلا" و ثلاثة عشر امرأة ) . تم إجراء اختبار تحليل السائل المنوي لستين رجلا. تم إجراء الفحص المجهري المباشر للمسحات المهبلية لثلاثة عشر امرأة . النتائــج: أظهر أربعون رجلا" (75%) و عشر نساء (76.9%) وجود هذه الأجسام في مصلهم و كانت المعيارية لنسبة وجودهم هي إما 1/10 او 1/32 مما استوجب خضوعهم إلى العلاج . استخدم عقار البردنوسولون كعقار فعال ضد هذه الأجسام . الاستنتاج : تلعب الأجسام المضادة للنطف في مصل مرضى العقم دورا" مهما" في التسبب بالعقم مما يستوجب العلاج . مفتاح الكلمات : مصل الدم، الأجسام المضادة للنطف، عدم الخصوبة، المناعة.


Article
Effect of Cottonseed Extracts on Haematological Parameters of Albino Male Mice

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Abstract

The objectives of the present study are to determine the effect of differentconcentrations of aqueous and oil extracts of cottonseed on haematologicalparameters. Groups of male mice were orally administered aqueous extract[20mg/kg/l day (G2) and 40 mg/kg/day (G3)] and other groups were administeredoil extract [20% (G5) and 40% (G6)] for six weeks.The results showed that there was a significant (P<0.05) reduction in Hbvalues for mice treated with 20% and 40% oil extract as compared to the control.Also, significant (P<0.05) reduction in the percentage of PCV were noticed forboth concentrations of extracts as compared to the control groups. While nonsignificant (P>0.05) differences were shown in RBC and WBC count amongG5and G6 as compared to G4. Significant (P<0.05) increment in the plateletcount was shown in G2, G3, G5 and G6 as compared to the control. Differentialleukocyte analysis showed that a significant (P<0.05) reduction was observed inthe percentage of lymphocyte and significantly (P<0.05) increase neutrophils inG2 and G3 as compared with G1 and in G6 as compared to G4. While,monocytes (%) were significantly (P<0.05) decrease in G5 and G6 as comparedto G4. However, 40mg/kg/day aqueous extract dose demonstrated a significant(P<0.05) increment in the percentage of eosinophil and basophile cells ascompared to G1.

الخلاصة:تهدف الدراسة الحالیة الى معرفة تأثیر المستخلصات الزیتیة والمائیة لبذور القطن بمختلف التراكیزعلى معالم الدم. جرعت مجموعة من ذكور الفئران فمویا بالمستخلص المائي [ 20 ملغم/كغم/یوم (مجموعة2) و 40 ملغم/كغم/یوم(مجموعة 3)] ومجموعة اخرى جرعت بالمستخلص الزیتي [ 20 % (مجموعة 4) و%40 (مجموعة 5)] لمدة ستة اسابیع.% في قیم الهیموكلوبین لفئران عوملت ب 20 (P< أظهرت النتائج حدوث نقصان معنوي ( 0.05في النسبة (P< و 40 % مستخلص زیتي مقارنة مع السیطرة . كذلك لوحظ حصول نقصان معنوي ( 0.05المئویة لحجم كریات الدم المضغوطة في المجامیع المعاملة بكلا التركیزین من المستخلص المائي والزیتيمقارنة مع مجموعة السیطرة. بینما بینت نتائج تعداد كریات الدم الحمر والبیض عدم حدوث نقصان معنويفي المجموعة الخامسة والسادسة مقارنة مع السیطرة. لوحظ حدوث تحسن معنوي (P<0.05)في تعداد الصفیحات الدمویة في المجامیع م 2 وم 3 و م 5 و م 6 مقارنة مع مجموعة السیطرة. (P<0.05)في (P< اما نتائج حساب العدد التفریقي لكریات الدم البیض فأوضحت حصول نقصان معنوي ( 0.05في الخلایا العدلة في المجامیع م 2 و م 3 و م 6 (P< النسب المئویة للخلایا اللمفیة وزیادة معنویة ( 0.05مقارنة مع السیطرة. بینما اظهرت نتائج النسب المئویة للخلایا الوحیدة حدوث نقصان معنوي في المجامیعالمعاملة بكلا التركیزین من المستخلص الزیتي. كذلك استخدام جرعة 40 ملغم /كغم/یوم من المستخلصفي النسب المئویة للخلایا الحمضة والقعدة مقارنة مع السیطرة. (P< المائي سببت تحسن معنوي ( 0.05

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