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Article
Risk Factors of Small for Gestational Age Newborn Babies

Authors: Numan Nafie Hameed --- Munib Ahmed ALZubaidi --- Sajjad H.Kadhim
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2011 Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 54-60
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:The most common definition of Small for gestational age (SGA) newborns refers to a birth weight below the 10th percentile for gestational age. Intrauterine growth retardation(IUGR) may be caused by maternal, placental, or fetal factors. However, no underlying etiology can be identified in at least 40 % of SGA infants.OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the risk factors of SGA births in a sample of Iraqi term newborns.PATIENTS& METHODS:A case control study extended over eight months from Dec. first 2007 to July 31st, 2008 . In this study, 100 SGA newborns &100 control newborns evaluated within the first day of life.This study was performed in delivery rooms &neonatal special care birth unit in Baghdad Teaching Hospital in Medical City . Data were collected by direct interview of the mothers. Data included different variables related to mothers & neonates.RESULTS:There was a significant relationship between SGA births & maternal urinary tract infections (OR=5.231, P<0.0001) & with antepartum hemorrhage (8.6 time risk ,0R=8.609, P=0.0349).The majority of SGA newborns(15%) occurred in multiple pregnancies (OR=17.471, P=0.0003). SGA newborns were more common among non employed mothers (OR=2.100, P=0.0355).Also SGA newborns had significant relationships with mothers not attended antenatal care (OR=3.648, P=0.0001),those with maternal history of SGA births (OR=15.474, P<0.0001) , those mothers with anemia (OR=5.532, P<0.0001) & lastly with mothers suffering from hypertension (OR=8.877, P<0.0001).CONCLUSION:There was significant relationship between SGA births and :Multiple pregnancies& maternal history of SGA births, mothers suffering from hypertension& maternal history of APH and maternal anemia& UTI, mother not attended antenatal clinic & with no employment.


Article
Long Term Complications of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Children and Young Adults

Authors: Munib Ahmed Alzubaidi --- Esraa Majid Mutashar --- Numan Nafie Hameed
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2010 Volume: 9 Issue: 1 Pages: 21-24
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Diabetes mellitus is a common chronic metabolic syndrome characterized by impaired metabolism of glucose; morbidity and mortality come from acute metabolic derangement and from long term complications that affect small and large vessels.OBJECTIVE:The assessment of the long term complications of diabetes mellitus in children and young adultsPATIENTS AND METHODS:The study included 150 patients with type1 diabetes mellitus attending the diabetic clinic of Children Welfare Teaching Hospital who were assessed for the presence of long term complications of diabetes mellitus.RESULTS:The total number of the sample was 150 patients with male to female ratio of 1:1.2 with median age of 12.2 years.Long term complications occurred in 26.7% of patients; (75%) of them had diabetes for more than 5 years. These complications include eye complications (retinopathy and cataract) 12.6%, Renal complications (albuminuria, oedema, and hypertension) 10.6%, peripheral neuropathy 4.6%, limited joint mobility 6.6%, and short stature 17.3%.CONCLUSION:Long term complications were found in significant number of patients with type I diabetes mellitus which can occur in children with short duration of diabetes, and their frequency increases significantly with increasing duration of diabetes.


Article
Eye Complications in Children and Adolescent with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Rajaa Mohsin Shadhan --- Munib Ahmed Alzubaidi --- Najah Kadhim Alquraishy
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2016 Volume: 15 Issue: 2 Pages: 132-139
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is characterized by hyperglycemia and glycosuria and is an end point of a few disease processes. The most common type occurring in childhood is type 1 DM, which is accompanied by chronic and dangerous micro vascular changes affecting most body systems, especially the eye, leading to cataract and diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy without appropriate management is emerging as one of the leading causes of blindness. Therefore, it is necessary to identify relevant risk factors, improve the early diagnosis and management of diabetic retinopathy to reduce the risk of blindness.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the presence of eye complications (cataract and retinopathy) among children and adolescent with type1 diabetes mellitus and to study the effect of various factors on their occurrence.PATIENTS AND METHODS:This study was carried out over nine months period(from first of May till the end of January) at Children Welfare Teaching hospital/Medical City .It included 150 children who had type1diabetes mellitus for at least 4 years in children with pre pubertal onset of diabetes and two years in children with pubertal onset .History was taken, physical examination and investigations were done, then ophthalmological examination looking for eye complications (cataract or retinopathy) performed by ophthalmologist. Statistical analysis done using T test, Chi square, P value <0.05 regarded as statistically significant RESULTS: This study included 150 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, their age ranges from 4.5 - 19 years, with duration ranges from 2-18 years. Female to male ratio was 1.8:1.Out of 150 diabetic patients, 24/150 (16%) had eye complications, 9 (6%) of them had retinopathy while other 15 (10%) had cataract .The age of all patients who had eye complication was >10 years which is highly significant (P value: 0.009) and the incidence of eye complications increases with increasing duration of diabetes (p value 0.04). Twenty two (14.7%) female and two (1.3 %) male had eye complications, which is highly significant (P value: 0.002). HbA1c >10 in 17/24 (70.8%) patients with eye complications. there were significant association between the presence of eye complications and macroalbuminuria (p value: 0.02), and limited joint mobility (p value: 0.001) .out of 24 patients with eye complications, 16 (66.6%) patients had short stature and 7(4.7%) patients had celiac disease.CONCLUSION and recommendations:The incidence of eye complications (cataract and diabetic retinopathy) increases with increasing age and duration of diabetes and it is more common in female and it is associated with the presence of other chronic complications (LJM, nephropathy and short stature).So screening all patients with type 1 DM according to the guidelines is required for early detection and treatment of eye complications using new methods like fundal photography.

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