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Article
Production of Ceramic-Based Composites By Self Infiltration

Authors: N.E. Abdul-Latif --- S.A. Kako
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Applied Physics المجلة العراقية للفيزياء التطبيقية ISSN: 18132065 23091673 Year: 2008 Volume: 4 Issue: 1 Pages: 25-30
Publisher: iraqi society for alternative and renewable energy sources and techniques الجمعية العراقية لمصادر وتقنيات الطاقة البديلة والمستجدة

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Abstract

The aim of this work is to produce composite materials with ceramic base covered by a layer of aluminum and its alloys by means of self infiltration. Al2O3 powder was used after been pressed by different pressures (58MPa, 117MPa and 176MPa) in metallic mold. The sintering process has been preformed at 1200°C for two hours. After that, the porosity percentage was measured and the samples were heated to 700°C and then immersed in the molten pure aluminum and its alloys and heated to about 1000°C for half an hour .Then the samples were cooled to 650°C and examined by an optical microscope and the scanning electron microscope. Moreover, the x-ray diffraction for the samples has been employed to define the structure of the resulting composite .The testing results reveal that the immersing process can be successfully done in Al-Mg alloy to obtain composite material of ceramic base with metal layers.


Article
Recovery of Cobalt and Lithium from Spent Lithium Ion Batteries

Authors: N.E. Abdul Latif --- A.M. Ahmed
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2017 Volume: 35 Issue: 2 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 139-148
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

In this research a combination of mechanical separation, reductive leaching and chemical precipitation are used to regain Li as Li2CO3 and Co as Co(OH)2 from waste lithium ion batteries. First batteries are dismantled and different component are separated. Anode and cathode foils are grinded and sieved to extract Al and Cu from spent battery powder. The separation efficiency for copper and aluminum are 97.68% and 84.41% respectively. The separated powder is leached with sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide solution to dissolve cobalt and lithium. The effects of sulfuric acid concentration, time, temperature, concentration of hydrogen peroxide and S/L on the leaching efficiency for cobalt and lithium are studied. Design of experiments by Taguchi method is used to determine experiments conditions, analysis the results, and identify the optimum leaching conditions. The optimum leaching conditions are 1.5 M acid concentration, 60 minute, 60 °C, 15% H2O2, and 40 g/l solid to liquid ratio. Leaching efficiencies of 94.07% Co and 98.15% Li are achieved with these optimum conditions. Leaching solution of the optimum experiment is used to recover cobalt as cobalt hydroxide and lithium as lithium carbonate by chemical precipitation. An equivalent volume of 4M NaOH is used to precipitate cobalt as cobalt hydroxide. After 1 hour 99.98%, Co is precipitated and collected by filtration and dried. After collection of the Co(OH)2 product, the remaining solution is treated with equivalent volume of "saturated solution" of Na2CO3 at 100 °C to recover lithium as Li2CO3. After 1 hour, 80 – 85 % Li is precipitated, filtrated and dried. Precipitation products are investigated with XRD, which confirmed that cobalt hydroxide and lithium carbonate are recovered from leaching solution.

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