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Article
Production of Biodiesel Fuel from Oleic Acid and Comparison of its Properties with Petroleum Diesel

Authors: Sarah R. Al-Karkhi --- Nada B. Nakkash
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2012 Volume: 13 Issue: 4 Pages: 13-25
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Biodiesel define as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oil and animal fats is an alternative diesel fuel that is steadily gaining attention because the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas has been identify as a major cause of the increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the earth’s atmosphere and causing global warming. The present work concerns with estimating the physical properties experimentally such as kinematic viscosity, density, flash point and carbon residue of biodiesel that produced by the esterification reaction of methanol and oleic acid with homogeneous catalysts H2SO4 in a lab-scale packed reactive distillation column using the best operating conditions of methanol to oleic acid 8:1, catalyst amount 1.8 g sulfuric acid/g oleic acid, time 57 min and reaction temperature 130°C that obtained from studying different variables such as molar ratio of methanol to oleic acid 4:1, 6:1 and 8:1, amount of catalyst 0.6, 1.2 and 1.8 g sulfuric acid/g oleic acid, reaction time 36, 57 and 75 minutes, and reaction temperature 100oC, 120oC and 130oC. The physical properties of biodiesel from the present work compared with those of ASTM (American Standard for Testing Material) standard for biodiesel, previous work and petrol diesel, from the results the biodiesel obtained can be used as alternative to diesel.


Article
Rate-Based Model In Bubble-Cup Batch Distillation Column
النمذجة المعتمدة على معدل انتقال المادة و الطاقة لعمود تقطير الدفعات ذو الصواني الفقاعية

Authors: Nada B. Nakkash --- Neran K. Ibrahim --- Salah S. Ibrahim
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2009 Volume: 27 Issue: 14 Pages: 2566-2583
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

The present work concerned with studying the behavior of batchmulticomponent plate distillation tower using Rate-Base model (Non-Equilibrium model) theoretically and experimentally. The experimental work was performed by using a batch distillation column consisting of eight bubble-cup trays. A zeotropic (nonazeotropic) system of Benzene, Toluene, and Ethylbenzene (B-T-EB) has beenused. In the experimental work the effect of reflux ratio, heat duty, and initial charge composition on the batch distillation process have been studied. The range of reflux ratio was 1 - 4, heat duty was 222 and 336 Watt, and the initial charge composition was 0.2 - 0.5 mole fraction of the light component (benzene) and for the heavy component (ethylbenzene). The theoretical work was performed through several steps in order to construct and develop a model based on simultaneous heat and mass transfer between vapor and liquid phases called “Nonequilibrium or Rate-Based model”, which is based on MERSHQ equations (Material, Energy balances, Rate of mass and heat transfer, Summation of composition Hydrodynamic equation of pressure drop, and eQuilibrium relation The performance and validity of the developed non-equilibrium-based model gave a good agreement with the experimental work on Benzene-Toluene- EthylBenzene system.

تم دراسة سلوكية عمود تقطير الدفعات ذو الصواني لخليط متعدد المكونات عملياً و نظرياً. الدراسة العملية أنجزت من خلال إجراء التجارب باستخدام عمود لتقطير الدفعات يتألف من ثمان صواني فقاعية. تم استخدام نظام اعتيادي (غير ايزوتروبي) مؤلف من البنزين والتلوين والاثيل بنزين. الدراسة العملية تضمنت دراسة تأثير نسبة الراجع و الحمل الحراري والتركيب الابتدائي المشحون في إناء الغلاية على عملية التقطير ذوالدفعات .نسبة الراجع التي تم دراستها كانت من 0.5- 4 -1 والحمل الحراري كان 222 و 336 واط أما التركيب الابتدائي المشحون فكان 0.2 كسر مولي بالنسبة لكل من المادة الخفيفة (البنزين) والمادة الثقيلة ا(لاثيل بنزين) . الدراسة النظرية أنجزت من خلال عدة خطوات لغرض إنشاء و تطوير موديل معتمد على أسلوب النمذجة المعتمدة على انتقال الكتلة والطاقة المترادفة بين الأطوار والتي تدعى "النمذجة المعتمدةوهي مختصر MERSHQ على عدم التوازن أو (معدل الجريان)" والتي تعتمد على معادلات لانتقال المادة والطاقة ومعدل جريان المادة والطاقة مع جمع التراكيب وكذلك المعادلة الهيدرودينميكية لهبوط الضغط بالإضافة إلى علاقات التوازن. أداء الموديل أعطى توافق جيد مع النتائج العملية.


Article
Simulation of Batch Reactive Distillation for Biodiesel Production from Oleic Acid Esterification

Authors: Nada B. Nakkash --- Sarah R. Al-Karkhi سارة رشيد
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2014 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 9-21
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The present work concerns with simulating unsteady state equilibrium model for production of methyl oleate (biodiesel) from reaction of oleic acid with methanol using sulfuric acid as a catalyst in batch reactive distillation. MESHR equations of equilibrium model were solved using MATLAB (R2010a). The validity of simulation model was tested by comparing the simulation results with a data available in literature. UNIQUAC liquid phase activity coefficient model is the most appropriate model to describe the non-ideality of OLAC-MEOH-MEOL-H2O system. The chemical reactions rates results from EQ model indicating the rates are controlled by chemical kinetics. Several variables was studied such as molar ratio of methanol to oleic acid 4:1, 6:1 and 8:1, amount of catalyst 0.6, 1.2 and 1.8 g sulfuric acid/g oleic acid, reaction time 36, 57 and 75 minutes, and reaction temperature 100, 120 and 130oC. Taguchi method based on signal to noise ratio was used to determine the best operating conditions for biodiesel production.

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