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Article
Oral health status in relation to nutritional status among institutionalized autistic children and adolescents in Baghdad city, Iraq

Authors: Ali Hadi F. Al-Fatlawi --- Nada Jafer MH. Radhi
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2017 Volume: 29 Issue: 1 Pages: 117-124
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The autism spectrum disorder (ASD) describes a wide range of symptoms, including difficulty with social interaction and communication skills. Controversial thinking about oral health of children with ASD, in general may have a lower hygiene level than healthy individuals, low caries rate and high body weight in comparison to healthy children. This study was conducted to assess the oral health status in relation to nutritional status among institutionalized autistic children and adolescents.Materials and methods: From 12 institutes in Baghdad, the study group contained 364 child and adolescent with ASD (Male= 294, Female=70), while control group included 441 normal child and adolescent (Male=357, Female=84) from primary and secondary schools. The age range (6-15) years old categorized to two age groups, children age group (6-10) years and adolescents age group (11-15) years. Decayed, missing and filled surfaces (dmfs, DMFS), plaque (PlI), Gingival (GI) and calculus (CI) indices were used to measure oral health status for both groups. Assessment of nutritional status performed by using BMI for age z-score value. The data of current study was analyzed using SPSS version 21.Results: Mean rank values of (dmfs, DMFS) were lower in study group than control group with high significant differences. The mean rank values of PlI, GI, and CI in study group were found to be higher than control group with high significant differences. A moderate positive high significant correlation was found between ds, dmfs, DS, DMFS and PlI, GI, CI in both groups. The mean rank values of body mass index (BMI) for age z-score were higher in study group than control group. Very weak negative high significant correlation between BMI for age z-score and ds, dmfs, DS, DMFS in study group.Conclusion: Dental caries severity, oral hygiene and gingival health were lower in ASD group than control group. Dental caries severity was related to oral health status in both groups. Possible of overweight, overweight and obesity were most common in children and adolescents with ASD than control group. Body weight of autistic children was related to dental caries severity.


Article
Salivary Physicochemical Characteristics in Relation to Oral Health Status Among Institutionalized Autistic Adolescents in Baghdad/Iraq

Authors: Ali Hadi F. Al-Fatlawi --- Nada Jafer MH. Radhi
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2017 Volume: 29 Issue: 3 Pages: 68-74
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, restricted patterns of behavior, and unusual sensory sensitivities. Saliva may provide an easily accessible sample for analysis. Some salivary constituents levels altered in adolescents with ASD including antioxidants . This study aimed to investigate salivary physicochemical characteristic in relation to oral health status among adolescents with ASD.Materials and methods: Two groups were included in this study: 40 institutionalized autistic adolescents and 40 apparently healthy school adolescents control group with age range (12-15 years old, only males) selected randomly from Baghdad. Each group subdivided into two groups according to the severity of dental caries: caries free group (20 child, DMFT=0) and high caries group (20 child, DMFT≥6). Decayed, missing and filled surfaces (DMFS), plaque (PlI), Gingival (GI) and calculus (CI) indices were used to measure oral health status for both groups. Copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and thiocyanate (SCN) in saliva measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Salivary alpha amylase (sAA) and glutathione (GSH) assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Salivary pH and flow rate were measured directly. The data of current study was analyzed using SPSS version 21.Results: A higher value of salivary pH, flow rate, sAA, SCN, Cu and Zn were found among study group than control group with significant difference, also higher in caries free subgroup than high caries subgroup. While GSH was significantly higher in control group than study group. Moderate negative correlations between sAA, Cu, Zn and PlI, CI, GI with highly significant and salivary pH correlate moderately with PlI and CI with highly significant.Conclusion: There was alteration in salivary constituents levels which related to oral health status in adolescents with ASD and can act as adjunctive diagnostic aid for diagnosing autism.

Keywords

Autism spectrum disorder --- sAA --- SCN --- GSH


Article
Salivary Viscosity in Relation to Oral Health Status among a Group of 20-22 Years Old Dental Students
علاقة لزوجة اللعاب مع صحة الفم لدى مجموعة من طلاب كلية طب الاسنان بعمر 20-22 سنة

Authors: Nada Jafer MH. Radhi ندى جعفر محمد حسن راضي --- Baydaa Ahmed Yas بيداء احمد ياس
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2013 Volume: 26 Issue: 3 Pages: 219-224
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

ABSTRACTBackground: Elevated salivary viscosity increases the risk for dental caries and periodontal diseases. The aim of this study was to disclose the relationship between salivary viscosity and dental caries as well as gingival disease severity among a group of 20-22 years old dental students. Materials and methods: Forty five dental students of both gender aged 20-22 years at College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad took part in this study. Stimulated salivary samples were collected then taken to the laboratory for measuring salivary viscosity at the Poisoning Consultation/Surgical Specialty Hospital. Dental caries was recorded by lesion severity according to Decayed, Missing and Filled (D1-4 MFS) Index (Mühlemman, 1976). Plaque index PlI (Silness and Löe, 1964) was used for measuring dental plaque thickness while gingival index GI (Löe and Silness, 1963) was used for diagnosis of the gingival disease. SPSS version 18 was used for statistical analysis.Results: Salivary viscosity showed weak non significant correlation with caries experience (P>0.05). However, according to dental caries severity students with severe dental caries recorded higher salivary viscosity than those with moderate caries severity with significant difference in case of DS fraction (m.d.= -0.01, P< 0.05). However, according to DMFS statistical difference was close to the confidence limit (P=0.07). No significant correlation could be found between salivary viscosity and gingival inflammation (P> 0.05). Also regarding severity of gingivitis no significant difference in salivary viscosity was recorded between those with mild and those with moderate gingivitis (P> 0.05). Conclusions: It is recommended that measuring salivary viscosity to be a part of routine dental diagnosis when treating patient with higher dental caries risk. However, further studies are needed to disclose the effect of increased salivary viscosity on gingival health with larger sample size. Keywords: Salivary viscosity, dental caries, gingivitis.

الخلاصــةالمقدمة: ان ارتفاع لزوجة اللعاب يزيد من خطر الاصابة بتسوس الاسنان وامراض اللثة. الهدف من هذه الدراسة هو الكشف عن علاقة لزوجة اللعاب مع شدة التسوس وشدة التهاب اللثة الغير مزمن لدى مجموعة من طلاب كلية طب الاسنان بعمر 20-22 سنة. المواد والطرق: شارك في هذه الدراسة خمسة واربعون طالب من كلا الجنسين بعمر 20-22 سنة في كلية طب الاسنان/جامعة بغداد. تم جمع عينات اللعاب المحفز حيث اخذت الى المختبر لقياس لزوجة اللعاب في مركز السموم التابع لمستشفى الجراحات التخصصية. تم حساب شدة التسوس باستخدم مؤشرنخر ، قلع ، حشوة (D1-4MFS)لاكتشاف شدة تسوس سطوح الاسنان اللبنية والدائمية تبعا لتصنيف (Mühleman, 1976). استخدم مؤشر دليل الصفيحة الجرثومية لقياس ثخن الصفيحة(Silness and Löe, 1964) واستخدم مؤشر اللثة ((Löe and Silness, 1963 لقياس التهاب اللثة الغير مزمن وتم فحص جميع الاسنان. النتائج: اظهرت النتائج ارتباطا ضعيفا وغير معنوي للزوجة اللعاب مع تسوس الاسنان. اخذت شدة التسوس بنظر الاعتبار ووجد ان الطلبة ذوي التسوس الشديد اظهروا لزوجة عالية للعاب مقارنة مع الطلبة ذوي التسوس المتوسط الشدة مع وجود فرق معنوي في حالة DS (m.d.=0.01, P< 0.05) اما في حالة مؤشر حالة التسوس DMFS)) كان الفرق الاحصائي قريبا الى حدود الثقة (P= 0.07). لم يتم ايجاد ارتباط معنوي بين لزوجة اللعاب والتهاب اللثة (P> 0.05) بالاضافة الى عدم وجود فرق معنوي بين الطلبة الذين لديهم التهاب لثة طفيف والتهاب لثة متوسط الشدة. الاستنتاجات: اوصت الدراسة ان يعتبر قياس لزوجة اللعاب جزءا من تشخيص امراض الفم الروتينية عند معالجة المرضى الذين لديهم خطورة الاصابة بتسوس الاسنان واوجدت ضرورة لاجراء دراسة اخرى للكشف عن مدى تأثير زيادة لزوجة اللعاب على صحة اللثة وهناك حاجة لاختبار عينات دراسة ذات حجم كبير.


Article
Salivary Viscosity in Relation to Oral Health Status among a Group of 20-22 Years Old Dental Students
علاقة لزوجة اللعاب مع صحة الفم لدى مجموعة من طلاب كلية طب الاسنان بعمر 20-22 سنة

Authors: Nada Jafer MH. Radhi ندى جعفر محمد حسن راضي --- Baydaa Ahmed Yas بيداء احمد ياس
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2013 Volume: 26 Issue: 3 Pages: 219-221
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

ABSTRACTBackground: Elevated salivary viscosity increases the risk for dental caries and periodontal diseases. The aim of this study was to disclose the relationship between salivary viscosity and dental caries as well as gingival disease severity among a group of 20-22 years old dental students. Materials and methods: Forty five dental students of both gender aged 20-22 years at College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad took part in this study. Stimulated salivary samples were collected then taken to the laboratory for measuring salivary viscosity at the Poisoning Consultation/Surgical Specialty Hospital. Dental caries was recorded by lesion severity according to Decayed, Missing and Filled (D1-4 MFS) Index (Mühlemman, 1976). Plaque index PlI (Silness and Löe, 1964) was used for measuring dental plaque thickness while gingival index GI (Löe and Silness, 1963) was used for diagnosis of the gingival disease. SPSS version 18 was used for statistical analysis.Results: Salivary viscosity showed weak non significant correlation with caries experience (P>0.05). However, according to dental caries severity students with severe dental caries recorded higher salivary viscosity than those with moderate caries severity with significant difference in case of DS fraction (m.d.= -0.01, P< 0.05). However, according to DMFS statistical difference was close to the confidence limit (P=0.07). No significant correlation could be found between salivary viscosity and gingival inflammation (P> 0.05). Also regarding severity of gingivitis no significant difference in salivary viscosity was recorded between those with mild and those with moderate gingivitis (P> 0.05). Conclusions: It is recommended that measuring salivary viscosity to be a part of routine dental diagnosis when treating patient with higher dental caries risk. However, further studies are needed to disclose the effect of increased salivary viscosity on gingival health with larger sample size. Keywords: Salivary viscosity, dental caries, gingivitis.

الخلاصــةالمقدمة: ان ارتفاع لزوجة اللعاب يزيد من خطر الاصابة بتسوس الاسنان وامراض اللثة. الهدف من هذه الدراسة هو الكشف عن علاقة لزوجة اللعاب مع شدة التسوس وشدة التهاب اللثة الغير مزمن لدى مجموعة من طلاب كلية طب الاسنان بعمر 20-22 سنة. المواد والطرق: شارك في هذه الدراسة خمسة واربعون طالب من كلا الجنسين بعمر 20-22 سنة في كلية طب الاسنان/جامعة بغداد. تم جمع عينات اللعاب المحفز حيث اخذت الى المختبر لقياس لزوجة اللعاب في مركز السموم التابع لمستشفى الجراحات التخصصية. تم حساب شدة التسوس باستخدم مؤشرنخر ، قلع ، حشوة (D1-4MFS)لاكتشاف شدة تسوس سطوح الاسنان اللبنية والدائمية تبعا لتصنيف (Mühleman, 1976). استخدم مؤشر دليل الصفيحة الجرثومية لقياس ثخن الصفيحة(Silness and Löe, 1964) واستخدم مؤشر اللثة ((Löe and Silness, 1963 لقياس التهاب اللثة الغير مزمن وتم فحص جميع الاسنان. النتائج: اظهرت النتائج ارتباطا ضعيفا وغير معنوي للزوجة اللعاب مع تسوس الاسنان. اخذت شدة التسوس بنظر الاعتبار ووجد ان الطلبة ذوي التسوس الشديد اظهروا لزوجة عالية للعاب مقارنة مع الطلبة ذوي التسوس المتوسط الشدة مع وجود فرق معنوي في حالة DS (m.d.=0.01, P< 0.05) اما في حالة مؤشر حالة التسوس DMFS)) كان الفرق الاحصائي قريبا الى حدود الثقة (P= 0.07). لم يتم ايجاد ارتباط معنوي بين لزوجة اللعاب والتهاب اللثة (P> 0.05) بالاضافة الى عدم وجود فرق معنوي بين الطلبة الذين لديهم التهاب لثة طفيف والتهاب لثة متوسط الشدة. الاستنتاجات: اوصت الدراسة ان يعتبر قياس لزوجة اللعاب جزءا من تشخيص امراض الفم الروتينية عند معالجة المرضى الذين لديهم خطورة الاصابة بتسوس الاسنان واوجدت ضرورة لاجراء دراسة اخرى للكشف عن مدى تأثير زيادة لزوجة اللعاب على صحة اللثة وهناك حاجة لاختبار عينات دراسة ذات حجم كبير.


Article
Sensitivity of Streptococcus mutans to Selected Nanoparticles (in Vitro Study)

Authors: Farah Abdul-Razzak Al-Bazaz فرح عبدالرزاق البزاز --- Nada Jafer MH. Radhi --- Kadhim Abed Hubeatir
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2018 Volume: 30 Issue: 1 Pages: 69-75
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Nanoparticles are clusters of atoms in a size range from (1-100) nm. Nano dentistry creates amazing useful structures from individual atoms or molecules (nanoparticles), which provides a new alternative and a possibly superior strategy in prevention and treatment of dental caries through management of dental plaque biofilms. The aim of the study was to test the sensitivity of Streptococcus mutans to different concentrations of hydroxyapatite and iron oxide nanoparticles suspension solutions, in comparison to chlorhexidine, and de-ionized water, in vitro.Materials and methods: Agar well technique was applied to test the sensitivity of Streptococcus mutans to different concentrations of hydroxyapatite and iron oxide nanoparticles compared with chlorhexidine 0.2% as a control positive and de-ionized water as control negative. Zone of inhibitions which is clear zone of no growth of the bacteria were measured across the diameter of each well, no zone indicated a complete resistance of bacteria to the agents.Results: Values of mean of inhibition zone for all concentrations of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were zero. While for iron oxide nanoparticles, they were zero until reaching the last three concentrations, in which there was a respective increase with a highly significant difference between groups (p>0.01). When making multiple comparisons of the inhibition zones of iron oxide nanoparticles between groups, findings showed that the inhibition zones of 17%, 20% and 22.5% of iron oxide nanoparticles were more than all other concentrations that had no inhibition zones with a significant difference (p>0.05). There was a highly significant difference between each concentration of hydroxyapatite and iron oxide nanoparticles with chlorhexidine and de-ionized water (p>0.01).Conclusion: Streptococcus mutans were not sensitive to hydroxyapatite nanoparticles, as there was a complete resistance for the agent. While for iron oxide nanoparticles, Streptococcus mutans were sensitive to 17.5%, 20% and 22.5% and sensitivity increased with the increase in concentration with a statistically highly significant difference and this indicates an antibacterial activity of this material

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