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Article
Inter-arch Tooth Size Relationships among Different Occlusion Groups of Iraqi Population

Author: Nada M Al–Sayagh
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2010 Volume: 10 Issue: 15 Pages: 89-101
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the mesiodistal tooth width of the permanent dentition, interarch tooth size ratios and to compare these variables between genders and among different maloc-clusion and normal occlusion groups for Iraqi adolescent in Mosul City. Materials and Methods: 141 orthodontic models of school students aged 13 – 16 years of different occlusal relationships (class I normal occlusion, class II (division 1 and 2) and class III malocclusion). Mesiodistal width of teeth were measured by using dental vernier. The mean and standard deviation were calculated. Student's t –test, analysis of variance, Duncan's multiple analysis range test and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Although the males had a larger mesiodistal width of most of the teeth than those in the females, but some of these measurements were not significantly different par-ticularly in class I normal occlusion, while the most significant gender differences were found in class II division 1. Class I normal occlusion showed a tendency toward small teeth than the malocclusion groups particularly in males group, while the class III malocclusion showed a tendency toward larger teeth than the other occlusal categories specially in females group. The class I normal occlusion had a higher ante-rior tooth ratio than that in class III malocclusion and a higher overall tooth ratio than that in the maloc-clusion groups in females. While in males the overall tooth ratio was smaller in class II division 1 than that in class I normal occlusion. No gender difference for the tooth ratios in all occlusal categories ex-cept in class II division 2 malocclusion. Conclusions: It was concluded that interarch tooth size rela-tionships are population specific and there is a gender specific for mesiodistal width of some teeth par-ticularly in class II division 1, and these ratios may be one of the important factors in the cause of ma-locclusion, thus, this study proved the fact that Bolton's analysis should be taken into consideration dur-ing orthodontic diagnosis and therapy.

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Article
Maxillary Arch Dimensional Changes in the Extraction and Non Extraction Orthodontic Treatment

Author: Nada M Al–Sayagh
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2008 Volume: 8 Issue: 11 Pages: 26-37
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims:To investigate whether extraction status and gender had any significant influence on the maxillary
arch dimensions. Materials and Methods: A sample of 40 orthodontic patients (20 extraction and
20 non extraction) were included in this study. Males and females were evenly represented in both
groups. All patients were treated with fixed edgewise appliances. Dental casts were taken before and
after final orthodontic treatment, fifteen maxillary arch parameters were evaluated at pre – and post –
treatment stage and included; dental arch width at the canine, 1st premolar, 2nd premolar, 1st molar (at
mesiobuccal and distobuccal cusp tips), arch depth at canine and 1st molar, arch lengths (incisal canine
length, canine molar length and incisal molar length ), and arch perimeter. A paired sample t– test was
used to evaluate the treatment changes in the extraction and non extraction groups and also to compare
between males and females before treatment and after treatment. Results: Generally, in both genders,
most pretreatment arch dimensions were not significantly different between extraction and non extraction
groups, while after treatment the extraction treatment resulted in the reduction in the arch perimeters,
arch depth, and arch length. Where as the non extraction group showed a significant increase in
most maxillary arch dimensions. In addition both the extraction and non extraction treatment did not
cause narrowing of the dental arch at the canine region. The direction of post treatment changes were
similar in male and female subjects. However, the magnitude of the post treatment changes in some
parameters differed significantly between females and males particularly in the non extraction group.
Conclusions: the extraction and non extraction groups showed similar trend in some maxillary dimensions
and different in other dimensions, thus it was concluded that the kind of treatment may affect the
maxillary arch dimensions. In addition the non extraction group had a larger number of significant
gender differences between females and males than the extraction group


Article
The Relationship of Palatal Dimensions for Iraqi Adolescents with Different Dental Angle Classifications

Author: Nada M. Al-Sayagh
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2011 Volume: 11 Issue: 18 Pages: 251-259
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To determine and compare the palatal dimensions of Iraqi adolescents with different Angle clas-sifications in Mosul City, and to determine the correlation among the palatal dimensions. Materials and Methods: the sample consist of 142 orthodontic models of school students aged 13 – 17 years with different occlusal relationships (class I normal occlusion, class II (division 1 and 2) and class III malocclusions). Eleven palatal parameters were measured by using dental vernier and included; den-tal arch width at the canine, 1st premolar, 2nd premolar, 1st molar , arch depth at canine and 1st molar, palatal height at canine,1st premolar, 2nd premolar, 1st molar and arch perimeter. The mean and stand-ard deviation were calculated , analysis of variance(ANOVA), Duncan's multiple analysis range test and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Class I normal oc-clusion had wider inter 1st premolar width and shallower palate at the canine ,premolars and molar region as compared with malocclusion groups in both genders, while Class II division 1had narrower and higher palate than other occlusal groups. Class II division 2 had shorter canine and molar depth than other occlusal groups in both genders in addition Class II division 2 had smaller arch perimeter as compared to other occlusal groups in females. The correlation among palatal dimensions revealed that palatal widths, arch perimeter and molar depth were highly and positively correlated with each other, while palatal height measurements were only positively correlated to each other and negatively poorly correlated to other measurements in all occlusal groups except in Cl II division 1 in males .This shows a highly significant correlation of palatal height at 2nd premolar and 1st molar with inter premolars and 1st molar width. Conclusions: Differences exist in most of palatal dimensions among different types of malocclusion and Class I normal occlusion these differences may help to define the dental character-istics of these problems and simplify their therapeutic managements and palatal expansion may be con-sidered before or during treatment class II division 1.

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Article
A Cephalometric Comparison of Pharynx and Soft Palate in Iraqi Adolescents and Adults Population

Author: Nada M Al-Sayagh
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2012 Volume: 12 Issue: 19 Pages: 32-42
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: This paper aims to estimate and compare the pharynx and soft palatal dimensions of Iraqi ado-lescent and adults with class I normal occlusion at Mosul City and to identify any gender dimorphism within each group. Materials and Methods: Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 160 normal Iraqis what were separated into two groups (80 adolescents and 80 adults). Each group was additionallydi-vided into two subgroups according to gender (40 of each gender). Twelve linear measurements were made in all subjects; gender dimorphism and comparison between two age groups were analysed by students t test.Results:No gender differences in all variables except in retropalatal airway space (U-MPW) in the adolescents group. While, in the adults the only significant gender differences were found in the thickness of posterior nasopharyngeal wall (ad1-Ba)and in the vertical airway space (Pm-Eb).The adults had significantly larger values for superior nasopharyngeal(pm-ad2) and inferior naso-pharyngeal depth (pm-ad1) than adolescents .While ,adolescents had larger value for superior nasopha-ryngeal thickness (ad2-s) and posterior nasopharyngeal thickness(ad1-Ba) than adults in both genders .The adult male had a higher value for (Pm-Eb) than adolescent male .While ,adolescent female had a higher value for soft palate thickness (SPT) than adult female. Conclusions: Data derived from this study should be a useful reference for assessment of sleep apnea and other conditions in the Iraqi popu-lation.Developmental changes were found in all nasopharyngeal parameters except the Pm-ba(sagittal depth of the bony nasopharynx).


Article
Finite Element Analysis of Stress Distribution During Retraction of Mandibular Incisors

Author: Nada M Al-Sayagh
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2013 Volume: 13 Issue: 22 Pages: 251-258
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: The present study aimed to determine stress and strain distribution on the four lower incisors under the effect of (400g) calculated retracted orthodontic force. Materials and methods: Using finite element analysis method, frictionless retraction technique was successfully used with the aid of continuous (delta loop) on NiTi, Stainless steel wires without gable bends and stainless steel looped wire using 40°. gable bends(20° alpha, 20° beta gable) respectively. Results: High compressive stress concentration in labiolingual direction are observed near the point of force application and along the line of action of orthodontic wire at the crown of both lateral and central incisors. Conclusions: The stress distribution is not the same for the all retracted segment and there was independent movement of lateral incisors from the central incisors except for the retraction using NiTi wires which exhibits uniform movements for both lateral and central incisors.


Article
Normal faciolingual inclination of tooth crowns for Iraqi adolescent in Mosul City

Author: Nada M Al–Sayagh
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2004 Volume: 4 Issue: 4 Pages: 104-112
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The purposes of this study are to determine the faciolingual inclinations of tooth crowns in Class I normal occlusion of Iraqi adolescent in Mosul City, investigate the possible significant differences between genders, and determine the correlation of the faciolingual inclination of teeth crown with each others. The sample of this study consisted from 35 Iraqi adolescents (19 males and 16 females) aged 12–16 years selected according to certain criteria from Mosul City. Stone casts were taken for each subject, the faciolingual inclinations were made on the dental models of the subjects by using torque angle gauge. The data were analyzed with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences program and it was found that each tooth distally to the central incisor had more lingual inclination than did its neighbor. The females had more labial inclination of upper lateral incisor and more lingual inclination of the lower canine, premolars and first molar as compared with the males. Most intraarch teeth torque correlation were positive and decreased with remoteness while most interarch teeth correlation showed weak negative correlation.


Article
Evaluation of Canine Tipping During its Retraction with Sliding Mechanics.(An in Vitro Study)

Authors: Nada M. Al-Sayagh --- Afnan J.Ismael
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2012 Volume: 12 Issue: 19 Pages: 43-51
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: The present study concerned with the evaluation of the effects of using different bracket,s types (material and design), different arch wire types (shape and size) and different methods of retraction (elastic chain and closed coil spring) on the degree of tipping of canine during its retraction along an arch wire using typodont simulation system (Ormco). Materials and methods: The standardization criteria were all typodont teeth situated in well aligned position, covered and immobilized by the acryl-ic bite except canine, elastic chain and nickel – titanium closed coil spring exerting 180 gm of force on canine measured carefully by tension gauge., the angle between bite plane extension,s bar and canine,s extension bar was (90°) measured by protractor directly on photographs that were taken for typodont using digital camera from both vertical and horizontal direction. Results: The present study showed that sliding the canine on large rectangular arch wire (0.019x0.025 inch) gave rise to a significant de-crease in the degrees of tipping when compared with 0.018 inch and 0.018x0.022 inch arch wires were used. Also, sliding the canine using ceramic brackets (0.022) inch gave rise to the significant decrease in the degree of tipping than when using stainless steel brackets. Another finding of the present study showed that when using elastic chain as a method of retraction gave rise to a a significant decrease in the degree of tipping as compared with nickel – titanium closed coil spring and lastly the attachment of the method of retraction around the bracket tie wing rather than hook gave rise to the high degree of tipping . Conclusion: It was concluded that the canine retraction with 0.019x0.025 inch wire on stan-dard ceramic bracket(0.022)inch by elastic chain retraction method could be regarded as the best com-bination variables that produced less degrees of tipping While the opposite is true for canine retraction with 0.018 inch wire on Roth stain less steel bracket by closed coil spring.


Article
Evaluation of a Newly Designed Computerized Data Base for Clinical Orthodontic Decision.

Authors: Afrah K Al-Hamdany --- Nada M Al-Sayagh
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2011 Volume: 11 Issue: 17 Pages: 161-171
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Aims: To prepare a newly designed diagnostic digital chart for orthodontic patients, and to help or-thodontist making decision in term of diagnosis and treatment planning by using Access program to determine the ideal orthodontic treatment of a patient to provide optimum orthodontic appliances for such treatment. Materials and Methods: A newly designed diagnostic digital chart for orthodontic patients was designed using Access program containing sixteen program forms of examination, diag-nosis and treatment plan. In order to evaluate this newly designed digital chart, Multiple Linear Re-gression Analysis was used. This analysis aims to reveal the importance, strength and direction of factors (26 independent variables= constant variables) and their effects on the 12 dependent variables (random variables) [parameter estimation],all of which representing the information and data taken from fifty randomly selected orthodontic patients' files available in the Department of Orthodontics-College of Dentistry-University of Mosul, who were treated with removable appliances by dental stu-dents of fifth class during year 2007-2008. The effects of the independent variables vary in negative or positive way, or even may have zero effect depend on the studied dependent variable. Results :R square measures the proportion of the variability in the dependent variable about the origin explained by regression. The least variability is in y1(right 1st molar occlusion),where as the highest one in y4(left canine occlusion),{R-Sq for y 1 =0.0%, y2=57.8%, y3= 41.1%, y4=65.6%, y5=32.0%, y6 = 50.9%, y7= 60.5% , y8=62.8%, y9=51.6%, y19=61 .3%, y11=28.2% and y12=51.5%}, each value representing the importance, strength and direction of independent factors and their effects on the dependent factors. Conclusions: New digital orthodontic examination and diagnosis chart was pre-pared. The creation of a digital chart that combines the use of information technology with a consis-tent analysis to aid orthodontic diagnosis will be a relevant contribution to the improvement of ortho-dontic care in POP Department in College of Dentistry/Mosul University.

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Article
The relationship of the third molar to the anterior dental crowding

Authors: Nada M Al–Sayagh --- Anas A Mohammad --- Luqman M Ismail
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2004 Volume: 4 Issue: 3 Pages: 1-9
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The purpose of this study is to ascertain whether the upper and lower third molars can contribute to the occurrence or aggravation of crowding. The sample of this study consisted of 187 subjects (103 males and 84 females) aged 20–30 years, then the sample was divided into two main groups and three subgroups. The groups consisted of crowded and normal subjects. The subgroups consisted of persons who had maxillary or mandibular third molars that were either impacted, erupted into function or agenesis. The results showed that the crowded group revealed a higher percentage of impacted third molar and a smaller percentage of erupted third molar particularly in the mandible and a smaller percentage of third molar agenesis than the normal group. The females had more impacted third molar in the upper and lower jaws for both crowded and normal groups. The percentage of third molar agenesis in the males was higher in the upper jaw and smaller in the lower jaw than the females. In normal group, no significant difference was found between upper and lower jaws except in females where the unilateral third molar agenesis was greater in the lower jaw. In crowded group, the lower jaw revealed a higher percentage of impacted third molar for all subjects and a smaller percentage of erupted third molar for females and a smaller third molar agenesis for the males as compared with upper jaw.


Article
Analysis of Soft Tissue Facial Profile in Different Vertical Growth Patterns

Authors: Manar Y Abdul–Qadir --- Ne'am R Saleem --- Nada M Al–Sayagh
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2011 Volume: 11 Issue: 18 Pages: 346-356
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To investigate the difference in soft tissue facial morphology in various groups of vertical facial pattern and to explore gender dimorphism within each type. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty Iraqi adults (60 males and 60 females) with Class I normal occlusion were selected. Standardized lateral cephalometric radiograph was taken for each subject and then the sample was divided into 3 groups according to vertical pattern, short, average and long facial types. Thirteen linear measurements were rec-orded on each lateral cephalometric radiograph and the data were analyzed using one way analysis of vari-ance and Duncan's multiple range analysis test and independent sample t test at p<0.05. Results: The short faced subjects showed the lowest dimension for lower facial height and lower lip height, while the long faced subjects exhibited thicker lower lip thickness at point B than the other 2 types. Gender dimorphism was recorded, as males showed thicker upper lip and lower lips, as well as longer upper facial height and lower lip height in the 3 groups of facial type. Conclusions: The soft tissue drape particularly facial verti-cal dimensions are influenced by the underlying skeletal vertical pattern

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