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Article
Development of PVT Correlation for Iraqi Crude Oils Using Artificial Neural Network

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Abstract

Several correlations have been proposed for bubble point pressure, however, the correlations could not predict bubble point pressure accurately over the wide range of operating conditions. This study presents Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model for predicting the bubble point pressure especially for oil fields in Iraq. The most affecting parameters were used as the input layer to the network. Those were reservoir temperature, oil gravity, solution gas-oil ratio and gas relative density. The model was developed using 104 real data points collected from Iraqi reservoirs. The data was divided into two groups: the first was used to train the ANN model, and the second was used to test the model to evaluate their accuracy and trend stability. Trend test was performed to ensure that the developed model would follow the physical laws. Results show that the developed model outperforms the published correlations in term of absolute average percent relative error of 6.5%, and correlation coefficient of 96%.

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Article
Catalytic Reforming of Iraqi Naphtha over Pt-Ti / HY Zeolite Catalyst

Authors: Nada S. Ahmedzeki ندى سعدون احمد زكي --- Ban A. Al-Tabbakh
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2016 Volume: 17 Issue: 3 Pages: 45-56
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

In the present work, zeolite Y has been synthesized successfully by sol-gel method.Zeolite was synthesized by crystallization of the final gel which consist from seeding and feed stock gels at 85 oC. HY zeolite was prepared by an ion exchange process with ammonium chloride solution and then loaded with different percentages of platinum and titanium by the wet - impregnation method.X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Florescence (XRF), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), BET surface area and, Crushing strength were used to characterize the synthesized and prepared catalysts . Results showed high crystallinity 90% with silica to alumina ratio 5 for HY, high surface area of 600 m2/g and pore volume of 0.38 cm3/g.The activity of the prepared zeolite was investigated using a pilot plant unit for the catalytic reforming of Iraqi heavy naphtha. All prepared catalysts were investigated at temperatures of 490,500 and 510oC ,pressure of 20 bar, H2 /HC ratio 3 and LHSV 1.4.hr-1.Reformate was produced with 86 RON and 94% yield at 510ºC and 20 bar using 0.13 wt.% Pt - 0.75 wt.% Ti loaded on synthesized HY.


Article
Investigation Desulfurization Method Using Air and Zinc Oxide/Activated Carbon Composite

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Abstract

In present work examined the oxidation desulfurization in batch system for model fuels with 2250 ppm sulfur content using air as the oxidant and ZnO/AC composite prepared by thermal co-precipitation method. Different factors were studied such as composite loading 1, 1.5 and 2.5 g, temperature 25 oC, 30 oC and 40 oC and reaction time 30, 45 and 60 minutes. The optimum condition is obtained by using Tauguchi experiential design for oxidation desulfurization of model fuel. The highest percent sulfur removal is about 33 at optimum conditions. The kinetic and effect of internal mass transfer were studied for oxidation desulfurization of model fuel, also an empirical kinetic model was calculated for model fuels at optimum condition, the apparent activation energy was found to be 16.724 kJ/mol.


Article
Extraction of Valuable Metals From Spent Hydrodesulfurization Catalyst By Two Stage Leaching Method

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Abstract

Spent hydrodesulfurization (Co-Mo/γ-Al2O3) catalyst generally contains valuable metals like molybdenum (Mo), cobalt (Co), aluminium (Al) on a supporting material, such as γ-Al2O3. In the present study, a two stages alkali/acid leaching process was conducted to study leaching of cobalt, molybdenum and aluminium from Co-Mo/γ-Al2O3 catalyst. The acid leaching of spent catalyst, previously treated by alkali solution to remove molybdenum, yielded a solution rich in cobalt and aluminium.


Article
Heterogeneously Catalyzed Esterification Reaction: Experimental and Modeling Using Langmuir- Hinshelwood Approach

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Abstract

The esterification reaction of ethyl alcohol and acetic acid catalyzed by the ion exchange resin, Amberlyst 15, was investigated. The experimental study was implemented in an isothermal batch reactor. Catalyst loading, initial molar ratio, mixing time and temperature as being the most effective parameters, were extensively studied and discussed. A maximum final conversion of 75% was obtained at 70°C, acid to ethyl alcohol mole ratio of 1/2 and 10 g catalyst loading. Kinetic of the reaction was correlated with Langmuir-Hanshelwood model (LHM). The total rate constant and the adsorption equilibrium of water as a function of the temperature was calculated. The activation energies were found to be as 113876.9 and -49474.95 KJ per Kmol of acetic acid for the esterification reaction and the heat of adsorption of water. These results agreed well with the previous published data.


Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Nanocrystalline Zeolite Y
تحضير وتشخيص زيولايت Na–Y ذو التركيب البلوري النانوي

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Abstract

Worldwide attention is being focused on nanocrystalline zeolites and they are replacing conventional ones due to their pronounced potential in many fields. In this study, NaY zeolite has been prepared hydrothermally using sol –gel method and modified to the proton type by ion –exchange process. Characterization is made using X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Brunauer –Emmet- Teller (BET) nitrogen adsorption method, Ammonia Temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD) and Scanning electron microscopy( SEM). The effect of aging time, silica to alumina ratio is studied and the results show well defined crystalline structure with nano particle size (70 and 81nm) with surface area of 499m2/gm.

تتجه انظار العالم الى الزيولايت ذي التركيب البلوري والنانوي لتحل محل الانواع التقليدية لما لها من تطبيقات ملحوظة في شتى المجالات. في هذه الدراسة تم تحضير زيولايت نوع Na-Y بمعاملة الجل البلوري حراريا وتم اجراء عملية التبادل الايوني للحصول على HY زيولايت. تم اجراء الفحوصات التشخيصية مثل الاشعة السينية والتحليل الوزني الحراري والمطياف ذو الاشعة فوق الحمراء وتشخيص الابعاد بمجهر القوة الذرية والمجهر الالكتروني والمساحة السطحية بالامتزاز بالنتروجين وتحليل درجة الحرارة لعملية عكس الامتزاز للامونيا. تم دراسة تاثير زمن التفاعل ونسبة السليكا الى الالومينا. اثبت النتائج فعالية عملية التحضير ونجاحها في الحصول على تركيب مسامي بلوري بقياس 70 و81 نانومتر ومساحة سطحية 499متر 2/ غم.

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