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Article
Production, Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of a Bioemulsifier Produced by Acinetobacter baumanii AC5 Utilizing Edible Oils

Author: Nadhem H. Hyder
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2015 Volume: 14 Issue: 2 Pages: 55-70
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Biosurfactant or Bioemulsifier amphiphilic compounds are; produced by microorganisms as primary or secondary metabolites. The unique properties of biosurfactants mean that they have the potential to supplement, or even replace, chemical surfactants used in food, in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries; and in the environment. In the present study ten Acinetobacter sp. isolated from different sources were tested for their capability to produce bioemulsifiers in mineral salt medium with addition of 1% (v/v) edible oil as the sole source of carbon. Out of the ten Acinetobacter isolates tested, five showed lipase activity and produced bioemulsifiers exhibiting an emulsification index (EI24%) of 40 – 78%. The results revealed that the isolate Acinetobacter baumanii AC5, a gram negative, oxidase negative, aerobic and a diplococcoid rod bacterium was the best bioemulsifier producer. Optimization studies indicated that bioemulsifier production was associated with bacterial growth, and that the presence of inducer edible oils in the medium also enhanced bioemulsifier production. On the other hand, bioemulsifier production decreased when hydrocarbon (gasoline and diesel oil) were used. Crude bioemulsifier was recovered from the culture supernatant by a solvent system of chloroform: methanol (2:1 v/v), with the extraction producing 5.05 g/l of crude bioemulsifier. Partial purification and chemical analysis of the bioemulsifier revealed that it is a lipoglycan in nature with lipid content of 63%, carbohydrate 35% and a minor fraction of protein 2%. The crude bioemulsifier; showed strong antimicrobial and antifungal activity against tested pathogenic microorganisms.


Article
Enhancement of biodiesel production from local isolates of microalgae

Authors: Fikrat M. Hassan --- Nadhem H. Hyder --- Samara Saad Faraj Hammadi
Journal: Mesopotamia Environmental Journal بيئة وادي الرافدين ISSN: 24102598 Year: 2015 Volume: 1 Issue: 3 Pages: 66-81
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Ten microalgae isolates were isolated from some ponds and Tigris River in Iraq, and screened for growth and lipid production. The results showed that the isolates Chrococcus dispersus, Anabaena augstumalis and Chlorella vulgaris exhibited higher growth rate and lipid production and reached (0.95, 1.9 and 1.17) g/l, respectively. The selected isolates stimulated by studying the effect of different levels of pH and salinity on growth and lipid production. The results showed higher lipid production by C. vulgaris reached maximum (3.45g/l) at lower pH 6, followed by A. augstumalis (2.75g/l at pH11) and C. disperses (2.68 g/l at pH9). The results also showed that lipid production by C. dispersus and A. augstumalis was stimulated by decreasing salinity concentration and reached maximum (2.94 and 2.5 g/l), respectively at 0.4 g/l of NaCl. While, maximum lipid production by C. vulgaris was (1.72 g/l) obtained at salt concentration of 1g/l. The combined effect of pH and salinity on lipid production studied. Maximum lipid production by C. dispersus (8.43 g/l) observed at (pH9 + salt 0. 4g/l). In case of C. vulgaris, total lipid production reached 4.43g/l which obtained at (pH6 + salt 0.75g/l). While, lipid production in microalgae of A. augstumalis was favored by alkaline condition, and maximum lipid production (4.42 g/l) observed at (pH11 + salt 0. 75g/l). Higher oil content was observed in C. vulgaris and reached 33.2% (0.332 g of oil / g of dry algal biomass) when the microalgae cultivated at (pH9 + salt 0.4 g/l). In comparison, to lower oil content (%) observed with A. augstumalis and C. dispersus reached to 16 % and 13.8% when the isolates stimulated at (pH11 + salt 0.4 g/l) and (pH 6 + salt 0.75 g/l), respectively. Analysis of lipid content by GC technique had shown that the lipid content of microalgae C. dispersus contained only stearic acid. While, oil content in C. vulgaris and A. augstumalis contained only stearic acid, but palmtic acid and oleic acid were detected in control and stimulus conditions.


Article
Recycling of Organic Solid Wastes of Cities to Biofertilizer Using Natural Raw Materials

Authors: Abid S. Hussian --- Nadhem H. Hyder --- Tarif H. Braesam --- Adel M. Natheer
Journal: Al-Nahrain Journal of Science مجلة النهرين للعلوم ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461 Year: 2016 Volume: 19 Issue: 1 Pages: 140-155
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

A pilot composting system was conducted at the factory of recycling of organic solid wastes in Al-Usifia near Baghdad city, to investigate the possibility of the conversion organic fraction of Municipal organic solid waste (OFMSW) to biofertilizer. Results of MSW analysis showed the presence of 64% of biodegradable organic matter and 36% non-biodegradable. The initial composition of OFMSW had a high C/N ratio 37.02, and low availability N content. The additives used in OFMSW composting such as Buffalo, chicken and sewage sludge to the compost pile to treat N deletion and to obtain a desirable C/N ratio in treating piles. Various parameters were determined during the composting process of OFMSW and mixtures, to evaluate their suitability as indicators for the composting process. Results showed that after 6-10 weeks of incubation, the OFMSW turned to black-like substances with earthy smelling compost material. The pH of the mature compost ranged from 7.8 to 7.89; EC in all piles ranged from 3.11 to 5.41 dS/m. The N% increased with time in all piles reaching at the end of maturation to 1.04 to 1.84, the total phosphorous was high in all piles and varied from 1.11 to 1.6% in all piles. However, the results also revealed a higher potassium concentration varied from 1.18 to 3%, compared to initial concentration ranged from 0.6 to 1.6 in all piles. The water holding capacity of compost samples in all piles increased during composting and varied from 69 to 90% compared to initial ratio ranged from 14 to 45%. The windrow system was more effective for heavy metal marinating. The temperature in piles 2, 3 and 4 increased rapidly above 50°C for 4 weeks and reached to the peak recorded value of more than 60°C indicating higher degradation rate, while the temperature in pile 1 and 5 increased slowly relative to the other piles. The biodegradation of organic wastes, as indicated obviously by the reduction of C/N ratio, was rapid and decreased from 27.4 – 37.02 to 9.47 – 15.26 after 6 weeks of composting. Total viable count in all piles showed a marked increase in initial composting process when the temperature increased and a marked decrease at the end of maturation. The total number of bacteria in Piles 2, 3 and 4 was higher than in Piles 1 and 5. Coliform bacteria were found till 6 weeks in piles 2, 3 and 4, while recording up to 10 weeks in piles 1 and 5. Salmonella and Shigella did not appear throughout the study after 6 weeks of incubation, with exception in piles 1 and 5; these organisms were detected till weeks 10 to 14. Total fungi count decreased in piles 2, 3 and 4 when the temperature increased from 52°C to 60°C, while continued to increase till the end of maturation when the temperature fell to 30°C. Total fungi count recorded at the end of maturation was higher than the initial stage. Physiochemical and microbial characteristics of the final compost product could be recommended that the OFMSW is suitable for composting using the turning windrows system.

تم انشاء نظام الــ (Windrows) لتحويل المخلفات العضوية الى سماد في معمل تدوير النفايات العضوية الصلبة في اليوسفية في مدينة بغداد, للتحري عن امكانية تحويل المخلفات الصلبة العضوية للمدن الى سماد عضوي. اظهرت نتائج تحليل النفايات الصلبة على احتوائها 64% من المخلفات العضوية القابلة للتفكك و 36% غير قابلة للتفكك. احتوت المكونات العضوية على نسبة عالية من الــ C/N بلغت 37.2, ونسبة قليلة من النيتروجين. تم اضافة بعض المخلفات العضوية مثل مخلفات الجاموس, الدواجن ومخلفات الحماة النشطة الى المخلفات المنزلية االعضوية لمعالجة نقصان النيتروجين والحصول على نسبة ملائمة لــ C/N في كومات السماد. تم قياس عدة عوامل خلال فترة التسميد (التحويل) للمخلفات العضوية الصلبة وللخلطات, لتقييم مدى ملائمتها للسماد العضوي. بينت النتائج بات المخلفات العضوية الصلبة تحولت الى مادة سوداء وذات رائحة شبيه برائحة التربة بعد 6–10 اسابيع من عملية التسميد. تراوحت قيم الرقم الهيدروجيني للسماد العضوي بعد التنضيج من (7.8–7.89), التوصليــــة الكهربائيـــــــة تراوحـــــــت مـــــــن (3.11–5.41) دسي سيمنز/متر. لوحظ من خلال النتائج ازدياد في النسبة المئوية للــ N % مع الزمن في جميع الكومات وتراوحت في نهاية التسميد من(41.0 الى 1.84)%, في حين تراوحت قيم الفسفور الكلي في الكومات من (1.11 الى 1.6)%. كما اظهرت النتائج ايضا الحصول على تركيز عالي من البوتاسيوم في جميع الكومات وبلغ من (1.18 الى 3) %. كما ازدادت قدرة السماد العضوي الناتج بالاحتفاظ للماء وبلغت نسبة الاحتفاظ من (69 الى 90) %. كما بينت النتائج بان نظام الـــ (Windrow) اكثر فعالية في استرداد العناصر الثقيلة. لوحظ ارتفاع في درجات الحرارة بشكل سريع في الكومات 2, 3 و 4 فوق 50مº لمدة 4 اسابيع وبلغت 60م مما ادى الى سرعة تفكيك المخلفات العضوية, بينما لوحظ ارتفاع بطي للحرارة في الكومات 1 و 5. بينت النتائج زيادة سرعة التفكك للمخلفات العضوية من خلال متابعة نسبة الـ C/N, اذ انخفضت نسبة C/N من 27.4 – 37.02 الى 9.47 – 15.26 بعد 6 اسابيع من عملية التسميد. اظهرت نتائج العد الكلي للبكتريا الحية في جميع الكومات زيادة ملحوظة في بداية عملية التسميد وعند زيادة درجات الحرارة, وانخفاظ ملحوظ في نهاية العملية. كما لوحظ من خلال النتائج اختفاء البكتريا المرضية (بكتريا القولون) وبكتريا Salmonella و Shigella بعد الاسبوع السادس من عملية التسميد في الكومات 2, 3 و 4 في حين لوحظ ظهور هذه الممرضات حتى الاسبوع العاشر في الكومات 1 و 5. كما لوحظ من خلال النتائج انخفاض في العدد الكلي للفطريات في الكومات عندما ارتفعت درجات الحرارة من 52 الى 60مº في الكومات, بينما بدات الاعداد بالزيادة في نهاية عملية التسميد بعد انخفاض الحرارة الى 30مº. من خلال نتائج الخصائص الفيزيائية والكيميائية والمايكروبية التي تم الحصول عليها في الدراسة, يمكن التوصية بان المخلفات الصلبة العضوية ملائمة لتحويلها الى سماد عضوي باستخدام نظام التسميد (Windrows).


Article
Molecules mixture model to explain the nature of interstellar matter
نموذج خليط الجزيئات لتفسير طبيعة المادة بين النجوم

Authors: Layth M. Karim ليث محمود كريم --- Nadhem H. Hyder ناظم حسن حيدر --- Haydar R. Al-Baqir حيدر رضا الباقر
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2014 Volume: 55 Issue: 1 Pages: 251-257
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The nature of interstellar matter has been explained by presenting a model consists of organic and inorganic materials mixture in the wavelength range (9-12) µm. Laboratory samples of different concentrations of these materials were prepared and examined by using FTIR spectrometer device. Results of spectra for these samples are compared with observation of Trapezium nebula in the same wavelengths range. The best mixture model found to fit with observation is a sample consists of:11.96 % (Diatom silica (98% pure silica)) + 14.35 % (Carbon (C)) +27.63 % (Tryptophan amino acid) + 46.06 % (Tyrosine amino acid), this are done using convolution technique. Interstellar matter could be explained biologically, as the contribution of organic material is almost 88%.

تم تفسير طبيعة المادة بين النجوم من خلال تقديم موديل يحتوي على خليط من مواد عضوية ولا عضوية لمديات الطول الموجي (9-12) µm. نماذج مختبرية لتراكيز مختلفة تم تحضيرها وفحصها بواسطة جهاز (FTIR spectrometer) .نتائج الاطياف المستحصلة لهذه النماذج تمت مقارنتها مع الطيف الرصدي لسديم المعين Trapezium nebula)) لنفس مديات الطول الموجي .وجد بان افضل موديل تطابقي مع الطيف الرصدي يتكون من خليط يحتوي على:11.96 % (Diatom silica (98% pure silica)) + 14.35 % (Carbon (C)) +27.63 % (Tryptophan amino acid) + 46.06 % (Tyrosine amino acid).تم اجراء التطابق باستخدام تقنية الالتفاف (convolution) وان المادة بين النجوم يمكن تفسيرها بايولوجيا وذلك لمساهمة المواد العضوية فيها بنسبة تساوي تقريبا 88%.

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