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Article
The selection of maxillary anterior teeth width in relation to facial measurements at different types of face form

Author: Nagham H Kassab
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2005 Volume: 5 Issue: 9 Pages: 15-23
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

It is difficult to determine the dimensions of maxillaryanterior teeth for edentulous patient when pre–extraction recordsare not available. Therefore, the present clinical study wascarried out to evaluate the relationships between maxillaryanterior teeth measurements [canine arc distance (CARCD),central incisor width] and certain horizontal facial parameterswhich included: [(interzygomatic, inner and outer canthus andinter-pupillary) distances in addition to that (interalar, mouthand philtrum of upper lip) widths], and also to determine thoserelations at different types of facial form in both sexes for thebest selection of maxillary anterior teeth widths.The facial and dental measurements were obtained directlyfrom 100 Iraqi undergraduate dental students by using anelectronic digital vernier caliper. Depending on facial index foreach subject, the larger percentage of students (80%) had aleptoprosopic (long and narrow) face in which their facialindices were 90 or above, whereas 4% of students had a euryprosopic(square) face in which their facial indices 82.1–83.1;while 16% of those students had a mesoprosopic (ovoid) facein which their facial indices 85.3–89.5.The Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient wasused for all relationships and the results revealed that there wasa significant correlation between CARCD and mouth width inmales with leptoprosopic face while in those with mesoprosopicface the CARCD was significantly correlated with bothmouth and interzygomatic widths but with higher correlationcoefficient value being with mouth width, the maxillary centralincisor width was significantly correlated with both innercanthal distance and philtrum width of upper lip but with highercorrelation coefficient value being with first one. In femaleswith leptoprosopic face, the CARCD had a high significantcorrelation coefficient with inner canthal distance; while inthose with mesoprosopic face the maxillary central incisorwidth was significantly correlated with interzygomatic distancewhile the other correlations in different types of face form forboth sexes were found to be in low magnitude and were notsignificant.On the above mentioned results, this study demonstratedthat certain horizontal facial parameters could be used as aguide in maxillary anterior denture teeth selection to achievethe best esthetic result in each type of face form in both sexes


Article
Estimation of Different Facial Landmarks as a Guide in Intercanine Distance Determination (Clinical Study)

Author: Nagham H Kassab
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2013 Volume: 13 Issue: 26 Pages: 305-308
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims:To evaluate the relationship between some of facial parameters including [(alae of nose, mouth, philtrum of upper lip) widths with interzygomatic distance] and straight maxillary intercanine distance for clinical application advantage. Materials and Methods: In this clinical study, (140) dental students in College of Dentistry/University of Mosul were examined and their facial and dental measurements were taken directly from each student by using an electronic digital vernier caliper. The data were collected and analyzed with computer to determine the correlation between the studied factors.Result: The results of this study demonstrated that all the measured parameters were larger in males than females which being statistically different between the two sexes and the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient test revealed that non of the facial parameters were measured had a significant correlation with straight maxillary intercanine cusp tips distance in females, while both of interzygomatic distance and philtrum width of upper lip had a significant correlation with straight maxillary intercanine cusp tips distance in males which they could be used to determine this distance for replacement of maxillary anterior teeth in males. Conclusion: Depending on previously mentioned results the straight maxillary intercanine distance was equal to interzygomatic distance divided by a factor of( 3.3), while multiplying the width of the philtrum of upper lip with a factor of ( 2.75) gives us an estimation of the straight maxillary intercanine cusp tips distance.


Article
Correlation of Vertical Dimensions of Soft Tissue Facial Profiles

Authors: Nagham H Kassab --- Afrah Kh Al–Hamdany
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2010 Volume: 10 Issue: 20 Pages: 243-253
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To establish the interrelationships of linear measurements of the vertical facial heights among dif-ferent facial profiles in young Iraqi adult students. Materials and Methods: 75 students (48 males, 27females) of pleasing face, balanced facial profile were selected from the College of Dentistry, University of Mosul. For each subject seven vertical linear measurements{ Anterior facial height (n–gn), upper facial third, frontal third (tr–n ), middle facial third, nasal third (n–sn), lower facial third, gnathic third, (sn–gn), rest vertical dimension (RVD)(pn–pog), occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) (pn–pog) and angle of soft tissue profile facial convexity excluding the nose (n–sn–pog)} were measured directly on the subject’s face under standarized conditions keeping Frankfort plane parallel to floor, using electronic digital vernier cali-per (China). Results: sn–me, n–sn and free way space are significantly larger, while pn–pog (OVD) is sig-nificantly smaller in concave facial profiles (p≤ 0.05) indicating that the lower and middle facial thirds are responsible for the greater anterior facial height in these subjects compared with other facial profiles' sub-jects. The remaining variables distributed on statistical levels of difference between the upper and lower levels with non–significant difference (p>0.05) within facial profiles. Various correlations were noticed among all the studied variables for total sample, males and females and in different facial profiles. Of most important, is the positive significantly high correlation of pn–pog (OVD) and pn–pog (RVD) with n–me, sn–me for convex and straight profiles. Conclusions: From this study ,spatial relationships among various vertical facial dimensions and the dimensional proportions of different facial profiles in young Iraqi adult students were noticed.

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Article
Gagging: A problem in prosthetic dentistry and its medical treatment

Authors: Nagham H Kassab --- Maha T Al–Saffar
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2005 Volume: 5 Issue: 10 Pages: 168-173
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

This study was designed to diagnose and treat patientshaving gagging reflex whom need prosthetic treatment; patientsin this study were wearing denture or received new one;those attending Prosthodontic Department/ College of Dentistry/University of Mosul.The sample of this study was 243 patients consisting of167 males and 76 females and their ages ranged between 22–79 years old. All of them had either single upper, partial orcomplete denture excluding from this study all patients whodid not have denture before, because this study directed towardprosthetic patients only.A sample, which consists of 243 patients, was dividedinto two main groups according to their response to gag reflex.The first one represented the control group which consistedof 200 patients, those did not have gagging reflex problemwhile the second group which represented those patients whothey suffer from gagging problem when they are wearing orduring denture insertion and consisted of 43 patients: Eachone of them subdivided furthermore into subgroups accordingto patient’s medical health status and sex. The second group(gagging patient) subdivided furthermore into 3 subgroupsaccording to severity of gag reflex in which according to that,treatment plan had been made and it consisted of psychologicaltreatment only for patients with mild and moderate gaggingand medical and psychological treatment for patients withsevere gagging reflex which include metoclopromide and valium2.The result of this study demonstrated that those patientswith severe gagging reflex problem reflect difficulties duringprosthetic treatment which required medical and psychologicaltreatment, which include reassurance of patient with explanationof steps of prosthetic treatment plan to reduce fear andanxiety before any prosthesis construction and the responseof those patients to medical treatment was approximately58.3% to this treatment and it was concluded that any type ofprosthetic treatment in patients with gagging reflex requiredmedical and psychological treatment plan.


Article
Neomycin sulfate: A new antifungal and antiadherent agent against Candida albicans cells on heat–cured acrylic resin denture base material. An in vitro study

Authors: Ghada Y Abdul–Rahman --- Nagham H Kassab
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2003 Volume: 3 Issue: 6 Pages: 139-142
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Neomycin sulfate is an antibacterial agent. In this research, the antifungal and antiadherent effect of neomycin sulfate on Candida albicans that colonize the heatcured acrylic resin denture base material was evaluated. The results showed a significant effect compared with the control group. This effect is similar to the effect of the known antifungal agents (fluconazol and chlorhexidine) and lesser than (nystatin).


Article
Antifungal Effect: Comparison of Commercial Denture Cleansers and Microwave Energy

Authors: Radhwan H Hasan --- Eman A Mustafa --- Nagham H Kassab
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2009 Volume: 9 Issue: 17 Pages: 24-31
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

and comparing this with microwave sterilization technique on heat cured acrylic resin denture base
material which was cured by two different techniques. Materials and Methods: thirty two samples of
heat cured acrylic resin denture base material had been used, half of them was cured by conventional
water bath technique, and the other half by microwave technique. A simple method to measure Candida
biofilm activity using pH change of Stomastat. Modified Sabouraud broth developed and used to evaluate
the efficacy of the following denture cleansers: Chlorhexidine 0.2% and sodium hypochlorite
0.5%, and microwave sterilization on Candida albicans biofilm. The initial number of yeasts inoculated
was correlated with pH value of Stomastat after 24 hours incubation period. Results: The acrylic
resin samples that cured by conventional water bath technique were most effectively disinfected by
chlorhexidine 0.2%. This demonstrated by increasing the pH value of Stomastat significantly than the
control group. The same result was obtained with those samples which were cured by microwave oven.
The initial number of Candida albicans cells in Stomastat was significantly decreased than the control
group after treatment of acrylic samples with denture cleansers and microwave sterilization technique,
while for those samples that cured by microwave technique the least number was obtained after treatment
with chlorhexidine 0.2%. Conclusion: Both of chlorhexidine 0.2% and sodium hypochlorite
0.5% and microwave technique had the ability to disinfect acrylic samples that cured by water bath and
microwave techniques effectively. However, chlorhexidine 0.2% was the most effective one.

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Article
The ability of different curcumine sol-utions on reducing Candida albicans bio-film activity on acrylic resin denture base material

Authors: Maha T. Al–Saffar --- Eman A. Mustafa --- Nagham H. Kassab
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2007 Volume: 7 Issue: 13 Pages: 32-37
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To measure candidal biofilm activity using pH changes of stomastat, to evaluate the effect of different types of curcumine solution on Candida albicans biofilm that attached on acrylic resin denture base material (A.R.D.B.M.) and the correlation of initial number of yeasts inoculated with the pH value of stomastat after 24 hours incubation period. Materials and Methods: In general, the number of acrylic resin samples that had been used in this study was 20 samples. Curcumine solution had been dissolved in three different solvents, those were ethanol, viscous (glycerine), and sterile distilled water, while cholrhexidine (CHX) alone used as a control negative and distilled water used as a control positive. The diameter of inhibition zone for the different curcumine solution had been measured and compared with control (–ve, and +ve); the biofilm activity of Candida albicans on A.R.D.B.M. was measured by a new method using pH change of stomastat. Results: Demonstrated that the ability of curcumine solution to decrease fungal biofilm activity on A.R.D.B.M varied depending upon the type of solvent in which the solution had been dissolved, and ethanolic solution (50%) was the most effective in reducing biofilm activity of C. albicans on A.R.D.B.M. when compared with CHX solution which is the most commercially used solution as denture cleanser. Conclusion: The ethanolic solution of Curcumine can be used in prosthetic dentistry as a new denture cleansing agent.


Article
The effect of some antifungal agents and chlorhexidine on Candida albicans adherence on acrylic resin denture base surface (In vitro study)

Authors: Nagham H Kassab --- Ghada Y Abdul–Rahman --- Tariq Y Kassab–Bashi
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2004 Volume: 4 Issue: 7 Pages: 65-72
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The adherence of Candida albicans on acrylic resin denture base surface is considered as the first step in the pathogenicity of candida–associated denture stomatitis which is the most prevalent form of oral candidiasis in denture wearers. This study was an in vitro study aimed to evaluate the anifungal effect of fluconazole, nystatin and chlorhexidine and their antiadherent effect on Candida albicans cells that attached on the fitting surface of denture base. It was determined, using broth microdilution method at two concentrations for each drug, and the results were determined using spectrophotometer. All drugs had a highly significant antifungal effect on Candida albicans isolate at their two concentrations. The effect of saliva on the adherence of Candida albicans on the fitting surface of denture base was also considered. This study concluded the importance of saliva in increasing the microbial adherence; i.e., the mean number of adherent cells on acrylic resin samples in the absence of saliva was 7.4 + 1.9 cell/mm2 and with the presence of saliva the number was 29.1 + 2.7 cells/mm2. The number of remaining adherent cells was counted using fluortescent microscope. The mean number of remaining cells which adhered on acrylic resin samples after the immersion in first concentration fluconazole, nystatin and chlor-hexidine for one hour respectively were 4, 5 and 2.6 cells/mm2 and for the second concentration/1 hour the numbers were 3.2, 4.1 and 1.7 cells/mm2 compared to the normal number of adherent cell 29.1 + 2.7 at p<0.01.

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