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Geographical distribution of the snakes of Iraq

Authors: Israa Nadhim Habeeb --- Nasrullah Rastegar-Pouyani
Journal: Mesopotamia Environmental Journal بيئة وادي الرافدين ISSN: 24102598 Year: 2016 Volume: 2 Issue: 3 Pages: 67-77
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

In this research the distribution of snakes in Iraq were investigated,by reviewing the old and new data as well as carrying out field work and study of material in the Natural history Museum of Iraq, as well as, many departments and colleges in various universities are discussed. Further more, various relevant websites in the Internet that are interested with snakes. The whole snake fauna of Iraq (non- venomous, semi –venomous and venomous snake) are considered in this study.In this study, collectively 6 families, 21 genera, and 38 species of the Iraqi snakes have been considered as follows:From non-venomous snakes: 4 families, 12 genera and 23 species; from semi-venomous snakes: 1 family, 3 genera and 7 species; and from venomous snakes: 2 families, 6 genera and 8 species of the snakes were venomous.During this study we found Indotyphlops braminus (Daudin, 1803) in southern regions of Iraq. It is likely that this tiny snake has been displaced via human agency from southern regions to the central regions of Iraq. Another tiny snake, Indotyphlops vermicularis (Merrem, 1820), was also found. This taxon is very close to the specimens collected from western Iran and northeastern Turkey.Eryx jaculus familiaris (Eichwald, 1831) was the only subspecies of this snake found in Iraq. Eryx jayakari (Boulenger, 1888), for the first time in Iraq in the desert Rumaila field in Basra region.Platyceps rogersi (Anderson, 1893) was a rare species in Iraq. It founds in the Rutba border town with Syria. Platyceps rhodorachis (Anderson, 1871) was recorded the first time in Sulaymaniyah. Hemorrhois ravergieri (Menetries, 1832) is one of the rarest species of snakes in Iraq, recorded for the first time in 1929 in the city of Mosul.Spalerosophis microlepis (Jan, 1865) has been newly discovered in areas adjacent to the Zagros Mountains in Sulaimaniya in northern of Iraq and also another record from Erbil. Lytorhynchus diadema kennedyi (Schmidt, 1939) is a rare subspecies occurring in Iraq. Two male specimens found in Iraq for the first time in the city of Qaim border with Syria to the west of Iraq. Eirenis coronelloides (Jan, 1862) was also newly discovered in the northeastern regions of Iraq. Further, Zamenis hohenackeri (Strauch, 1873) is a new record of genus and species for the Iraqi herpetofauna. Subspecies Echis carinatus sochureki (Stemmler,1969) for the first time recorded from Iraq in Al-Basra province (southern Iraq).Since our knowledge on distribution of the snakes in Iraq is scarce, the main aimof this research is to to identify the diversity of snake in Iraq comprehensively and describe their appropriate environments and their distribution.


Article
Recent identification key to Iraqi snakes

Authors: Isrea Nadhim Habeeb --- Nasrullah Rastegar Pouyani
Journal: Mesopotamia Environmental Journal بيئة وادي الرافدين ISSN: 24102598 Year: 2016 Volume: 3 Issue: 1 Pages: 60-74
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Since 1959, Khalaf put up the first taxonomic key for snakes in Iraq. Until now, there are no taxonomic key for snakes in Iraq. Therefore, we have put up a new taxonomic key based on several taxonomic key from previous references  , 1959,  , Leviton et al., 1992,Mohamad, 2011, Afrasiab et al., 2013, Afrasiab and Mohamad , 2014, Amr and Disi, 2011). This keyIs a new reference for Studies and Research, where it lacks a key classification. I found new species found in Iraq such as Eryx jayakari (Boulenger, 1888), Natrix natrix (Pallas, 1814), Spalerosophis microlepis (Jan, 1865), Lytorhynchus diadema kennedyi (Schmidt, 1939), Eirenis coronelloides (Jan, 1862). Zamenis hohenackeri (Strauch, 1873), Malpolon insignitus (Geoffroyde ST- Hilaire, 1809), sub species Macrovipera lebetina obtuse (Dwinubsky, 1832), Genus: Montivipera (Nilson, Tuniyev, Andrén, Orlov, Joger & Herrmann, 1999) and sub species Montivipera raddei kurdistanica (Kucharzewski, 2011), Pseudocerastes persicus (Dumeril, Bibron & Dumerril,1854) Walterinnesia morgani (Mocquard, 1905).

Keywords

key --- snakes --- identification --- families.

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