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IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF SOME CHEMOKINES RECEPTORS IN ATOPIC EPIDERMIS: BEFORE AND AFTER TREATMENT WITH TOPICAL TACROLIMUS–STEROID THERAPY

Authors: Ahmad H. Muhana احمد حاجم مهنا --- Nidhal AM. Mohammed نضال عبد المهيمن محمد
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2011 Volume: 9 Issue: 2 Pages: 152-161
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background: Tacrolimus is an immunosuppressive agent used topically, it has been found to be effective in treating moderate to severe atopic dermatitis without causing the atrophy that might occur with prolonged use of topical corticosteroids. There is a lack of studies on the effect of tacrolimus and steroid Therapy on CCR3 and CCR5 in atopic dermatitis patients.Objective:To assess expression of some chemokine receptors in the epidermis of atopic skin (chronic lesions) and to evaluate any differences in the degree and pattern of epidermal expression before and after topical tacrolimus or steroid therapy.Methods:Twenty five cases of atopic dermatitis before and after treatment by tacrolimus ointment and topical steroids were evaluated immunohistochemically for the epidermal expression pattern and intensity of some chemokine receptors namely CCR3 and CCR5 before and after treatment.Result:CCR5 and CCR3 positive epidermal cells seem to be produced in situ in higher amount before treatment compared with that after treatment. Although these cells are predominantly CCR5+.Conclusions:Enhanced expression of CCR3 and CCR5 on the surface of epidermal keratinocytes may be significant for the determination of atopic reactivity in general and also observed differences in frequencies of these activation markers before and after treatment by topical steroids-tacrolimus therapy.Key words: Atopic dermatitis, CCR3, CCR5, Immunohistochemistry, Tacrolimus


Article
DETERMINATION OF EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS (EBV) DNA LOAD AS A BIOMARKER TO FOLLOW UP EBV RELATED HODGKIN’S AND NON HODGKIN’S LYMPHOMA PATIENTS USING QUANTITATIVE COMPETITIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION TECHNIQUE

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Abstract

Background: The Epstein -Barr virus (EBV) is the first human virus implicated in the carcinogenesis. EBV contributes to the carcinogenesis like Hodgkin's Lymphoma (HL) and Non Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (NHL).Objective: Quantitative Competitive Polymerase Chain Reaction (QC-PCR) and ELISA was used to quantitate the EBV DNA load in blood samples of HL and NHL patients pre and post therapy.Methods: EBV DNA extracted from blood samples of 18 HL and NHL patients pre and post therapy, 9 apparently healthy controls used to quantify the EBV DNA load. Quantitative Competitive Polymerase Chain Reaction (QC-PCR) and ELISA were used to quantify EBV DNA load. Wild EBV DNA (WT) obtained by Transformation of Escherichia coli MM 294 with Wild type (WT) DNA plasmid pGEMBamHI-K.Results: EBV DNA load in controls was found to be 7-1.99 × 103 in HL and NHL patients, while in patients it's ranged from zero to 1.936×109 copy numbers per ml of blood. High EBV load with the range of 10715(1.071×104) to 1936421960 (1.936×109) above cut-off value was detected in 66.7% of HL and 5861(5.86×103)-50118(5.01×104) copies/ml blood in 44.5 % of NHL patients pretherapy. After chemotherapy, 60% of HL patients and 100% of HL patients with high EBV load showed significant response. Low viral load was found in 44.45% of patients. Only 55% of lymphoma patients with high EBV load, after chemotherapy 16.6% of them continue to have high EBV DNA load compared to the control group, 38.3% of the patients showed response to chemotherapy when their viral load decreased below cut off value. While 11.1 % continue to have high DNA load. One patient (5.5%) showed an elevated EBV load after completion of chemotherapy.Conclusions: EBV DNA load estimated by Quantitative Competitive Polymerase Chain Reaction considered as valuable promising tumor biomarker in the diagnosis and monitoring of EBV related HL and NHL patients.Key words: Quantitative Competitive Polymerase Chain Reaction (QC-PCR), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Viral DNA load, Hodgkin’s (HL) and non Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (NHL) Patients.


Article
NEUTROPHIL ACTIVATION THROUGH THE EXPRESSION OF CD11a, CD11b AND CD11c AND ITS ROLE WITH COMPLEMENT C3 AND C4 LEVELS IN PATIENTS WITH PRE-ECLAMPCIA

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Abstract

BackgroundThe leukocyte integrin that plays a major role in neutrophil activities is CD11b. In addition to mediating neutrophil adherence to endothelial cells, CD11b binds to the complement component iC3b and directs phagocytosis and intracellular lysis of microorganisms.ObjectiveTo determine whether neutrophil activation, through the increased surface expression of the cell surface markers CD11a, CD11b, CD11c have a correlation with the values of complement components C3 and C4 in pregnant women with pre-eclampsia.MethodsThis study was conducted at the AlKadhemiya Teaching Hospital. Patients were 60 pregnant women in labour subdivided into three groups:Group A: 20 pregnant women with severe pre-eclampsia.Group B: 20 pregnant women with mild-moderate pre-eclampsia.Group C: 20 normotensive pregnant women (control group).We performed the following laboratory measurements for all groups: total white blood cell WBC count, cell surface expression of CD11a, CD11b, CD11c by direct immunofluorescent technique, and serum complement C3 and C4 levels by radioimmunodiffusion method (RID).ResultsThere was a significant difference in neutrophil activation as detected by the cell surface expression of CD11a, CD11b, CD11c being higher in the pre-eclamptic group than the control group. The incidence of neutrophil activation was significantly higher among patients in group A compared to the other groups. There was a significant difference in the serum level of C3 and C4 in the pre-eclamptic group being higher in group A and B than group C.ConclusionsNo correlation was found between the markers of neutrophil activation (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) and the serum levels of (C3, C4) in the pre-eclamptic group. The incidence of adverse maternal and neonatal outcome is significantly higher among patients in group A compared to the other two groups.Key wordsPreeclampsia, complement serum level, CD11a, CD11b, CD11C, neutrophil.


Article
CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS AND RECURRENT SPONTANEOUS ABORTION IN IRAQI PREGNANT WOMEN

Authors: Farouk K Hasan فاروق خالد حسن --- Amal H Salman أمال حسين سلمان --- Nidhal AM Mohammed نضال عبد المهيمن محمد
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2012 Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 42-46
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

BackgroundCertain infectious agents have been identified more frequently in cultures from women who have had a spontaneous pregnancy loss; these include Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis, and Chlamydia.ObjectiveThe aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among women who experienced recurrent spontaneous abortion.MethodsA total of 119 women, age ranged from 23.9−28.5 years were enrolled in the current study and were classified into: Group A- Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA): n= 62 women, with a mean age of (28.5±0.68); Group B- non- recurrent spontaneous abortion (non-RSA): n= 34 women, with a mean age of (26.4±0.85) and group C- Control (successful pregnancy): n= 23 women, with a mean age of (23.9±0.88). From each patient and control blood and urine samples were collected. Urinalysis test strips including Leukocytes esterase in urine was done, and estimation of IgM levels against Chlamydia trachomatis in sera of patients was done using ELISA method.ResultsBased on ELISA screening assay, results showed a significant difference in the level of circulating C.trachomatis specific IgM antibody between group A and group C (p< 0.05) as well as between group B and group C (p< 0.01). Also highly significant positive correlation (r=0.401, p<0.001) between C.trachomatis acute infection and urine level of leukocyte esterase.ConclusionC.trachomatis infection is an important causative agent of miscarriages in women. C.trachomatis infection diagnostic procedures should be considered in screening tests during pregnancy.Key wordsChlamydia trachomatis, RSA, ELISA, Leukocytes esterase

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