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Article
The multi-detector computed tomographical analysis of bone density in impacted maxillary canines

Authors: Nidhal H. Ghaib نضال حسين غايب --- Nadia B. Al-Ansari
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 3 Pages: 165-167
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Maxillary canines are important aesthetically and functionally, but impacted canines are more difficultand time consuming to treat, the aim of this study is to investigate with multi-detector computed tomography thecorrelation between the bone density and the upper canine impaction.Material and method: A sample of Unilaterally impacted maxillary canines from 24 patients (19 female, 5 male) whowere referred to accurately localize the impacted canines at al- Karkh general hospital were evaluated by avolumetric 3-d images by the multi-detector computed tomography to accurately measure the bone density of themaxillary cortical palate of the maxillary impacted canine side and compare it with the other side of the normallyerupted canine.Results: The statistical descriptive analysis showed that the ratio of the maxillary canine impaction was higher infemales than in males, also the it revealed that the mean bone density of the cortical bone was greater in themaxillary impacted canine side (affected side) than in the control side (the side of the normally erupted canine), theWilcoxon signed ranks test showed a significant difference in the mean bone density between the affected side andthe control side.Conclusions: The increased bone density of the maxillary cortical plate could be an obstructive factor that causemaxillary canine impaction


Article
Effect of orthodontic tooth movement on salivary levels of Interleukin-1beta, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha, and Creactive protein

Authors: Noor Saadi --- Nidhal H. Ghaib نضال حسين غايب
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 4 Pages: 120-125
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Orthodontic force is considered to stimulate cells in the periodontium to release many mediators suchas cytokines which play a responsible role for periodontal and alveolar bone remodeling, bone resorption and newbone deposition. Aim of this study was carried out to estimate changes of the (interleukin-one beta, tumor necrosisfactor – alpha and C-reactive protein) levels in unstimulated whole saliva during the leveling stage of orthodontictooth movement.Materials and methods: The sample consisted of thirty adult patients (12 males and 18 females) with ages ranges (19-23) years. Each sample had Class I and Class II malocclusion dental classification and required bilateral extraction oftheir maxillary first premolars, underwent a session of professional oral hygiene and received oral hygiene instructionsbefore and during the period of study, one month later fixed orthodontic appliance were placed in the upper archby using 0.014 nickel titanium arch wire. The unstimulated whole saliva was taken from each sample immediatelybefore placement of the appliance (baseline), and at (after1hour, after one week and after two week) followingplacement of the fixed orthodontic appliance. In addition the plaque index and gingival index were recordedduring the interval periods of this study to assess oral cleanliness. The interleukin – one beta and tumor necrosis factoralphawere determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, while the C-reactive protein was determined bylatex agglutination.Results: The results of the present study found the mean value of both salivary (interleukin-one beta and tumornecrosis factor -alpha) were highest at (after1hour) followed by at (after one week) then at (after two week) thanthe baseline with highly statistical significant differences (P< 0.01) among males, females and total samples, inaddition there were no statistical significant differences between males and females (P>0.05). While the mean valuesof C-reactive protein were higher at (after 1hour) only with highly significant differences (P< 0.01) among femalesand total samples while only significant difference (P<0.05) for males, in addition there were no statistical significantdifferences between males and females. Regarding the correlation between salivary (interleukin – one beta andtumor necrosis factor -alpha), there were positive correlation between them at all periods of study. Moreover therewere positive correlation between salivary (interleukin – one beta and tumor necrosis factor -alpha) and salivary Creactiveprotein. On the other hand there were no association between the salivary (interleukin – one beta andtumor necrosis factor -alpha and C-reactive protein) and clinical parameter (plaque index and gingival index).Conclusion: From this clinical study we conclude that orthodontic force induces increasing the levels of (interleukin –one beta, tumor necrosis factor -alpha, C-reactive protein) in unstimulated whole saliva during orthodontic toothmovement.


Article
Color Stability of Different Aesthetic Archwires (An In vitro study)

Authors: Zainab Th. Noori --- Nidhal H. Ghaib نضال حسين غايب
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2016 Volume: 28 Issue: 1 Pages: 164-168
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Coated aesthetic archwires are currently the existing solutions for the esthetic problem, but the color ofthese archwires tends to change overtime. This study was aimed to evaluate the color stability of different types ofesthetic archwires from four different companies at different time periods after immersion of two different stainingdrinks which are tea and Pepsi cola.Materials and methods: 48 specimens were prepared, each specimen contains 10 aesthetic archwires; and weredivided according to type of solution into two groups: A (tea) &B (Pepsi cola); each group contained 24 specimens(12 specimens were immersed in the staining solution as 4 specimens for each time intervals and 12 specimens wereimmersed in distilled water as control group). Each subgroup contains one specimen from each company. Colormeasurements were performed by means of a computed spectrophotometer according to the CommissionInternationale de I’Eclairage L*a*b* system, and color changes (ΔE*) and National Bureau of Standards units.Results: Both staining solution caused color change in variable degree and the higher amount of color instability wasfound for the archwires from the Hubit Company while the least amount of color change was for the archwires fromthe Orthotechnology Company.Conclusion: The tea caused highly significant change on the aesthetic archwires which is higher than the effect ofthe Pepsi cola


Article
Assessment of mandibular third molar position by using computed tomography and reconstructed lateral radiograph

Authors: Istabraq M. Mohamed --- Nidhal H. Ghaib نضال حسين غايب
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2017 Volume: 29 Issue: 2 Pages: 104-107
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Consideration of mandibular third molar is important from orthodontic perspective due to severalfactors such as, lower anterior arch crowding, relapse in lower anterior region, interference with uprighting ofmandibular first and second molars during anchorage preparation and molar distalization. The aims of this studywere to assess of gender differences in the mandibular third molar position and compare and evaluate whetherthere is any differences in the results provided by CT scan and lateral reconstructed radiograph.Materials and Methods: The sample of present study consisted of 39 patients (18 males and 21 females) with agerange 11-15 years. CT images for patients who were attending at Al Suwayra General Hospital/the ComputerizedTomography department. Computed tomographic images were obtained for The distance from Xi point to distalsurface of permanent mandibular second molar was measured in both three dimensional volumetric images andtwo dimensional CT derived lateral image. The statistical analyses included: means, standard deviations. Paired t-testwas used to compare between the two methods and independent t-test was used in verifying the gendersdifference.Results: The results showed that there was high significant method difference between 3D CT and 2D image andgender differences was observed in values of linear measurements of present study, as males showed higher meanvalues than females.Conclusion: There is high accuracy of measurement on CT images, so CT scan is advisable during the diagnosis andtreatment plan of orthodontic cases


Article
The Effect of Artificial Saliva on The Surface Roughness of Different Esthetic Archwires (An in Vitro Study)

Authors: NoorS. Muayad --- Nidhal H. Ghaib نضال حسين غايب
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2017 Volume: 29 Issue: 3 Pages: 106-112
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background:The demand for esthetic orthodontic appliances is increasing so that the esthetic orthodontic archwires were introduced. This in vitro study was designed to evaluate the surface roughness of fiber-reinforced polymer composite (FRPC) archwires compared to coated nickel-titanium (NiTi) archwires immersed in artificial saliva.Materials and Methods:Three types of esthetic orthodontic archwires were used: FRPC (Dentaurum), Teflon coated NiTi (Dentaurum) and epoxy coated NiTi (Orthotechnology). They were round (0.018 inch) in cross section and cut into pieces of 15 mm in length.Forty pieces from each type were divided into four groups; one group was left dry condition and the other three groups were immersed in artificial saliva (pH=6.75 ± 0.015) at 37ºC for 1, 14 and 28 days intervals. The AFM was used to evaluatesurface analysis of all samples.ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, LSD and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to identify and localize the source of differences among the groups.Results:At each immersion period, FRPC wires exhibited the highest Ra among the study groups, except at 28 days immersion period where the Teflon coatings were the roughest. On the other hand, the least rough surfaces were the epoxy coatings when compared to analogous esthetic archwires, except at 1 day immersion period where the Teflon coatings had the least roughness. However, statistically non-significant differences were found between Teflon and epoxy at the dry condition and the 1 day immersion.Conclusions:The epoxy coated archwires were the best and the most appropriate esthetic orthodontic alignment archwires in term of the least surface roughness initially and over the course of study period


Article
Stimulation of rabbit condyle growth by using pulsed therapeutic ultrasound (A radiographical and histological experimental study)

Authors: Mustafa A.Qaisi مصطفى القيسي --- Nidhal H. Ghaib نضال حسين غايب
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 2 Pages: 137-143
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Backgrounds: Many difficulties faced the orthodontic clinician during treatment of class II malocclusion cases in thepreadolescence period in which treatment is done by growth modification of condyle , these difficulties are due tothe poor cooperation of the patients with the myofunctional appliances. The present research was carried out toevaluate the effect of Low Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound application on mandibular condyle of rabbit radiographicallyand histologically to evaluate the use of low intensity pulsed ultrasound in condyle growth modification in thetreatment of skeletal class II malocclusions in the growth period.Materials and Methods: The sample was 15 New Zealand male rabbits in which Therapeutic Ultrasound was appliedto the left condyle (treated group) for 28 days while the right condyle was without ultrasound application (controlledgroup), After animal sacrifying , the rabbit mandibles were dissected into two hemi mandible, left (treated) andright (control), radiographic image for each hemi mandible was done and three linear measurements were made,(Ramus height, condylar height and mandibular height). Then these hemi mandibles examined histologicallyincluding calculating chondrocyte number, osteocyte number, cartilage area calculation and subchondral bonearea measurements.Results: the results showed: The increasing of all linear measurements as a result of enhancement of chondrocytes,osteocytes, increase of cartilage area and bone area in the treated group. There is significant correlation betweenall linear measurements and chondrocyte and cartilage area.Conclusion: low intensity pulsed ultrasound can accelerate condyle cartilage growth


Article
Evaluation of frictional forces generated by different brackets and orthodontic wires

Authors: Khulood A. Almakhzomi خلود المخزومي --- Nidhal H. Ghaib نضال حسين غايب
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: special issue 1 Pages: 126-131
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Sliding mechanics is widely used during orthodontic treatment. One of the disadvantages of thismechanics is the friction generated at the bracket/archwire interface, which may reduce the amount of desiredorthodontic movement obtained. The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the staticfrictional forces produced by two passive self-ligating brackets stainless-steel and hybrid and two conventionalbrackets stainless-steel and monocrystal ligated with stainless-steel ligature wire at two degrees of torque(zero andtwenty) under dry condition.Materials and method: One hundred and sixty brackets were used in this study divided into four groups each groupconsisted of forty brackets these are: Two self-ligating (stainless-steel and Hybrid) while the two conventional typesare the (stainless-steel and monocrystal).twenty of each group examined with 0.016"x0.022"archwire, ten at 0˚ torqueand ten at 20˚ torque while the other twenty of each group examined with 0.019"x0.025", ten at 0˚ torque and ten at20˚ torque.Results: There was a significant different between all groups except in case when self-ligating brackets (both types)ligated to both wires at 0˚torque there was no significant difference.Conclusions: The self- ligating brackets produce significantly lower static friction than the conventional types at bothdegrees of torque. There was no significant different between both self-ligating brackets at0˚torque while at 20˚torque the stainless- steel self –ligating produce lower static friction than the clear self-ligating type

Keywords

static --- friction --- self-ligating --- conventional --- torque


Article
Evaluation of Mandibular Third Molar Position by Using Space-Width Ratio Method

Authors: Istabraq M. Mohamed استبرق محمد --- Nidhal H. Ghaib نضال حسين غايب
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2016 Volume: 28 Issue: 4 Pages: 168-171
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The prediction of changes in the mandibular third molar position and eruption is an important clinical concern because third molar retention may be beneficial for orthodontic anchorage. The aims of this study were to assess the mandibular third molar position by using medical CT scan and lateral reconstructed radiograph and evaluate gender differences.Materials and Methods: The sample of present study consisted of 39 patients (18 males and 21 females) with age range 11-15 years who were attending at Al-Suwayra General Hospital/ the Computerized Tomography department. The distance from anterior edge of ramus to distal surface of permanent mandibular second molar and mesio-distal width of developing mandibular third molar were measured in both three dimensional volumetric and two dimensional CT derived lateral images. The statistical analyses included: means, standard deviations. Paired t-test was used to compare between the two methods and independent t-test was used in verifying the genders difference.Results: The results showed that there was high significant method difference between 3D CT and 2D image and gender differences were observed in values of linear measurements of present study, as males showed higher mean values than females.Conclusion: There is high accuracy of measurement on CT images, so C.T. scan is advisable during the diagnosis and treatment plan of orthodontic cases


Article
Effect of different staining materials on color stability of sapphire brackets bonded with different types of light cure orthodontic adhesives (An in vitro study)

Authors: Alaa Faleh Albo Hassan الاء فالح البوحسن --- Nidhal H. Ghaib نضال حسين غايب
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 2 Pages: 136-141
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The demand for better esthetic during orthodontic treatment has increased nowadays, so orthodontistsstarting using esthetic arch wires, brackets and ligatures.Tooth colored brackets were introduced in different types ofmaterials. Sapphire ceramic brackets are one type of esthetic brackets and their color stability remains the mainconcern for the clinicians and patients at the same time .The present study design to evaluate the effect of three different staining materials (pepsi, black tea and cigarettesmoke) on the stainability of sapphire ceramic brackets bonded with three types of light cure orthodontic adhesiveswhich include: Resilience, Enlight and Transbond.Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of three hundred sixty sapphire brackets. The brackets were dividedaccording to bonding materials into three groups each group consist of one hundred twenty brackets, then eachsubgroup farther subdivided into four groups according to the material they were immersed (distilled water, blacktea, Pepsi and cigarette smoke) with thirty brackets each, then Each group with ten brackets farther subdividedaccording to time interval of immersion in each media into three groups one day, seven days and fourteen days at37°C in the incubator.A UV-Visible spectrophotometer (Shimadzu, UV -1800) was used to perform a light absorptiontest.Results: ANOVA and LSD post Hoc tests were used to identify the significant effects of the staining materials at asignificance level P ≤ 0.05.It was found that the immersion time gradually influenced the color stability of the adhesivematerials with sapphire brackets with the highest activity observed at fourteen days interval. The brackets bondedwith Resilience light cure adhesive are the most type affected by staining materials, then followed by the bracketsbonded with Transbond and finally the brackets bonded with Enlight light cure adhesive. For the staining materials itwas found that the cigarette smoke is the most powerful staining material, followed by tea and finally pepsi.Conclusions: From the above result we can conclude that the type of adhesive must take in consideration when theesthetic brackets have been used


Article
Color Stability of Different Aesthetic Arch-wires after Immersion into Different Types of Mouthwashes (In Vitro Study)

Authors: Lubna Maky Hussein لبنى مكي حسين --- Nidhal H. Ghaib نضال حسين غايب
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2017 Volume: 29 Issue: 3 Pages: 100-105
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Because of the demands for aesthetic orthodontic appliances have increased, aesthetic archwires have been widely used to meet patient's aesthetic needs. The color stability of aesthetic archwires is clinically important, any staining or discoloration will affect patient’s acceptance and satisfaction. This study was designed to evaluate the color stability of different types of aesthetic archwires after immersion into different types of mouth washes.Materials and methods: Four brands of nickel titanium coated aesthetic arch wires: Epoxy coated (Orthotechnology and G&H) and Teflon coated (Dany and Hubit) were evaluated after 1 week, 3 weeks and 6 weeks of immersion into two types of mouthwashes (Listerine with alcohol and Listerine without alcohol). Color change measurements were performed by using spectrophotometer VITA Easyshade Compact according to the commission Internationale de I’Eclairage L*a*b* color space system.Results: The results of this study showed that there were highly significant differences in color change values among all brands of aesthetic archwires at various immersion media. On the other hand, a significant difference was found between Dany and Orthotechnology aesthetic archwires at 1 week immersion in distilled water. Listerine with alcohol mouthwash produced more color changes of aesthetic archwires and color change value increases with the time of immersion.Conclusions: All brands of aesthetic archwires showed different degrees of color changes but most of these changes were not visible or clinically acceptable

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