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A trade union movement in Britain
الحركة العمالية والنقابية في بريطانيا (دراسة تاريخية)

Author: Noor Saadi نور سعدي عيسى
Journal: Journal of College of Education for Women مجلة كلية التربية للبنات ISSN: Print ISSN 16808738 /E ISSN: 2663547X Year: 2015 Volume: 26 Issue: 1 Pages: 307-319
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Labor movement is considered important in Britain because it is an international phenomenon of the feudal system and one of the flowerings of the era of the capitalist machine. At the beginning of the 18th century, the world witnessed a change and progress in many aspects of the industrial fields such as the different means of production .this era is called the industrial revolution which especially appeared in Britain and extended to other areas of the world .it leads to many changes in Europe and participated in different economic, political and cultural and social fields. and it has a very important role in progress and development but its disadvantage is that it is exploited by the capitalists to achieve their special rights .in other words ,it enables them to have power over the labors who have suffered poverty ,destitution and unemployment .as a result ,many thinkers ,intellectuals and labor leaders appear to form unions and associations that help to call for the labors right and deliver their voices to the highest levels under the name of " a trade union " .these unions ,associations and trade union are able to work as "a committee to represent workers " .it continues to do political work till it is able to reach the parliament and constitutes an independent party called "workers party " for the labor class in order to continue work for the sake of improving the conditions of the labors.

ملخص هذا البحث ان الحركة العمالية لها اهمية في بريطانيا بوصفها ظاهرة دولية للنظام الراسمالي المتطور ، وذلك لان الحركة العمالية هي ثمرة من ثمار عصر الاله الراسمالي . اذ عرف العالم مع بداية القرن الثامن عشر تغيرا وتطورا في الميدان الصناعي شمل وسائل الانتاج المختلفة وسمي بالثورة الصناعية التي ظهرت ملامحها الاولى في بريطانيا خاصة ثم امتدت الى مناطق اخرى من العالم اذ ان تلك الثورة ساهمت كثيرا في التغيرات التي حدثت في اوربا وتدخلت في مختلف الميادين الاقتصادية والسياسية والثقافية والاجتماعية وكان لها دور كبير في دفع عجلة التطور الا انها استغلت من طرف الراسماليين الذين مكنتهم من التفوق ماديا فوظفوا نتائجها في تحقيق اطماعهم على حساب الطبقة العاملة التي عانت الكثير من الفقر والعوز والبطالة وادى ازدياد الضغط على افراد الطبقة العاملة الى التفكير بايجاد حلول لتخليصهم من واقعهم المرير ، لذا انبرى عدد من المفكرين والمثقفين وقادة عماليين الى تشكيل اتحادات وجمعيات لتكون الاداة التي من خلالها يمكن ايصال اصواتهم الى اعلى المستويات تحت مظلة النقابات العمالية . وتمكنت تلك الاتحادات والنقابات والجمعيات من التوحيد بما يسمى "لجنة تمثيل العمال" واستمرت بالعمل السياسي حتى استطاعت ان تصل الى البرلمان وتاسس حزب مستقل للطبقة العاملة هو "حزب العمال" الذي ضل يواكب العمل من اجل اصلاح اوضاع العمال.

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Article
Effect of orthodontic tooth movement on salivary levels of Interleukin-1beta, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha, and Creactive protein

Authors: Noor Saadi --- Nidhal H. Ghaib نضال حسين غايب
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 4 Pages: 120-125
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Orthodontic force is considered to stimulate cells in the periodontium to release many mediators suchas cytokines which play a responsible role for periodontal and alveolar bone remodeling, bone resorption and newbone deposition. Aim of this study was carried out to estimate changes of the (interleukin-one beta, tumor necrosisfactor – alpha and C-reactive protein) levels in unstimulated whole saliva during the leveling stage of orthodontictooth movement.Materials and methods: The sample consisted of thirty adult patients (12 males and 18 females) with ages ranges (19-23) years. Each sample had Class I and Class II malocclusion dental classification and required bilateral extraction oftheir maxillary first premolars, underwent a session of professional oral hygiene and received oral hygiene instructionsbefore and during the period of study, one month later fixed orthodontic appliance were placed in the upper archby using 0.014 nickel titanium arch wire. The unstimulated whole saliva was taken from each sample immediatelybefore placement of the appliance (baseline), and at (after1hour, after one week and after two week) followingplacement of the fixed orthodontic appliance. In addition the plaque index and gingival index were recordedduring the interval periods of this study to assess oral cleanliness. The interleukin – one beta and tumor necrosis factoralphawere determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, while the C-reactive protein was determined bylatex agglutination.Results: The results of the present study found the mean value of both salivary (interleukin-one beta and tumornecrosis factor -alpha) were highest at (after1hour) followed by at (after one week) then at (after two week) thanthe baseline with highly statistical significant differences (P< 0.01) among males, females and total samples, inaddition there were no statistical significant differences between males and females (P>0.05). While the mean valuesof C-reactive protein were higher at (after 1hour) only with highly significant differences (P< 0.01) among femalesand total samples while only significant difference (P<0.05) for males, in addition there were no statistical significantdifferences between males and females. Regarding the correlation between salivary (interleukin – one beta andtumor necrosis factor -alpha), there were positive correlation between them at all periods of study. Moreover therewere positive correlation between salivary (interleukin – one beta and tumor necrosis factor -alpha) and salivary Creactiveprotein. On the other hand there were no association between the salivary (interleukin – one beta andtumor necrosis factor -alpha and C-reactive protein) and clinical parameter (plaque index and gingival index).Conclusion: From this clinical study we conclude that orthodontic force induces increasing the levels of (interleukin –one beta, tumor necrosis factor -alpha, C-reactive protein) in unstimulated whole saliva during orthodontic toothmovement.


Article
The Effect of AcceleDent® Device on Both Gingival Health Condition and Levels of Salivary Interleukin-1- βeta and Tumor Necrosis Factors-Alpha in Patients under Fixed Orthodontic Treatment

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Abstract

Background: Traditional orthodontic treatment takes a long time and this may lead to several disadvantages likehigher predisposition to periodontal diseases and dental caries. Recently, many researchers focus on shorterorthodontic treatment time through different methods like the use of: vibration, surgical approach, adjunctivemedicine, laser and others. This study aimed to determine the effect of Acceledent vibration device on the gingivalhealth condition and the changes in levels of salivary IL-1β and TNF- α among patients under fixed orthodonticappliance during orthodontic treatment.Material and Methods: A total of 32 adult patients with an age ranged between 19-23 years were participated in thisstudy. They were divided into two groups: 14 patients under fixed orthodontic appliance with the use of Acceledentvibration device as study group and 18 patients under fixed orthodontic appliance only as control group. All patientswere with Class I and /or Class II malocclusion cases requiring bilateral extraction of their maxillary first premolarteeth, underwent a session of professional oral hygiene and received oral hygiene instructions before and during theperiod of study. The collection of the unstimulated salivary samples from the individuals was performed at differenttimes after placement of the fixed orthodontic appliance; base line (T0), after 1 hour (T1), after one week (T2), aftertwo week (T3). The levels of salivary IL-1β and TNF-α were estimated by using commercially available ELISA kits. Oralcleanliness were determined by using of gingival index (GI) and plaque index (PI).Results: For both study and control groups, results reported that the mean value of salivary IL-1-β (pg/ml) and TNF-α(pg/ml) were highest at T1, followed by T2, then T3 and lowest T0 with highly statistically significant difference(P<0.01).The mean value of both salivary IL-1-β (pg/ml) and TNF-α (pg/ml) among study group were higher thancontrol group at T1, followed by T2, then T3 with statistically significant difference (P<0.05). Among study group only,results of this study recorded a negative direction correlation between both IL-1-β (pg/ml) and TNF-α (pg/ml) andgingivitis at the (T2 and T3) and (T3) with statistically highly significant and significant respectively.Conclusion: The application of Acceledent device play important role in improving the gingival health condition andincreasing the levels of salivary IL-1β and TNF-α secretion among patients under fixed orthodontic appliance incomparison to other under fixed orthodontic appliance

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