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Article
Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Associated Antigen-4 (+49A/G) Gene Polymorphism as a Protective Factor against Toxoplasmosis

Author: Risala Hussain Allami
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2017 Volume: 14 Issue: 2 Pages: 240 -246
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Associated Antigen-4 (CTLA-4) is a key factor in immune regulation. Polymorphisms in CTLA-4 gene may influence the status of this factor and eventually the immune response of host against the infectious agents. This response becomes of particular importance in cases when the pathogen is an opportunistic such as Toxoplasma gondii. This study aimed to explore the effect of CTLA-4+49A/G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on the susceptibility to toxoplasmosis in women. Genomic DNA was isolated from 59 women with toxoplasmosis and aged matched 60 Toxoplasma-free women as controls. Tetra-Primer Amplification Refractory System-Polymerase Chain Reaction (ARMS-PCR) was used for amplification and genotyping of CTLA-4 gene using specific primers. The heterozygous genotype (AG) and G allele of the polymorphism CTLA-4+49A/G were less frequent among cases (17.12% and 16.95% respectively) than controls (40% and 35% respectively) with significant differences (OR=0.379, 95%CI=0.206-0.697, P=0.002). These data strongly suggested the protective role of CTLA-4+49G against toxoplasmosis among Iraqi women.


Article
Amplification of HER-2 Gene in Benign and Malignant Breast Lesions in a Sample of Iraqi Women
تضاعف جين في اورام الثدي الحميدة والخبيثة في عينة من النساء العراقيات

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Abstract

Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer worldwide. From several markers of this malignancy, HER-2 is considered to have a particular importance because it associates with the treatment and prognosis of the disease.Objective: To investigate the amplification of HER-2 gene in benign and malignant lesions of breast in a sample of Iraqi women.Patients and Methods: A total of 24 excisional breast biopsies were obtained from women with breast lesions. Biopsies were preserved in 10% formalin and undergone paraffin embedding according to the standard protocol. Four µm thick sections were prepared and placed on positively charged slide and stained with fluorescent in situ hybridization. The stained slides were examined with fluorescence microscope to detect HER-2 gene amplification.Results: Fourteen women were found to have benign lesions, while 10 were with malignant lesions. All benign lesions revealed two copies of the gene while seven of malignant cases showed positive results for HER-2 amplification (i.e more than 5 copies of the gene).Conclusion: These results support the idea that amplification of HER-2 could be considered as an indicator for tissue transformation into malignant lesion .

خلفية الدراسة: سرطان الثدي هو السرطان الاكثر شيوعا في جميع انحاء العالم. من بين عدة واسمات لهذا المرض يعد HER-2 ذو اهمية خاصة اذ انه يرتبط مع علاج ومآل المرض. اهداف الدراسة: هدفت هذه الدراسة الى استقصاء تضاعف في الاورام الحميدة والخبيثة في عينة من النساء العراقيات.المرضى والطرائق : تم الحصول على ما مجموعه 24 خزعة استئصالية من نساء يعانين من اورام الثدي. حفظت الخزعات بالفورمالين 10% وطمرت بالرافين وفقا للبروتوكول القياسي. تم اعداد مقاطع نسيجية بسمك 4 مايكروم ووضعت على شرائح مشحونة ايجابيا وصبغت بالتهجين الموضعي المتألق ثم فحصت تحت المجهر المتألق للكشف عن تضاعف جين HER-2.النتائج: اظهرت 14 امرأة اورام حميدة مقابل 10 نساء بأورام خبيثة ، وظهر الجين بنسختين في جميع الحالات الحميدة في حين اظهرت 7 حالات خبيثة نتائج ايجابية لتضاعف الجين ( اكثر من 5 نسخ من الجين).الاستنتاجات تدعم هذه النتائج فكرة ان تضاعف جين HER-2 يمكن ان يعد مؤشرا للتحول النسيجي باتجاه الورم الخبيث.

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