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Article
Preparation and Characterization of TiO2 Nanoparticles and its Applications as Antibacterial Agents

Authors: Ghadah R. Kahdim --- Riyad H. AL- Anbari --- Adawiya J. Haider
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2018 Volume: 36 Issue: 10 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 1068-1074
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

TiO2NP’s were synthesis by sol-gel method at different calcination temperatures. The prepared TiO2NP’s were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The antimicrobial activities of the prepared TiO2NP’s were investigative for two kinds of bacteria, (Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterium. XRD results shows that the type of the TiO2 structure was anatase (A) at low temperatures, rutile (R) with rise of calcination temperature (Tc) into 800 ᵒC and mixed phases .SEM demonstrated that the size of nanoparticles seems larger and the accumulations appears clearly with raise calcinations temperature. The optical properties measured by the UV-Vis. Spectroscopy to compute the energy band gap for all phases around (3.75- 3.5 eV) for anatase and (3.4eV) for rutile. TiO2 nanoparticles in both phases showed excellent antibacterial activity against two representative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aurous.


Article
The Use of Photocatalytic Cementitious Coatings to Reduce Nitric Oxide from Ambient Air

Authors: Ayat H. Mahdi --- Riyad H. Al Anbari --- Maan S. Hassan
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2018 Volume: 36 Issue: 1 Part (C) Pages: 17-21
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Titanuim dioxide represents a novel photocatalyst material that can beused in different ways for air pollutants remediation. Air pollutants that arespreaded in the surrounding air could be transferred to more complex materials,especially in the presence of sunlight. To study the possibility for the reduction ofthese pollutants a laboratory tests have been conducted on the coated specimensubstrate by using nitric oxide as pollutant gas, and there efficiency in gasremoval was monitored with time. Two different particle sizes of TiO2 have beenused; micro with particle size range between 150-200 nm and nano PC105 withparticle size 20+ 5 nm, both are 100% anatse. Two coatings methods wereapplied on cementitious substrate material dip and spray to study thephotochemical reaction with TiO2, aqueous solution prepared by dispersing 3g/Lof TiO2 with deionized water and ethanol. Results show that using nano andmicro size TiO2 aqueous solutions were effective in the removal of nitric oxidewith variations in the time consumed for the removal. Using nano aqueoussolution in both dip and spray methods gives the same removal efficiency reachedto 98.85% ,while using micro aqueous solution the removal reached to 98.08%when dip method was used and 87.69% when spray method was used.


Article
AIR POLLUTANTS MITIGATION BY USING VARIOUS FORMS OF PHOTOCATALYTIC CEMENTITIOUS COATINGS MATERIALS

Authors: Ayat Hussein --- Riyad H. Al Anbari --- Maan S. Hassan
Journal: KUFA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING مجلة الكوفة الهندسية ISSN: 25230018 Year: 2019 Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 56-67
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Nitric oxide generated from various sources like car combustion is one of the most surrounding pollutants, which can be transferred from one form to another in the presence of sunlight. Titanium dioxide considered one of the most environmentally friendly active photocatalytics that can be used with building materials safely and effectively to react with nitric oxides.To study the possibility for the reduction of air pollutants like nitric oxides, two types of substrates coatings were prepared. First, mixing nano particles of TiO2 with cement paste in two percents 3% and 6%. Second, mortar substrates coated with nano TiO2 aqueous solution. Two coating methods have been used dip and spray. A laboratory test procedure was adopted to assess the performance of the prepared photoactive specimens. The specimens were subjected to NO gas and there efficiency in gas removal was monitored with time.Results showed the effectivity of coating building materials with titanium dioxide, the removal of gaseous pollutants like nitric oxide reached to 98.85% when spary and dip methods are used. Mixing nano titanium with a percent of 3% was also efficient in the removal of nitric oxides, the removal reached to 97%. It was concluded that spray method was more practical to be used.


Article
Distribution of some Heavy Metals Pollution Caused byAl- Daura Refinery in the Surrounding Region
توزيع التلوث ببعض العناصر الثقيلة الناتجة من انبعاثات مصفى الدورة على المنطقة المحيطة

Authors: Riyad H. AL-Anbari --- Mohammed M. AL-kaissi --- Mohammed A. Al-Ameri
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2013 Volume: 31 Issue: 20 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 422-434
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Due to the higher increase in the oil industry activities in Iraq, since there are a little information of the environmental status of the areas around the refinery locations, and the concerns of a possible environmental pollution that will cause health and life threats to living organisms, this study was carried out.To understand the status of heavy metals pollution in areas inside and surrounding Al-Daura refinery activities, (17) testing locations were chosen, ten locationsoutsidethe refinery and sevenlocationsinside it.One additional location was chosen in a rural (control) area, in the University of Baghdad, to compare between the heavy metals concentration in the study area and a sample from the rural area not affected by the pollution. The soil samples have been taken from (5 and 60 cm) depth from the top surface of the soil. Three samples were taken from each depth for each location to take an average of results.All the samples of soil were taken during the period from Dec/2010 to Feb/2011.The experimental work has been includes the heavy metals concentrations, such as Zinc, Nickel, Lead and Cadmium, have been measured at each selected depth for each testing locations.The results indicate that the mean concentration of Zn and Ni is (62.4 µg/g) and (100.5 µg/g) respectively and this valuesexceeded the mean allowable value by (Alloway, 1995 [2]; Kabata-Pendias and Pendias, 1992 [6]).The most concentrations of Zn, Ni and Pb, with some exceptions, accumulate at the top soil and decrease with the depth except Cd.

بسبب الزيادة الحاصلة في أنشطة الصناعات النفطية في العراق, ولأن المعلومات المتوفرة عن حالة البيئة في المناطق المحيطة بالمصافي, ووجود مخاوف من تلوث بيئي من الممكن ان يهدد صحة وحياة الكائنات الحية, أجريت هذه الدراسة. لفهم حالة التلوث بالمعادن الثقيلة في المنطقة داخل المصفى والمنطقة المحيطة به, تم اختيار (17) موقع للأختبار, اختيرت عشرة مواقع خارج المصفى و سبعة مواقع داخله. وقد تم اختيار موقع آخر من منطقة ريفية تقع في جامعة بغداد للمقارنة بين تركيز العناصر الثقيلة في منطقة الدراسة وهذه العينة التي لم تتأثر بالتلوث. وقد تم أخذ عينات التربة من عمق (5 سم) وعمق (60 سم) من سطح التربة تستخدم في الفحوصات الكيميائية للتربة. أخذت ثلاث عينات من كل عمق لإيجاد معدل النتائج. ان جميع نماذج التربة والنباتات تم جمعها في الفترة الممتدة من كانون الاول/2010 لغاية شباط/2011. العمل الحقلي تضمن قياس تراكيز العناصر الثقيلة, مثل الزنك, النيكل, الرصاص والكادميوم, في كل عمق من مواقع الإختبار المختارة. بينت النتائج بأن معدل تراكيز الزنك والنيكل هي (62,4 µg/g), (100,5 µg/g) عالتوالي وهذه القيم تتجاوز القيم المسموح حسب (Alloway, 1995 [2]; Kabata-Pendias and Pendias, 1992 [6]). ان اغلب تراكيز العناصر الزنك, النيكل , الرصاص (مع بعض الاستثنائات) تتراكم على سطح التربة وتقل مع العمق ماعدا الكادميوم.

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Article
Studies on Characterization of Sawdust for Application in a Gasification Process for Syngas Production

Authors: Abdul Hameed M.J. Al-Obaidy --- Riyad H. Al-Anbari --- Hussein A. Kadhim
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2018 Volume: 36 Issue: 10 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 1022-1026
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Quintessential characteristics of sawdust were investigated in this study as well as to to investigate the ability of reed as a Production of gases via gasification technique by using special gasifier made for this purpose. The physical properties of solid waste results showed that sawdust were suitable for using in production of syngas due to its high volatile matter and cellulose content and low moisture content. The CHNS analysis results showed that high content of hydrogen for sawdust has generated higher amount of syngas heat value, while gravimetric analysis results showed that high cellulose and hemicellulose content gave higher concentration of hydrogen gas. The percentage of production gases was 15.6%, 10.2%, 7.81% and 1.69% for carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and methane respectively. The effect of operation time on composition of syngas was investigated to generate good quality gas from different types of solid waste. The quality of syngas was started decreasing after about 30 min of gasifier operation. Therefore, each full capacity run should be limited to only 30 min until refeeding is required.

Keywords

Gasifire --- Sawdust --- syngas --- biomass materials.


Article
Synthesis of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Decorated with Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles for Removal of Pathogenic Bacterial

Authors: Adawiya J. Haider --- Riyad H. AL- Anbari --- Hayder.A.Mohammed --- Duha.S. Ahmed
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2018 Volume: 36 Issue: 10 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 1075-1080
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

A series of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnONPs)-functionalized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (F-MWCNTs) Nano composites were developed as antibacterial. In this study, chemical oxidation of pristine MWCNTs were carried out with a mixture of strong acids (3H2SO4 98%:1 HNO3 65%).The F-MWCNTs were used as templates to prepare hybrid material like ZnONPs decorated F-MWCNTs. Pristine MWCNTs, F-MWCNTs and (ZnONPs/F-MWCNTs) Nano composites powder were investigated using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Anti-bacterial activity has been carried out using standard agar dilution (plate count) method against Escherichia coli (E. coli). This study demonstrated that (ZnONPs/F-MWCNTs) Nano composite has a powerful bactericidal effect against Escherichia coli (E. coli) at concentration 0.5 mg/ml after 3 hr, which led to speculation that the combination of ZnONPs and F-MWCNTs altered their toxicity and improved antibacterial property of Nano composite.


Article
Potential of Alfalfa for Use in Phytoremediation of Soil Polluted with Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons

Authors: Abdul Hameed M.J. AlObaidy --- Riyad H. Al-Anbari --- Sara M. Hassan
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2018 Volume: 36 Issue: 1 Part (C) Pages: 1-4
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Remediation technology is a promising technique decrease pollutantlike hydrocarbons from the environment. An experimental work was made atgreen house of University of Technology in order to study the effect of crudeoil on the vegetate growth and to measure the decrement which happened onshoot height, germination rate and the reduction of total petroleumhydrocarbon (TPH), which result, by this phytoremediation technique. Thesamples of soil were measured for TPH reduction and removal by Horibamodel (oil content analyzer) OCMA–350. Five doses were used in thisexperiment (0 control, 10x103, 30 x103, 50 x103, 75 x103) (mg crude oil / kgsoil). The polluted soil used in this study appeared to be a harmfulenvironment for alfalfa plants, leading to serious adverse effects on alfalfagermination and growth. Seed germination is known to be a sensitive processaffected by environmental factors like the presence of soil pollutants.

Keywords

Soil --- pollution --- TPH --- phytoremediation --- alfalfa


Article
Studying the Effect of Ambient Temperature on Wastewater Degradation in Simulated SelfPurification Aerated Sewer System

Authors: Tala A. Al-Khateeb --- Riyad H. Al-Anbari --- Kareem K. Al-Jumaili
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2018 Volume: 36 Issue: 1 Part (C) Pages: 5-10
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Designing and operating a simulated gravity sewer system had beenaccomplished in the current research. The design had been provided withaeration system in order to deliver oxygen to microorganisms presented insewage water. The system had been used in three different seasons in order toinvestigate the ambient temperature effect on treating wastewater. The resultsrevealed that ambient temperature had a significant role in organic wastedegradation powered by the presence of air into sewage pipes and level tanks.Maximum degradation measured in terms of chemical oxygen demand removal(RCOD) was recorded to be 14.28 under 30 OC ambient temperature and 8 hr oftreating time. The results recorded from the current system seemed to bepromising in terms of self-purification ability of the transporting sewer system.


Article
RESIDENTIAL WATER DEMAND ANALYSIS IN HILLA

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Abstract

This paper investigates the analysis of residential water demand for the city ofHilla which is the main town in Babylon government in Iraq( Population of about258568 person , living in an area of 55 Km2 according to Central Committee ofStatistics – Babylon Census Directorate -1997) along with determining the factors thataffect such demand for the period from the 1st of January to the end of August -2004. The cross-section data which was weekly observed was collected by a survey made on a sample of randomly chosen dwellings from different districts of the city. A questionnaire survey was also made to collect all necessary informationseemed useful in estimating the daily consumption of domestic water. Demand relations are estimated for total residential, winter, summer, andSprinkling demands. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was employed to find the structuralrelationship between water demand per household per day and householdcharacteristics (factors) for each type of demand. All demand models were fitted in log-linear form. In this survey, the average daily water demand for the city of Hilla wasestimated to be 1721 L/h/d (273.2L/c/d) for total model, 586.13 L/h/d ( 93L/c/d) forwinter model , 2453 L/h/d( 389.4L/c/d) for summer model and 490 L/h/d(77.8L/c/d) forsprinkling model. The most significant factors affecting the demand appear in the fitted equation.Of these factors, household size was found to be significant variable in all demandmodels, while number of washbasins variable was found to be the significant variablein the total, winter, and summer model. The total built –up area of the house andnumber of showers was found to be the significant variables in the total and summermodels.

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