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Article
Evaluation of Orthodontic Treatment Time Using Peer Assessment Rating Index

Author: Saad S Gasgoos
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2011 Volume: 11 Issue: 22 Pages: 275-283
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims of the study: To assess the effect of age, sex, Angle classification, extraction of the teeth and severity of malocclusion on orthodontic treatment duration using Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) index. Materials and Methods: Upper and lower study models of 100 patients (50 males and 50 females) before and after orthodontic treatment with age ranged between 15-25 years old of different types of malocclusion were selected from four private orthodontic clinics in Mosul City according a certain criteria. The data were collected for each patient from their case sheet includes age, gender, PAR index before and after treatment, treatment time in months, extraction cases and the Angle classification of malocclusion. The PAR index was measured according to criteria of Richmond et al, and then Pearson Correlation Coefficient was used among these variables. Results: The percentage of reduction in PAR index was highest in Class I malocclusion (97.2%) followed by Class II (92.2%) and Class III (90%). No significant correlation was observed between the percentage of reduction of PAR index and time of treatment, also no significant correlation was found between patient age and treatment time at this age group (15-25 years), but there was a significant correlation between PAR index before treatment and the treatment time in Class I non extraction, Class II and Class III malocclusion extraction cases. The mean treatment time was 14.44 months for Class I, 16.92 months for Class II, 21.25 months for Class III malocclusion. Conclusions: both treatment duration and cost effectiveness could be clear for patient before starting the treatment when using the PAR index to evaluate the malocclusion severity

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Article
Apical root resorption of maxillary anterior teeth after orthodontic treatment of Class II division 1 occlusion with Roth appliance

Author: Saad S Gasgoos
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2004 Volume: 4 Issue: 8 Pages: 166-172
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of orthodontic treatment on root length (ratios of root length after / before treatment) of the upper anterior teeth after correction of Class II division 1 incisal relation, to evaluate the time of treatment and its effect on root resorption and to show if there is any risk of root resorption in relation to sex. The sample was composed of 25 patients (15 females and 10 males) 15–25 years old age. All patients were treated with 22×30 slot brackets fixed stainless steel Roth system appliances after extraction of bilateral maxillary first premolars. The canines were retracted individually along the base arch wire with power chain elastics that were changed every 1 week, then the four upper incisors were retracted with vertical loops. The results of periapical radiograph measurements before and after treatment indicated that there were a noticeable apical root resorption with blunted irregular apex after the completion of orthodontic treatment. The incisor roots were affected more than the canines. In addition, there were no gender differences in root resorption between males and females (except upper left lateral incisor). The mean treatment time from beginning to end of treatment and obtaining Class I incisal relation was 21.4 months.


Article
The Relation between Type of Ligature and Force Delivered by Orthodontic Arch Wire

Authors: Eman G Mohi-aldin --- Saad S Gasgoos
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2014 Volume: 14 Issue: 28 Pages: 47-51
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

This in vitro study aims to compare the deactivation force, delivered as a result of releasingsuperelastic arch wire from 4 mm to 2.5 mm in horizontal direction at the area of right maxillary canineon standard model of teeth, by using three different methods to ligate the wire to the brackets.MATERIALES AND METHODS: Materials of this study include three sets of Synergy brackets0.022P Px 0.028 inch, molar buccal tubes, thirty arch wire , 0.016 inch round preformed arch superelasticnickel-titanium wires, were divided to three groups according to ligation method, the first group wasligated with preformed steel wire ligatures ,the second group with elastic ligatures as o configurationand in third group with elastic ligature as c configuration. The measurements were completed at roomtemperature of 27±5 in dry media by machine designed by college of mechanics engineering /Mosuluniversity and the results were compared among the three methods of ligation. RESULTS: Significantdifference in deactivation forces (p < 0.05) were observed. C configuration elastic ligatures had thehigher mean of deactivation force (332 gm) than either o configuration or steel wire ligatures (268.5gm), (267.9 gm) respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Decreasing the ligation force by using C configurationelastic ligatures to ligate the wire to Synergy bracket is potentially adequate to use at the beginningof leveling and aligning stage of orthodontics that allow the arch wire to generate its force withoutmore missing due to high friction, as occurred by the use of stainless steel wire ligatures or o configurationelastic ligatures.


Article
The Effect of Thermocycling on Shear Bond Strength of Two Types of Self Etch Primers

Authors: Ra’ed J Sa’id --- Saad S Gasgoos
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2009 Volume: 9 Issue: 18 Pages: 246-253
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To determine the shear bond strength of two types of self–etch primer (Transbond plus 3M Unitek,
USA made and Clearfil, Japan made) when used to bond metal orthodontic brackets to enamel surface
after thermocycling test and water storage for two months and to check the failure site after debonding
using adhesive remnant index. Materials and methods: sixty extracted upper first premolars for
orthodontic reason were used in this study; 30 teeth were bonded with light curing Transbond plus 3M
Unitek and the other 30 teeth were bonded with light curing Clearfil self–etch primers. For both groups,
Dentaurum stainless steel orthodontic brackets were bonded to enamel surface with Transbond XT light
curing composite. Then 10 samples from each groups were tested for shear bond strength after 24 hours,
the other 10 samples from each groups were tested after 500 manual thermocycles between 5°C &55°C,
the third 10 samples of each groups were tested after 500 thermocycles and 2 months water storage at
room temperature. The adhesive remnant index was tested under 10X magnification lens. Results: Both
materials demonstrated a very good shear bond strength before thermocycling (14.5825 MPa for 3M
Unitek & 14.3966 MPa for Clearfil groups). After 500 thermocycles, there were no significant changes in
shear bond strength for both materials (15.0567 MPa for 3M Unitek & 13.997 MPa for Clearfil groups)
and this is clinically acceptable. After 500 thermocycles and two months water storage the shear bond
strength of the 3M/Unitek reduced progressively below the acceptable clinical value (3.469 MPa),
whereas the shear bond strength of Clearfil group still above the acceptable level (10.607 MPa). The tendency
of bond failure at the enamel–adhesive interface was increased after thermocycling and water storage.
Conclusions: this study was done in vitro and further in vivo investigations are needed to evaluate
these 2 materials.

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Article
Cephalometric features of skeletal Class I, II and III (A comparative study)

Authors: Khawla M Awni --- Ne’am R Al – Saleem --- Saad S Gasgoos
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2007 Volume: 7 Issue: 14 Pages: 122-130
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To identify the cephalometric features of three skeletal jaw relations (Class I, II and III).Materials and methods: one hundred thirty four students were selected aged 12–15 years fromsecondary schools in Mosul City, 45 with Class I normal occlusion as control, 44 with Class IImalocclusion and 45 with Class III malocclusion, after taking the lateral cephalometric radiographsaccording to ANB angle. A 20 variables (12 angular and 8 linear) were used in this study to correlatethese variables in the three skeletal Classes. Results: No significant sex differences were observed forthe majority of angular and linear measurements for the three skeletal types. Anterior cranial baselength (S–N) and saddle angle (NSAr) didn’t show significant difference among the three skeletalClasses, the posterior cranial base (S–Ar) was shorter in Class III which indicate the anteriorarticulation of the mandible. The length of maxillary base (ANS–PNS) was longer in Class II thanClass I and III which lead to maxillary prognathism. The body length of the mandible (Go–Pog),effective mandibular length (Ar–Gn) and lower anterior face height was significantly longer inClass III which lead to mandibular prognathism. The SNA angle was significantly smaller in Class IIIthan in the others. SNB and SNPog angles were larger in Class III followed by Class I and then ClassII. The gonial angle (Ar–Go– Me) was larger in Class III which acts to increase mandibular effectivelength. The (N–A–Pog) showed as convex in Class II and concave in Class III. (The U1–PP) angle waslarger in Class II followed by Class I and then by Class III. The (L1–MP) angle in Class II and III wassignificantly smaller than in Class I. Conclusion: Most of the angular and linear measurementsindicated that the skeletal differences between the Class I, Class II and Class III are concentrated within the maxillary and mandibular bases in both the anteroposterior and vertical dimensions and theirtype of articulation. The dental measurements appear to be compensated with that of skeletal one. Alsothese variables showed no significant sex differences in the majority of their measurements


Article
The effect of dental educational level in adults (18–25 years old) with crowded teeth on the plaque and gingival conditions

Authors: Ne’am R Al–Saleem --- Saher S Gasgoos --- Saad S Gasgoos
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2005 Volume: 5 Issue: 10 Pages: 127-131
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationbetween crowding, plaque and gingival conditions accordingto the level of dental education of the Iraqi adults.The sample was divided primarily into two groups: Thefirst group was collected from dental students whom dentallywell educated, while the second group was collected fromother population whom dentally non educated (industrialist).Each group was subdivided into two groups according to thepresence or absence of crowding, so that four groups wereobtained (educated participants with non crowded teeth, educatedpersons with crowded teeth, non educated participantswith non crowded teeth and non educated participants withcrowded teeth).The results of this study indicated that the dental educationallevel is positively affecting on the gingival health in bothcrowded and normal occlusion. However, regardless of thelevel of education, plaque accumulation and gingivitis are significantlyhigher in the crowded teeth sample.

Keywords

Crowding --- gingivitis --- plaque --- socioeconomics

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