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Article
Radioactivity Levels in Some Vegetables and Herbs

Authors: Sahar A. Amin --- Afaf A. Ayoub --- Ali A. Jassim
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2018 Volume: 36 Issue: 2 Part (C) Pages: 174-178
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Evaluation of the amount of radioactivity in plants is essential from theoutlook of health protection, hence assessment of radioactivity levels in manyvegetable and herb samples were estimated. The samples were collected from Iraqilocal markets, were measured. Many parameters such as radon concentration,radium content and uranium concentration in unit of ppm were determined.Average values of Rn level, Ra content and U concentration in pharmaceuticalherbs were 27.7 Bq.m-3, 0.39 Bq.Kg-1 and 0.48 ppm, respectively. While, the meanvalues of radon level, radium content and uranium concentration in vegetableswere 33.89 Bq.m-3, 0.40 Bq.kg-1 and 0.49 ppm, respectively. Ra and Uconcentrations are positively correlated in the studied herbs and vegetablessamples. All values of Ra content were under the allowed world limit, while 80% ofuranium concentration values were above the permissible world value


Article
Radon Concentrations Assessment and Effective Dose Estimation in The Buildings of University of Technology/ Baghdad
تقييم تراكيز الرادون والجرعة الفعالة في مباني الجامعة التكنولوجية- بغداد

Authors: Sahar A. Amin --- Saadi M. D. Al-Nuzal --- Muwafaq H. M. Lami and --- Shemaa K. Kataa
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2014 Volume: 32 Issue: 13 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 3216-3227
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

The objective of the present work was to assess the distribution of radon in the University of Technology buildings, Baghdad - Iraq and to identify the effective dose of radon exposure to the staff using passive dosimeter (SSNTD) CR-39. One hundred CR-39 dosimeters were distributed over different buildings in the University campus according to the number of floors area. The exposure time started from December 2012, and the dosimeters were left inside buildings for 40 days. Only 93 dosimeters were collected, while the remaining 7 were considered lost. The average concentrations were calculated in units of Bqm-3, for each sample in each building, and then are repeated after grouping in each floor of the same building. The average radon concentrations per building and at the university as a whole were also calculated. Radon concentrations were found to vary from 80.1 to 416.7 Bqm-3. The highest radon concentration with a mean value of 416.7 Bqm-3 was found atuniversity press section building, while the lowest radon concentration was found at the welding division 2 building with a mean value of 80.1 Bqm-3. The average value of radon concentration at the university was found to have the value of 181.9 Bqm-3 which is less than the recommended value of 200 Bqm-3 UNSCEAR [18].Dose rate (in µSv/h), annual dose rate (in mSv/y & WLM/y), cumulative dose (in mSv& WLM) and cancer risk were also calculated. It was found that the university staffs are exposed annually to 2.083 mSv which equal to 0.231 Working Level Month (WLM) from radon gas and its short-lived daughters. Hence, a person takes on the average an annual effective dose equivalent to 2.56and 1.84mSv according to average value considered by UNSCEAR [18] and ICRP [19], respectively. This implies an expected value for lung cancer probability of 0.0046.

هدف البحث الى تقييم تركيز الرادون في مباني الجامعة التكنلوجية, بغداد – العراق وكذلك حساب الجرعة الفعالة التي يتعرض لها العاملون في الجامعة باستخدام مجراع كاشف الاثر النووي CR-39. تم توزيع 100 مجراع في مباني الجامعة وتُركتلمدة 90 يوم ابتداءاً من كانون الاول 2012. بينت النتائج ان تركيز غاز الرادون يتراوح بين اوطأ قيمة له80.13 بيكريل/م3 في مبنى شعبة اللحام الى اعلى قيمة له416.67 بيكريل/م3 في مبنى مطبعة الجامعة. كما وجد ان متوسطمستوى الرادون في الجامعة 181.86 بيكريل/م3 وهذه القيمة اقل من القيمة المسموح بها عالمياَ.كما تم في هذه الدراسة حساب معدل الجرعة ومعدل الجرعة السنوية والجرعة المتراكمة وكذلك نسبة خطر الاصابة بسرطان الرئة. وُجد ان العالمين في الجامعة يتعرضون سنوياً الى 2.083mSv من غاز الرادون ووليداتها وهي اقل من المعدلات المسموحة والمقترحة منUNSCEAR (1982) و . ICRP (1993)


Article
Natural Radioactivity Level of Phosphate Fertilizers and Related Products from Al-Qaim Complex Plant in Iraq by Using Solid State Nuclear Track Detector
مستوى النشاط الإشعاعي الطبيعي للأسمدة الفوسفاتية والمنتجات ذات الصلة من مجمع معامل ألقائم في العراق باستخدام كواشف الأثر النووي للحالة الصلبة

Authors: Saadi M. D. Al-Nuzal --- Sahar A. Amin --- Muwafaq H. M. Lami --- Basad H. Jazaa
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2016 Volume: 34 Issue: 3 Part (B) Scientific Pages: 394-404
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

The natural radioactivity level of phosphate rock, P2O5 (29 - 30 %), TSP, MAP, phosphoric acid, NPK, cryolite, zeolite samples obtained from Al-Qaim Complex Plant in Iraq, as well as organic bitmuse fertilizers were recorded by using solid state nuclear track detector, (SSNTD) CR-39. Three positions were selected for detectors exposure; the upper position that can record the radon originated from uranium; the middle (sample surface), and inside the sample to estimate the total alpha emitter isotopes. The measured values of the radioactivity level were found to be within the range of 113.52 - 1034.29 Bq/m3 and these values belong to Cold (organic bitmuse fertilizers) and MAP-3 (Monoammonium phosphate) samples, respectively. The later was obtained from the treatment process of ~ 60 % phosphoric acid (WPA) with phosphate rock in the Wet process. Generally, the value of the total of radon and thoron radioactivity Ca, roughly indicated by the surface detectors, throughout the chemical process was generally twice the measurement related to uranium at the upper detector. Zeolite sample showed higher radioactivity level than phosphate rock, and this can be considered, as unexpected result for it is not famous ore for uranium scavenging.

تم قياس مستوى النشاط الإشعاعي الطبيعي للصخور الفوسفاتية وP2O5 (29 – 30 %) وTSP وMAP وحامض الفوسفوريك وNPK والكرايولايت، وعينات الزيولايت تم الحصول عليها من مدينة القائم النباتية المعقدة في العراق، وكذلك الأسمدة العضوية bitmuse المتوفرة محلياً. تم تسجيلها باستخدام كواشف الأثر النووي الصلبة (SSNTD) CR-39. وقد تم اختيار ثلاث مواقع لوضع الكاشف في كأس القياس؛ موقع علوي الذي يسجل فيه الرادون الناتج من اليورانيوم وموقع وسطي (سطح العينة) وسفلي لتقدير مجموع النظائر الباعثة لأشعة ألفا. تبين أن القيم المقاسة لمستوى النشاط الإشعاعي نوع ألفا هي ضمن المدى 113,52 – 1034,29 بكرل/م3 وهذه القيم تنتمي إلى الأسمدة العضوية نوع كولد (Cold) وMAP-3 نموذج أحادي فوسفات الامونيوم، على التوالي. أما القياس الأخير فكان لناتج عملية المعالجة الرطبة (WPA) للصخور الفوسفاتية بحامض الفوسفوريك. كانت قيمة النشاط الإشعاعي الكلي للرادون والثورون Ca، التي سجلها الكاشف على السطح، في جميع مراحل العملية الكيميائية بشكل عام ضعف تلك المسجلة لليورانيوم. وأظهرت عينة الزيولايت أعلى مستوى للنشاط الإشعاعي من صخور الفوسفات، وهذا يمكن اعتبارها نتيجة غير متوقعة، لأنه خام غير مشتهر باحتجازه لليورانيوم.


Article
Assessment of Some Heavy Metal Concentrations in Drilling Mud samples in Az Zubair Oil Field, Basra, Iraq

Authors: Sahar A. Amin --- Abdul Hamid M. J. Al- Obiady --- Rana R. Alani --- Athmar A. Al-Mashhady
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2018 Volume: 36 Issue: 1 Part (B) Scientific Pages: 68-75
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Analysis of eight heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn,Ni, Pb and Zn) of 14 drilling mud samples collected from oil well at differentdepths which is located in AZ Zubair oil field-Basra was done in this study .The samples were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry.Obtained results indicated that the heavy metal concentrations range from thelowest value of 1.66mg/kg for Cd to the highest value of 1235.86mg/kg forFe. The abundance trend for the heavy metals concentration was in thedescending order of Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, Cr, Zn, Pb, and Cd. Four parameters:Enrichment Factor (EF), Contamination Factor (CF), Geo-accumulationIndex (Igeo) and Pollution Load Index (PLI) were assessed in order toevaluate the degree of contamination.

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