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Article
Association between psychosocial factors and periodontitis

Author: Saif S. Saliem Juma
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2011 Volume: 23 Issue: 4 Pages: 116-120
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Research has suggested that psychological factors that play a role in the development and
progression of periodontal disease. It is not clear, however, whether these factors lead to periodontal disease
through physiological or behavioral changes, or by some combination of the two. This study investigated the
association of anxiety and depression with periodontal disease.
Material and Methods: A total of 150 subjects took part in this study. Probing depth and clinical attachment level
were recorded at four sites per tooth and the gingival and plaque indices were also recorded. The instruments used
to assess the psychological variables were: the Beck Anxiety Inventory, State– Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Beck
Depression Inventory.
Results: Mean probing depth and clinical attachment level were 6.32 ± 0.80 and 5.81 ± 1.61in the case group and
1.98±0.71and 1.12±0.87 in the control group, respectively. Positive association of periodontitis with age (odds ratio
(OR) 1.16 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01–1.21) and plaque index (OR 2.15,CI: 1.07–4.69) was confirmed. Analysis
did not demonstrate significant mean differences in anxiety symptoms, trait or state of anxiety, or depression
symptoms between cases and controls. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated no significant association
between psychosocial factors and periodontal disease.
Conclusion: Within the limits of this study it is possible to conclude that there was no significant association between
periodontitis and the psychosocial factors analyzed. The association of periodontal disease to depression and
anxiety should be investigated in psychiatric populations, especially in those with depression and anxiety disorders.
Key words: Anxiety and depression; periodontal disease; Psychosocial factor. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(4):116-
120).

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Article
Twelve months clinical comparison between modified Widman flap with or without enamel matrix derivative for the treatment of infrabony defects

Author: Saif S. Saliem
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2008 Volume: 20 Issue: 2 Pages: 85-87
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The aim of this study was to compare at 12 months after the surgery the treatment of deep infrabony defects with modified widman flap (MWF) to the treatment with the enamel matrix protein derivative.
Materals and methods: 5 male and 9 female with severe periodontitis were treated either with modified widman flap alone or with enamel matrix derivatives (EMD) (Emdogain®, Straumann AG, Waldenburg, Switzerland). This was a randomized controlled longitudinal clinical trial of 12 months duration. Using a split-mouth design, each site was randomly assigned to treatment with modified widman flap alone or with EMD. All patients underwent initial therapy one month prior to surgery.
Results: At twelve months after the therapy, the sites treated with MWF showed a reduction in probing pocket depth (PPD) from 8.25 ± 1.84 mm to 3.79±0.95 mm and a change in clinical attachment level (CAL) from 9.66±1.82 mm to 5.21±1.78 mm. In the group treated with EMD, the PPD was reduced from 8.5±1.4 mm to 4 ±1.6 mm and the CAL changed from 10.3±2.28 mm to 6.05±1.96 .
Conclusion: within their limits, the present results indicate that: (i) at 1 year after surgery both therapies resulted in significant PD reductions and CAL gains, and (ii) the combination of modified widman flap with enamel matrix protein derivative does not seem to additionally improve the clinical results.
Key words: Modified Widman flap, enamel matrix, infrabony defects. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(2):85-87)

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Article
Distribution and localization of ground substance of carbohydrate group in an inflammatory and phenytion induced gingival enlargement using histochemical method

Authors: Ali A. Abdulkareem --- Saif S. Saliem --- Athraa Al Hijazi
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2009 Volume: 21 Issue: 1 Pages: 49-52
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Gingival enlargement detected as a result of pathological changes or by induction of drugs such as
Phenytoin. Changes in distribution of macromolecules of glycogen, proteoglycan and glycoprotein in gingival
enlargement were observed by histochemical method. The aim of the study was to illustrate the localization and
distribution of ground substance in an inflammatory and Phenytoin induced gingival enlargement, using
histochemical methods.
Materials and Methods: Twenty two individuals, ten with inflammatory gingival enlargement, other ten with Phenytoin
induced gingival enlargement and two healthy person extraction of impacted 3rd molar as control .The specimens
were stained with periodic acid Schiff reagent (PAS).
Results: In the inflammatory gingival enlargement there is an increase in carbohydrate material production concern
to epithelial layer, basement membrane and underneath connective tissue showing reddish purple stain with PAS
reaction, while Phenytoin induced gingival enlargement showed increment in epithelial layer only.
Conclusion: Histochemical method by PAS stain used to show difference in distribution of carbohydrate group in
gingival specimens of inflammatory and Phenytoin induced gingival enlargement.
Key words: Gingival enlargement, Phenytoin, PAS stain. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry2009; 21(1): 49-52)

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Article
Reliability of family history report among relatives of aggressive periodontitis patients

Authors: Hala Algobory --- Saif S. Saliem --- Alaa O. Ali
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2008 Volume: 20 Issue: 1 Pages: 45-48
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The aim of this study was to assess the periodontal status among relatives of aggressive periodontitis (AgP) patients and to evaluate the reliability of the family history report as provided by the proband.
Materals and methods: Fifty AgP patients were identified during 2005/2006 as fulfilling the criteria to be diagnosed as AgP as outlined in the 1999 international classification system for periodontal disease. These subjects met the clinical criteria for either localized or generilized AgP.
Results: it was consider that AgP patients should be informed of the genetic nature of their condition and that other blood relatives could be at risk. The results would suggest that the screening of relatives with a positive family history could be justified as a standard procedure, but negative family history reports are unlikely to yield significant numbers of affected relatives and may not be a justifiable use of scarce resources.
Conclusion: The report given by the proband was considered reliable. If the report was positive, it was followed by diagnosis of periodontitis in 73% of the cases, while if it was negative, periodontitis was absent in 66% of the cases.
Key words: Aggressive periodontitis. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(1)45-48)

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Article
Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis

Authors: Abdulalkarim A. A. Al- Muhammadawi --- Saif S. Saliem
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2010 Volume: 22 Issue: 3 Pages: 83-86
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Hereditary gingival fibromatosis is a benign, idiopathic condition affecting both arches. Is characterized
by a slowly progressive, benign enlargement of the keratinized oral gingival tissues results from an increase in the
connective tissue elements of the submucosa and can vary in severity, Gingival enlargements may be either
inflammatory, non inflammatory or a combination of both. Hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF), is usually
transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait
Material and Methods: Four patients (3males and 1 female), with age range between 20-45years old and with no
history of systemic disease(s) or medications intake were referred to the Department of Periodontics College of
Dentistry at the University of Baghdad.
Results: After 6 months, three of the patients showed signs of improvements, while the forth male patient return with
failure of treatment and the condition is even worse.
Histological findings showed few fibroblasts with stellate shape and the epithelial rete ridges were bayonet-shaped,
overlying dense fibrous connective tissue.
Conclusion: The only treatment of choice in this our condition was gingivectomy to satisfy the patients’ esthetics.
Idiopathic gingival fibromatosis may be congenital or hereditary. Though the genetic mechanism is not well
understood, the success of treatment was relative since another gingivectomy procedures needed for reshaping the
gingival and no explanation could be found for the failure for the forth case. Histological findings are similar to that
seen with phenytoin-induced gingival enlargement
Key words: hereditary gingival fibromatosis, gingivectomy, gingival hyperplasia, hereditary gingival hyperplasia.
(J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(3):83-86)

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Article
Serum Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and High Sensitive C-Reactiveprotein as Biomarkersin Periodontitis in Iraqi Patients with Osteoarthritis

Authors: Enas Nihad Muhammad --- Saif S. Saliem --- Enas Razzoqi Naaom
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2018 Volume: 30 Issue: 3 Pages: 7-12
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Periodontitis (PD) is well-known chronic disease affecting the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic joint disease with compound reasons characterized by synovial inflammation, subchondral bone remodeling, also the formation of osteophytes, that cause cartilage degradation. Chronic periodontitis and osteoarthritis are considered widely prevalent diseases and related to tissue destruction due to chronic inflammation in general health and oral health. The aim of this study is todetermine the association of chronic periodontitis and osteoarthritits in patients by analysing tumor necrosis factor alpha TNFα and high sensitive c-reactive protein (hsCRP) in the serum.Materials and Method: A total of 80 patients of both sexes aged 35-50 years ,30 patients with osteoarthritis and moderate chronic periodontitis (CP+OA), 30 patients of both sexes aged 35-50 years with moderate chronic periodontitis alone (CP). And control group (C) of 20 healthy patients with healthy periodontium participated in this cross sectional study. we excluded the postmenopausal and pregnant woman from female patient and smoker patient also. All patients are free of medication and have good general health with no history of systemic disease. Participants with OA have documentation or radiographic imaging, consistent with degenerative arthritis in the absence of an inflammatory condition. Venous blood samples were drawn from each subject using pyrogen-free heparinized collection tubes. Tubes were centrifuged according to the manufacturer’s guidelines, then stored at -15°C till analyse. serum TNFα and hs CRP were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results: A non-significant differences between studied group regarding serum level of hsCRP and TNF-α, as well as, the result revealed that the median of serum levels of hsCRP were little higher in chronic periodontitis with osteoarthritis group than chronic periodontitis group and control groups represent as 0.31, 0.29, and 0.24. Similarly, the medium serum level of TNFα was higher in chronic periodontitis with OAthan in other two groups (10.615, 10.533, and 9.682 respectively). The age and gender showed a non-significant difference between the groupsConclusion: The present study revealed that there’s a strong positive correlation between serum levels of hsCRP and TNFα in patients of all groups but there is no correlation between Osteoarthritis and chronic periodontitis.


Article
Assessment of Alkaline Phosphatase, Salivary Flow Rate and Salivary Potential of Hydrogen in Relation to Severity of Chronic Periodontitis

Authors: Saif S. Saliem سيف سهام سليم --- Hussein A. Mousa حسين موسى
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2016 Volume: 28 Issue: 3 Pages: 126-131
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The cells of periodontium contain many intracellular enzymes like (alkaline phosphatase ALP) that arereleased outside into the saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) after destruction of periodontal tissue. The aim ofstudy was to determine the activity of this enzyme in saliva and its relation to the salivary flow rate, PH and clinicalperiodontal parameters in patients with chronic periodontitis.Subject, Materials and methods: Sample population consist of 75 individuals ;divided into four groups , the first group(15):control subject, the second group (20):mild chronic periodontitis, the third group(20) moderate chronicperiodontitis and the fourth group (20) sever chronic periodontitis, Measurements of plaque index (PLI), gingival index(GI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL), only male wereincluded and saliva was collected from them and subjected to biochemical analysis of the alkaline phosphataseenzyme (ALP), and also measurement of salivary flow rate(FR) and PH.Results: Statistical analysis of the results revealed the presence of a highly significant difference in the enzymaticactivity between healthy and chronic periodontitis subjects (mild, moderate, severe) with positive correlationbetween the activity of this enzyme and the clinical periodontal parameters, and negative correlation between thisenzyme and Salivary flow rate and pH.Conclusion: From this study it can be concluded that a number of markers show promise as sensitive measures ofdisease and the effectiveness of therapy. At this time enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase ALP, is goodbiochemical markers of screening chronic periodontitis. Also ALP can be used as a monitor for healthy individualsand patients with different periodontal diseases. Furthermore, analysis of saliva may offer a cost effective approachto assessment in controlling progression of chronic periodontitis in large populations


Article
Waterpipe Smoking Effect on Clinical Periodontal Parameters, Salivary Flow Rate and Salivary pH in Chronic ‎Periodontitis Patient

Authors: Saif Mohammed T. Al-Mufti --- Saif S. Saliem سيف سهام سليم
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2018 Volume: 30 Issue: 1 Pages: 63-68
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Waterpipe tobacco smoking has become common especially among young people, Waterpipe smoking misconcepted as a safer mean of smoking, so in this study we will highlight the effect of Waterpipe smoking ‎on periodontal and oral health.‎Materials and method. The selected ‎‎‎100 male subjects of 30-40 years, ‎categorized into 4 groups (each group ‎‎25 subject): Waterpipe smoker ‎with ‎healthy periodontium, ‎Waterpipe smoker ‎‎with chronic periodontitis, Non-‎‎smoker ‎with healthy periodontium and Non-smoker ‎with chronic periodontitis. Whole ‎unstimulated ‎saliva was collected. Clinical measurements: plaque ‎index, ‎gingival index, ‎bleeding on probing, salivary flow ‎rate ‎and ‎salivary pH were recorded‎.‎ ‎Results. In the healthy groups: plaque index and salivary pH were ‎higher in smokers than non-smokers but with no ‎significant difference (P>0.05). While gingival index and salivary flow rate were ‎higher in smoker than non-smokers and with significant ‎difference (p<0.05). In the chronic periodontitis groups: plaque index, gingival index and salivary flow rate ‎were higher in the non-smokers than smokers and with ‎significant difference (p<0.05). While salivary pH was ‎higher in the non-smokers than smokers but with no ‎significant difference (P>0.05). Correlation between ‎weekly smoking hours with pH and salivary flow rate, in the ‎smoker healthy groups, showed ‎significant negative correlation, while plaque index showed ‎significant positive correlation at (p<0.05). But in the smokers with chronic periodontitis, only gingival index ‎significantly correlated with weekly smoking hours. Conclusion. Waterpipe smoking has a detrimental effect on the periodontium and overall oral health

Keywords

Waterpipe --- smoker --- gingivitis --- saliva


Article
Relation of Gonial Angle Index to osteoporosis and age using CBCT in female subjects

Authors: Raya M. Al Bayati --- Saif S. Saliem سيف سهام سليم --- Lamia H. Al Nakib لمياء حامد النقيب
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2018 Volume: 30 Issue: 2 Pages: 41-46
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

background: osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease that affects women more than men, it is characterized by generalizes reduction of bone mineral density (BMD) leaving a fragile weak bone that is liable to fracture, gonial angle index (GAI) is one of the radio-morphometric indices, it has been controversial whether it is related to bone mineral density or ageing or none of them. The aim of study is to evaluate the role of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) as a screening tool for diagnosis of osteoporosis and age effect in females using gonial angle index.Material and method: 60 females were divided into 3 groups according to age and (BMD) status into: Group1 (non-osteoporosis 20-30 years), Group2 (non-osteoporosis 50years and above), and Group3 (osteoporosis 50years and above), each patient had a CBCT scan, and gonial angle index was measured compared among groups.Results: Gonial angle index showed a significant difference between Group1 and Group2 at p < 0.05, while it showed no significant difference between Group2 and Group3 at p > 0.05.Conclusion: Gonial angle index is significantly affected by age factor while it was not affected by osteoporosis, so it cannot be used as a parameter that can predict bone mineral density status patients

Keywords

osteoporosis --- CBCT --- GAI

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