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Article
A STUDY ON THE PREVALENCE OF ACUTE LEUKEMIA AMONG A GROUP OF IRAQI PATIENTS

Authors: Genan Fadel Elew --- Asmaa Hashem Mahmood --- Taghreid Kheder Mohammad --- Saja Jehad Al-Khalidi
Journal: Al-Nahrain Journal of Science مجلة النهرين للعلوم ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461 Year: 2009 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 107-112
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Many children under 15 years of age and many adults more than 15 years of age with acute leukemia registered and treated in Oncology Department attached to the Al-Yarmuk Teaching Hospital and Child Central Hospital in Baghdad were enrolled in this study, as regards to their general characteristics and the type of acute leukemia. For comparison purposes, one year was chosen (2006), which showed that, the incidence with acute lymphoblast leukemia in children was 72.5%, while the incidence with acute myelocytic leukemia in adults was 27.5%. During the year, 2006, male predominance was evident. The fraction of patients living in urban areas was more that those of rural regions.The symptoms of leukemia patients were headache, vomiting, anemia, and fever (38-38.5Cº) for more than 2 weeks, fever pallor, spleen or liver were moderately enlarged or hepatosplenomegaly; in addition to throat and mouth lesions. Most children and adults also had thrombocytopenia, leucopenia and high rate of erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The frequency and general characteristic of acute leukemia in this study were compared to these reported else where.

بعض الأطفال دون سن 15 سنة وبعض البالغين فوق سن 15 سنة يعانون من أبيضاض الدم الحاد والذين سجلوا في قسم الأمراض الخبيثة في مستشفى الطفل المركزي ومستشفى اليرموك التعليمي في بغداد قد تم مقارنتهم في البحث من حيث الصفات العامة ونوع أبيضاض الدم الحاد.لأغراض المقارنة ، تم أختيار سنة 2006 ، ظهر أن 72.5% من الأطفال المصابين بالليوكيميا هو من نوع أبيضاض الدم اللمفاوي الحاد بينما ظهر 27.5% من البالغين المصابين بالليوكيميا هو من نوع أبيضاض الدم الحاد ، وظهر رجحان عدد الذكور والذين يقطنون المدن على أقرانهم الذين يسكنون الريف. يعاني معظم المرضى من ألم في الرأس وتقيؤ وفقر دم وتضخم الكبد أو الطحال أو الأثنان معاً ، ومن أهم الأعراض المرضية هو أرتفاع درجة حرارة الجسم (38-38.5)مº وتستمر لأكثر من 2 أسبوع دون أنخفاض ، وشحوباً واضحاً فضلاً عن تقرحات الفم والبلعوم.

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Article
Evaluation of Performance Characteristics of Commercially Available Tests for Diagnosing Hepatitis B Surface Antigenemia

Authors: Saad Hasan Mohammed Ali --- Saja Jehad Al-Khalidi --- Waleed Nadi Kasim
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2009 Volume: 8 Issue: 2 Pages: 159-171
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:A number of serologic immunoassays techniques have been developed in diagnostic virology with different degrees of sensitivity and specificity for the detecting hepatitis B virus (HBV) antigens and their relevant antibodies.OBJECTIVE:This study was designed to apply and assess the sensitivity and specificity of different commercially available laboratory techniques for detecting hepatitis B surface antigen(HBsAg).METHODS:One hundred and twenty-one sera samples were collected from National Center for Blood transfusion, Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Hospital, Central Public Health Laboratories and Teaching Laboratories. According to the manufacturer’s practical instructions, a group of commercially available laboratory methods for detecting HBsAg were applied , including enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), enzyme linked fluorescent assay(ELFA), immunochromatographic assay(ICA), and latex agglutination test(LAT).RESULT:Among ELISA, ELFA, ICA, and LAT methods for detecting HBsAg, the 3rd generation ELISA was proved to have very high specificity (no false negative results) and the least one that has necessitated few confirmatory repetitions. ELFA versus ELISA has showed relatively lower sensitivity (more false negative results). However, similar to ELISA, ELFA showed very high specificity. Immunochromatographic assay (ICA) confidentially appeared to be a good, rapid and simple technique with comparable sensitivity and specificity to ELISA and ELFA techniques. Although LAT was introduced as a rapid, simple and cheap technique for HBsAg screening, it showed frank lower sensitivity and specificity that deranged it from competing with all those tested techniques.CONCLUSION:The concomitant use of ELFA with ELISA compensates its relatively lower sensitivity in front of ELISA. Latex agglutination test for HBsAg has relatively lower sensitivity and specificity than all other tests. For its comparable performance characteristics to ELISA, the use of ICA is ideally suited for HBsAg screening, in respect to its lower cost, rapidity, simplicity and no need for expensive equipments

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