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Article
r-convergence in metric space

Author: Salah. M. Ali صلاح مهدي علي
Journal: Journal of Al-Qadisiyah for Computer Science and Mathematics مجلة القادسية لعلوم الحاسوب والرياضيات ISSN: 20740204 / 25213504 Year: 2010 Volume: 2 Issue: 2 Pages: 1-6
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

In this paper, firstly we introduce some fundamental concepts are included relating to r-convergence of sequences in a metric space and give some examples. Secondly we consider some differentiations between conventional convergence sequences and r-convergence sequences.

Keywords


Article
Image processing Techniques for study of colon tumors samPles

Authors: We'dad A- Kader --- Ziacl M' Abood --- Salah M- Ali
Journal: Journal of College of Education مجلة كلية التربية ISSN: 18120380 Year: 2009 Issue: 3 Pages: 310-320
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

In this research, we present many digital image processlngteaohings to a novel upp.ouih to thc aided analysis of digital image forcolon Ju.rr", detection. We have the image (which is the studysamples in the form of a finite thiclmess tissue sections on slide glass)by using the optical microscopic connect directly u'ith a computer bydigital camera.First,usingasupervised-cross-correlation-testing(sccT)method is developed and used to differentiate between normal andabnormal tissue's irnug", of colon cancer, with measurement the meanand standard deviation of these samples'Second, making a comparison clepending on histogram andweightage of RGB iolors between normal and abnormal samples'


Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Tri-Composite Activated Carbon

Authors: Nada S. Ahmedzeki --- Salah M. Ali --- Sarah R. Al-Karkhi
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2017 Volume: 18 Issue: 3 Pages: 49-58
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Activated carbon loading with metals oxides is new adsorbents and catalyst, which seem very promising for desulfurization process. The present study deals with the preparation of three metals oxides loaded on activated carbon (AC). The tri composite of ZnO/NiO/CoO/AC was characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), X-Ray florescence (XRF), N2 adsorption for BET surface area, pore volume and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The effect of calcination temperature is investigated. The best calcination temperature is 250oC based on the presence of phase, low weight loss and keep at high surface area. The surface area and pore volume of prepared tri composite are 932.97m2/g and 0.6031cm3/g respectively. The average particle size of tri-composite is 104.72 nm. Results confirmed a successful route for preparing the composite with promising characteristics.


Article
Parametric Study on Intrinsic Reaction for Straight Run Heavy Naphtha Hydrodesulfurization over CoMo/Al2O3 Catalyst

Authors: Mohammad F. Abid --- Mohammed K. Abdullah --- Salah M. Ali
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2018 Volume: 36 Issue: 2 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 146-153
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

The present study aimed to investigate the intrinsic reaction of hydrodesulfurization (HDS) for a real Straight Run Heavy Naphtha (SRHN) over CoMo-S/Al2O3 catalyst in a fixed- bed reactor. Influence of the process parameters on sulfur removal was investigated by regulating the temperature (T = 320-380 oC), pressure (P = 20 to 35 bar), weight hour space velocity (WHSV = 2.5 to 5.0 h-1) and catalyst average particle size (dp =361 to 3950 μm). Mears and Weisz-Prater criteria were estimated and utilized to validate the intrinsic reaction condition. Operating variables were optimized at (T = 360 oC, P = 30 bars, WHSV = 2.5 h-1, dp= 361 μm) to obtain an optimum sulfur removal of 93.4% under intrinsic reaction conditions. Experimental results showed that % activity of sulfur removal increases to 93.4% as temperature increased to 360oC but it reduces to 90.3% as space velocity increased to 5.0 h-1. Kinetic parameters of the intrinsic reaction rate were estimated and compared with published data. Long-time test was performed on the sulfided catalyst to investigate its activity.


Article
Upgrading Sharky Baghdad Heavy Crude Oil
رفع خواص نفط خام شرقي بغداد الثقيل

Authors: Yazan M. Ali يزن مناف --- Salah M. Ali صلاح مهدي --- Hussain K. Hussain حسين قاسم حسين
Journal: Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal مجلة الخوارزمي الهندسية ISSN: 18181171 23120789 Year: 2011 Volume: 7 Issue: 3 Pages: 19-29
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Shaky Baghdad heavy crude oil 22 API is processed by distillation and solvent extraction. The purpose of distillation is to separate the light distillates (light fractions) which represent 35% of heavy crude oil, and to obtain the reduced crude oil. The heavy residue (9 API) is extracted with Iraqi light naphtha to get the deasphaltened oil (DAO), the extraction carried out with temperature range of 20-75 oC, solvent to oil ratio 5-15:1(ml:g) and a mixing time of 15 minutes. In general, results show that API of DAO increased twice the API of reduced crude oil while sulfur and metals content decreased 20% and 50% respectively. Deasphaltened oil produced from various operating conditions blended with the light distillates obtained from distillation in a constant blending percentage of 35% light for all mixtures. These blends produced synthetic crude oil with API up to 30 suitable for using in the subsequent hydrocarbon processes.

معاملة نفط خام شرقي بغداد الثقيل بعمليات التقطير والاستخلاص. ان الغرض من التقطير هو لفصل المقطرات الخفيفة (المقاطع الخفيفة) والتي تمثل 35% من النفط الخام الثقيل, وللحصول على المتبقي الجوي الثقيل. ان المتبقي الثقيل بثقل نوعي 9 قد استخلص بالنافثا العراقية الخفيفة للحصول على متبقي منزوع الاسفلتينيات, حيث تم الاستخلاص بمدى درجة حرارة 20-75 مئوية, نسبة مذيب الى اللقيم 5:1-15 ( مل:غم) وزمن خلط 15 دقيقة.بشكل عام فان النتائج اظهرت بان الثقل النوعي للثقيل المنزوع الاسفلتينيات قد ازداد مرتين بالنسبة الى المتبقي الجوي الثقيل بينما انخفض المحتوى الكبريتي والمعادن 20%و%50 على التوالي.تم خلط المتبقي منزوع الاسفلتينيات مع المقطرات الخفيفة المستحصلة من عملية التقطير بنسبة خلط مئوية ثابتة 35% خفيف و لجميع الامزجة المحضرة. هذه الامزجة انتجت نفط خام مصنع بثقل نوعي بحدود 30 ملائم للاستخدام في العمليات الهيدروكاربونية اللاحقة


Article
Investigation Desulfurization Method Using Air and Zinc Oxide/Activated Carbon Composite

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Abstract

In present work examined the oxidation desulfurization in batch system for model fuels with 2250 ppm sulfur content using air as the oxidant and ZnO/AC composite prepared by thermal co-precipitation method. Different factors were studied such as composite loading 1, 1.5 and 2.5 g, temperature 25 oC, 30 oC and 40 oC and reaction time 30, 45 and 60 minutes. The optimum condition is obtained by using Tauguchi experiential design for oxidation desulfurization of model fuel. The highest percent sulfur removal is about 33 at optimum conditions. The kinetic and effect of internal mass transfer were studied for oxidation desulfurization of model fuel, also an empirical kinetic model was calculated for model fuels at optimum condition, the apparent activation energy was found to be 16.724 kJ/mol.


Article
STUDYING THE PERFORMANCE OF A HYDRO TREATING PROCESS FOR A MIXTURE OF GAS OIL AND LIGHTER FRACTIONS

Authors: Mohammad F. Abid --- Waleed H. Abohameed --- Shakir M. Ahmed --- Salah M. Ali --- et al.
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Journal for Engineering Sciences مجلة القادسية للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19984456 Year: 2017 Volume: 10 Issue: 4 Pages: 468-485
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

In the present study the applicability of hydrodesulfurization of a mixture of crude oil fractions (e.g., naphtha, kerosene, and gas oil ) in a single hydrotreating reactor packed with NiCoMo/Al2O3 under various operating parameters such as temperature (310-370 oC), pressure (40-55 bars), weight hour space velocity (1.2 to 3.6 h-1), and hydrogen-to- liquid hydrocarbon ratio (150-300 vol/vol). Experimental results showed that temperature and pressure have a positive effect on process performance while weight hour space velocity gives a different trend. The optimum value of (H2/Hydrocarbon) ratio was found experimentally to be 200 vol/vol after which the increase in this ratio cause reduction in HDS% because decrease in contact between H2 gas and Hydrocarbon in reactor. Results showed that the best conditions (350 oC, 50 bars, 1.2 h-1, and 200 vol/vol) in which gave the hydrotreating (HDS) efficiency of 95.8%.The results confirmed the applicability of the NiCoMo/Al2O3 catalyst for HDS reaction of a mixture of middle distillate (e.g., naphtha, kerosene, and gas oil). It was found that at higher pressure and temperature (i.e., T> 350 oC; P> 50 bars) a thermodynamic equilibrium was established. As observed, there is a 1.6% reduction in gas oil less than that of the conventional method. However, kerosene, heavy naphtha, and light naphtha undergo increases of 0.6%, 0.75%, and 2.75% respectively over these from conventional method. These results reveal that the quantity of fractions is almost the same for both methods. As it can be observed, that measured properties of the oil fractions produced by the proposed method are almost the same as those produced by conventional method. However, specific gravity (sp.gr) of the oil cuts produced by present study (i.e. sp.gr of kerosene, heavy naphtha, and light naphtha 0.785, 0.728, 0.655 respectively) is somewhat less than sp.gr of the same fractions produced by conventional methods (i.e. sp.gr of kerosene, heavy naphtha, and light naphtha 0.788, 0.738, 0.65 respectively), which gives a clear indication of properties improvement of these fractions. Experimental results confirmed the applicability of the proposed method for HDS of a mixture of Iraqi middle distillates (i.e., naphtha, kerosene, and gas oil) simultaneously in a single fixed bed reactor


Article
SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF UNSUPPORTED CATALYST FOR GAS OIL DESULFURIZATION

Authors: Mohammad F. Abid --- Mohammed A. Hamza --- Shakir M. Ahmed --- Salah M. Ali
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Journal for Engineering Sciences مجلة القادسية للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19984456 Year: 2018 Volume: 11 Issue: 3 Pages: 357-371
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

Unsupported MoS2 catalysts were synthesized for the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of real feed gas oil using different temperatures and pressures. Hydrothermal method was utilized to prepare by using molybdenum trioxide and sodium sulfide. The characterization of the catalyst was identified by XRD, SEM, and BET techniques. It was found that BET surface and pore volume were positively affected by pressure and temperature that could improve the activity of MoS2. Kinetic analysis showed that HDS reaction over MoS2 follow pseudo-first order kinetics. Experimental results revealed that the HDS activity of the unsupported MoS2 catalyst was better than supported CoMo/Al2O3 catalyst under the same operating conditions.


Article
Optimization of Refining Strategy to Fractionate Various Iraqi Crude Oils into Lighter Fractions
توصيف وتصنيف واختيار أفضل استراتيجية تكرير للنفوط الخام العراقية

Authors: Talal F. Hassan --- Harith A. Mohammed --- Salah M. Ali صلاح مهدي علي --- Dr. Zaidoon M. Shakor
Journal: Journal of Petroleum Research & Studies مجلة البحوث والدراسات النفطية ISSN: 22205381 Year: 2018 Issue: 20 Pages: 15-24
Publisher: Ministry of Oil وزارة النفط

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Abstract

The primary objective of this study is to predict optimum refining strategy to fractionate various Iraqi crude oils into lighter fractions depending on market monthly demand along one year. The monthly consumption of gasoline, kerosene and diesel was calculated and genetic algorithm optimization method was used to calculate optimum cut points and blending ratio of three different crude oils (light Basrah, heavy Basrah and Kirkuk).The results prove that manipulation cut points within a year for a blend of three crude oils will decrease 12.8% of distilled crude oil to produce the required amount of light cuts produced by refining single crude oil.

الهدف الرئيسي لهذه الدراسة هي وصف وتقييم النفوط الخام العراقية والتنبؤ باستراتيجية التكرير المثلى لتكرير مختلف النفوط الخام إلى منتجات أخف اعتمادا على الطلب الشهري في السوق العراقية على طول السنة.تم حساب الاستهلاك الشهري من الكازولين والكيروسن وزيت الغاز على مدى سنة واحدة و استخدامت طريقة الاختيار الافضل باستخدام الخوارزمية الجينية لحساب إستراتيجية التكرير المثلى المطلوبة للتنبؤ بأفضل عائد للمنتجات البترولية خلال عام واحد.اظهرت النتائج انه بتقطير مزيج من ثلاثة نفوط خام يمكن الحصول على المنتجات الخفيفة المطلوب باستخدام كمية من النفط الخام اقل بنسبة 12.8 % عن الحالة التي يتم فيها استخدام نفط خام واحد.


Article
Studies and Modeling for Upgrading Units for Heavy Oil Refineries

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Abstract

The primary objective of this study is to predict the optimum operating conditions required to operate an existing atmospheric distillation column to distillate heavier crude oils in same unit which designed mainly to fractionate moderate and lighter crude oils. Detailed simulation model of atmospheric distillation column was made using Aspen Hysys V. 8.4 software. The model built depending on the data of real plant which located in Al-Daura midland refinery company at Baghdad/Iraq. The crude oils were described using the true boiling point (TBP) assays and Peng-Robinson package were used to predict thermodynamic properties. Three different types of crude oils (Kirkuk light, Basrah light and Basrah medium) were selected to identify the model validity. The simulation results agree very well with the industrial plant results. Finally the proposed model was used to predict optimum operating conditions required to distillate a blend of light and heavy Basrah crude oil with different mixing ratios. The objective of the optimization is to predict the maximum profit of the products within the required specifications. At optimum operating conditions the total yearly profit for distillation of a blend of 50% vol. light+50% vol. heavy basrah crude oil was found to be 713.28 M$.

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