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Article
Estimation and Simulation in Batch Fermentation of Baker’s Yeast Producfion

Authors: Abdul-Kahar M. Al-Samuray --- Salam K. Al-Dawery
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2007 Volume: 8 Issue: 3 Pages: 19-22
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Baker’s Yeast is an important additive among the substances, which improves bred quality, thus, a consideration has been made to study the conditions and parameters that affecting the production of the yeast in a batch fermenter experimentally and theoretically. Experimental runs were implemented in a 12-liter pilot-scale fermenter to predict the rate of growth and other parameters such as amount of additive consumed and the amount of heat generated The process is modeled and performed using a computer programming propped for this purpose, the model gave a good agreement comparing to the experimental work specially in the log phase.

Keywords

fermentation --- simulation --- yeast.


Article
Performance of Pulsator Clarifier (Low Turbidity)

Authors: Salam K. Al-Dawery --- Raad M. Hussain --- Kadhem M. Shibeeb
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2007 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 9-17
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Experimental and theoretical investigations are presented on flocculation process in pulsator clarifier. Experimental system was designed to study the factors that affecting the performance of pulsator clarifier. These factors were water level in vacuum chamber which range from 60 to 150 cm, rising time of water in vacuum chamber which having times of 20, 30 & 40 seconds, and sludge blanket height which having heights of 20, 30 & 40 cm. The turbidity and pH of raw water used were 200 NTU and 8.13 respectively. According to the jar test, the alum dose required for this turbidity was 20 mg/l. The performance parameters of pulsator clarifier such as, turbidity, total solids TS, shear rate, volume concentration of sludge blanket and the flocculation criteria were studied. It was observed that by decreasing the water level in vacuum tube and by increasing the rising time and sludge blanket height, low turbidity of output water attained. Moreover, flocculation criteria value GCt was within the optimum range values (100-500). A theoretical models was applied for total solids TS of output water. The difference between experimental and theoretical data was ranged between (11-24)% of mean deviation at water level range of (125-150) cm and sludge blanket height 20 cm.


Article
Purification of Zinc Oxide Using Direct Thermal Process by PetroleumCoke

Authors: Thaer Adnan Abdulla ثائر عدنان --- Zuhair A-A. Khammas --- Salam K. Al-Dawery
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2009 Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 35-41
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The present investigation is concerned for the purification of impure zinc oxide (80-85 wt %) by using petroleum coke(carbon content is 76 wt %) as reducing agent for the impure zinc oxide to provide pure zinc vapor, which will beoxidized later by air to the pure zinc oxide.The operating conditions of the reaction were studied in detail which are, reaction time within the range (10 to 30 min),reaction temperature (900 to 1100 oC), air flow rate (0.2 to 1 l/min) and weight percentage of the reducing agent(petroleum coke) in the feed (14 to 30 wt %).The best operating conditions were (30 min) for the reaction time, (1100 oC) for the reaction temperature, (1 l/min) forthe air flow rate, and (30 wt %) of reducing material (petroleum coke) in the feed.Under the above conditions, conversion of zinc oxide was (68.12 %) and the purity of the produced zinc oxide was(97.85 %) by using petroleum coke as reducing material.

Keywords


Article
Nonlinear Adaptive Control of a pH Process

Authors: Duraid Fadhel Ahmed --- Hameed Ali Omran Al-Anbari --- Salam K. Al-Dawery
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2009 Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 9-16
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

In this paper a nonlinear adaptive control method is presented for a pH process, which is difficult to control due to the nonlinear and uncertainties. A theoretical and experimental investigation was conducted of the dynamic behavior of neutralization process in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The process control was implemented using different control strategies, velocity form of PI control and nonlinear adaptive control. Through simulation studies it has been shown that the estimated parameters are in good agreement with the actual values and that the proposed adaptive controller has excellent tracking and regulation performance.

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