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Article
Kinetic Study on Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation of Phenol in a Trickle Bed Reactor

Authors: Sama M. Abdullah --- Wadood T. Mohammed ودود طاهر محمد
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2008 Volume: 9 Issue: 2 Pages: 17-23
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Kinetics study on the phenol oxidation by catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) using CuO.NiO/Al2O3 as heterogeneous catalyst is presented. 4 g/l phenol solution of pH 7.3 was oxidized in a trickle bed reactor with gas flow rate of 80% stochiometric excess (S.E).. In order to verify the proposed kinetics, a series of CWAO experimental tests were done at two temperatures (140 and 160° C), oxygen partial pressures (9 and 12 bar), and weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) (1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 h-1). According to Power Law, the reaction orders are found to be approximately 1 and 0.5 with respect to phenol concentration and oxygen solubility, respectively. These values favorably compare with those cited in the literature for intrinsic kinetics, which indicates minimal mass transfer limitations in the trickle bed reacting system used in this study.

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Article
Treatment of Industrial Waste Water using Reverse Osmosis Technique

Authors: Rasha H. Salman --- Sama M. Abdullah --- Nada S.Ahmedzeki
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2009 Volume: 15 Issue: 4 Pages: 4356-4363
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Reverse osmosis technique was used for the treatment of industrial waste water. Ions like calcium, magnesium, sodium, sulfate, and nitrate were found in the waste water of the General Company of Vegetable Oil with high concentrations which must be treated for reuse. Feed water containing the above mentioned ions was fed to the RO unit at feed flow rates (0.4 and 0.8 lit/min) and different operating pressure (2-4bar) .It is concluded that increasing operating pressure and feed flow rate improved the separation by a decrease in the concentration of ions in the product. High rejection was obtained for all ions present in feed water, ranging from (63.8-97.6%). Rejection of TDS was 87% when the concentration of TDS was reduced from 1192 to 154.94 ppm.

تقنية التنافذ العكسي أستخدمت لمعاملة المياة الصناعية . أيونات الكالسيوم و المغنيسيوم و الصوديوم و االكبريتات و النترات توجد في المياه الصناعية المطروحة من الشركة العامة للزيوت النباتية وبتراكيز عالية يجب أن تعالج لغرض اعادة استعمالها. المياه الحاوية على الأيونات أعلاه تدخل الى وحدة المعالجة بالتناضح العكسي بمعدل جريان (0.4 و0.8 لتر/دقيقة) وتحت ضغط تشغيلي (2-4 بار).لقد استنتج ان زيادة الضغط ومعدل الجريان ادى الى تحسين عملية الفصل بتقليل تركيز الايونات في الماء الناتج. أزالة عالية لكل الأيونات الموجودة في المياه الداخلة تمت بمعدل (63.8-97.6 %). ومعدل أزالة لكمية المواد الصلبة الكلية الذائبة كان (87%) عندما أنخفضت هذه الكمية من 1192 الى 154.94جزء بالمليون.

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Article
Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation of Phenol in a Trickle Bed Reactor

Authors: Atheer M. Ghalib --- Sama M. Abdullah --- Wadood T. Mohammed ودود طاهر محمد
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2007 Volume: 8 Issue: 4 Pages: 45-52
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Catalytic wet air oxidation of aqueous phenol solution was studied in a pilot plant trickle bed reactor using copper oxide catalyst supported on alumina and silica. Catalysts were prepared by impregnating method. Effect of feed solution pH (5.9, 7.3, and 9.2), gas flow rate (20%, 50%, 80%, and 100%), WHSV (1, 2, and 3 h-1), temperature (120°C, 140°C,and 160°C), oxygen partial pressure (6, 9, 12 bar), and initial phenol concentration (1, 2, and 4 g/l).Generally, the performance of the catalysts was better when the pH of feed solution was increased. The catalysts deactivation is related to the dissolution of the metal oxides from the catalyst surface due to the acidic conditions. Phenol oxidation reaction was strongly affected by WHSV, temperature, oxygen partial pressure, and initial phenol concentration. While gas flow rate had a marginal effect.


Article
Removal of Lead, Cadmium, and Mercury Ions Using Biosorption

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Abstract

The biosorption of Pb (II), Cd (II), and Hg (II) from simulated aqueous solutions using baker’s yeast biomass was investigated. Batch type experiments were carried out to find the equilibrium isotherm data for each component (single, binary, and ternary), and the adsorption rate constants. Kinetics pseudo-first and second order rate models applied to the adsorption data to estimate the rate constant for each solute, the results showed that the Cd (II), Pb (II), and Hg (II) uptake process followed the pseudo-second order rate model with (R2) 0.963, 0.979, and 0.960 respectively. The equilibrium isotherm data were fitted with five theoretical models. Langmuir model provides the best fitting for the experimental results with (R2) 0.992, 0.9987, and 0.9995 for Cd (II), Pb (II), and Hg (II) respectively. The effect of various influent adsorbates concentrations, and flow rates on the performance of fixed bed adsorber was found for the three heavy metals. A mathematical model was formulated to describe the breakthrough curves in the fixed bed adsorber for each component. The results show that the mathematical model provides a good description of the adsorption process for Cd (II), Pb (II), and Hg (II) onto fixed bed of baker’s yeast biomass.

Keywords

Biosorption --- yeast --- Cd --- II --- Pb --- II --- Hg --- II --- fixed bed --- mathematical model --- mass transfer coefficient.

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