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Article
The role of lipid peroxidation in the inducation and progression of chronic periodontitis

Author: Taghreed F. Zaidan
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2009 Volume: 21 Issue: 1 Pages: 70-73
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Backgrounds: Free-radical-induced lipid peroxidation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several
pathological disorders. This study was aimed to assess the degree of oxidative stress in patients with chronic
periodontitis by estimation of plasma and saliva lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA), and the
antioxidants erythrocyte glutathione (GSH), plasma and saliva thiol.
Patients and methods: Fifty patients with chronic periodontitis with mean age of 32.6 ± 10.3 years and fifty healthy
control subjects with normal gingival age study, 5 mls of blood and 3 mls of unstimulated saliva was collected from
each subjects for estimation of plasma and saliva MDA, thiol and erythrocyte glutathione spectrophotometricaly.
Results: The results showed that significantly increased p<0.001 in periodontitis patient than in the control subjects,
while erythrocyte glutathione, plasma and saliva thiol were significantly decreased p<0.05 in periodontitis patients
than in the control.
Conclusions: Patients with periodontitis demonstrate more lipid peroxidation than healthy subjects. Imbalance
between oxidative stress and antioxidants may play a role in the pathogenesis of perodontitis.
Key words: Periodontitis, lipid peroxidation, antioxidants. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(1): 70-73)

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Article
Prevalence of trigeminal neuralgia among patients with orofacial pain

Author: Taghreed F. Zaidan
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2008 Volume: 20 Issue: 1 Pages: 34-36
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Back ground: The great majority of patients complaining of pain in and about the face are suffering from some form of toothache. However, there are many other possible causes of such pain. Trigeminal nerve is the main sensory nerve supplying the skin of the face and scalp as well as the majority of the oral tissues and many deeper structures. The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of trigeminal neuralgia among orofacial pain patients.
Materials and Methods: One hundred and ninety seven patients with orofacial pain (111 females and 86 males) between the age 15-65 years were examined. Each patient was subjected to a questionainer. Some patients needed x-ray (intra or extra oral radiographs) in order to reach the diagnosis.
Results: The highest number of patients with orofacial pain was that of dental origin (pulpal and periodontal), about 28.5%, next to it was patients with TMJ disorder or myofacial pain 25.5%. Patients with trigeminal neuralgia were 16.3%. Patients with migraine were 8.6%. Patients with sinusitis were 8.1%. Patients with otitis media were 5.1%, also patients with a typical facial pain were 5.1%. Finally patients with cluster headache were 3%. The majority of those patients were of pain on the right side of the face more than the left side. The trigger zones were more frequently occurring intra orally mainly at the premolar and molar areas (43.7%), trigger zones at the upper lip were in 18.7% of patients while at the angle of the mouth in 15.5% of the patients, in the cheek 12.5%, and finally at the preauricular area was 9.3%.
Conclusions: The highest number of patients with orofacial pain was of dental origin (pulpal and periodontal), and TMJ disorder or myofacial pain. The prevalence of trigeminal neuralgia was 16.3% of the patients.
Keywords: Orofacial pain, Trigeminal neuralgia, Dental pain. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(1)34-36)

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Article
The Study of Oral Findings, Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Vitamin E in Serum and Saliva of Crohn's Patients on Azathioprine Monotherapy and those on Combination of Anti-TNF-α Plus Azathioprine

Authors: Zainab Kh. Abbas --- Taghreed F. Zaidan
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2018 Volume: 30 Issue: 1 Pages: 39-45
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Crohn's disease (CD) is an immunological disorder associated with chronic inflammatory process of several unspecific regions of gastrointestinal tract but frequently detected in the terminal Ilium and proximal colon or both. This disease frequently presented with various oral manifestations as a consequence of inflammatory process of the disease, nutritional deficiency or medications side effects. Several therapeutic approaches have been developed for CD management that are targeting the inflammatory process and directed at controlling the host immune response. Immunosuppressants such as Azathioprine and anti-TNF α agents as well as the combination of them have been widely used as an effective therapeutic modality with a better chance of achieving clinical remission and decrease the risk of future complications.Subjects, Materials, and Methods: Seventy-five subjects were incorporated in this study; fifty subjects presented with moderate to severe CD that were subdivided into two subgroups treated with different therapeutic modalities( Azathioprine monotherapy and Combination of anti TNF-α biological agent (Infliximab) plus Azathioprine), while other twenty-five were age and gender matched healthy control subjects. Body mass index (BMI) of all participants was determined by weight (kg) high (m2). Oral cavity of each patient was examined for the presence of oral manifestations. Blood and saliva samples were gained from each subject enrolled in this study and salivary flow rate (mlmin) was measured for those participants, then these samples were centrifuged and the supernatants frizzed for subsequent oxidative stress and antioxidants biomarkers assessment.Results: The means of BMI and salivary flow rate were significantly higher in combination treated group than Azathioprine treated group. Fungal infection was the main oral findings that observed among Crohn's patients on combination therapy compared with those on Azathioprine monotherapy. Assessment of oxidative stress and antioxidant activity revealed that the means of serum and saliva Malondialdehyde (MDA) were highly significantly higher in Azathioprine treated group than combination treated group, while Vitamin E (VE) level showed significant reduction in Azathioprine Crohn's group as compared to combination treated group. Significant negative linear correlation was found between MDA level in serum and saliva with duration of treatment, while highly significant positive correlation was detected between VE levels and duration of treatment.Conclusions: Oxidative stress was increased with reduced antioxidant level in both groups of Crohn's patients. Treatment with Combination therapy approved to be effective in controlling oxidative tissue damage and enhanced antioxidants system in Crohn's patients better than Azathioprine monotherapy. Fungal infection was the most predominant oral manifestations among Crohn's patients on combination therapy as a result of concomitant immunosuppressive effect that accounted for reduced immune response to opportunistic infections


Article
Evaluation of Anti-Centromere Antibodies, Anti-SSA and Anti-SSB in Serum and Saliva of Patients with Systemic Sclerosis

Authors: Taghreed F. Zaidan --- Mohassad H Al-Mudhaffar
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2018 Volume: 30 Issue: 3 Pages: 17-20
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic autoimmune illness, which is consider by three main features: Sclerotic changes in the skin and internal organs, Vasculopathy of small blood vessels, Particular autoantibodies (1). The most important autoantibodies appeared significantly in SSc patients are anti-topoisomerase I autoantibody (Scl-70), anti-centromere autoantibody (ACA), and anti-RNA polymerase III autoantibody (RNAP3) (2). Anti-centromere antibodies (ACA) are infrequent in rheumatic conditions and in healthy persons but occur commonly in limited systemic sclerosis (CREST syndrome), and rarely appeared in the diffuse form of systemic sclerosis (3). Anti-Ro/SSA and antiLa/SSB, antibodies directed against Ro/La ribonucleoprotein complexes, can serve as a diagnostic hallmark of autoimmune disease specially Sjogren’s syndrome (4).Materials and methods: This study was carried out during the period from the middle of November 2015 until the end of November 2016 in Baghdad city. The sample of this study was divided into two groups : Forty systemic sclerosis patients: Those patients were treated at Rheumatology department in Baghdad teaching hospital in Baghdad city as well as Forty healthy control subjects, age matched with no signs and symptoms of any systemic diseases.Results: The serum anti-SSA in SSc patient was significant increased as well as the salivary anti-SSA in SSc patient was highly significantly increased than in the control subjects by using t-test. The present study found that there no statically difference in salivary ACA, anti-SSB and serum anti-SSB while serum ACA was significantly increased.Conclusions: autoantibodies play a role in pathogenesis of SSc patients represented by increased serum (ACA and anti-SSA) that it considered reliable indicator for SSc patients while unpredicted marker in saliva except anti-SSA. Anti-La/SSB is unreliable marker in both serum and saliva SSc patients. The presence of Anti-Ro/SSA antibodies in serum and saliva of SSc patient has been predictive marker for SSc overlapped Sjogren’s syndrome.


Article
Lactate dehydrogenase in serum and saliva of ischemic heart disease patients

Authors: Rehab A. Mahmood --- Taghreed F. Zaidan --- Alaa M. Shaheed
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2010 Volume: 22 Issue: 1 Pages: 21-24
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme detectable in cytoplasm in almost every cell of the
human body, which becomes extracellular upon cell death. Therefore, its extracellular presence is always related
to cell necrosis and tissue breakdown. The aim of this study was to assess LDH in ischemic heart diseased patients
and chronic periodontitis patients and to assess the role of saliva as a diagnostic tool for this biochemical analysis.
Materials and Methods: One hundred and forty individuals were enrolled in this study; forty of them were patients
having ischemic heart diseases (IHD); sixty patients were age and sex matched risk groups (thirty patients with
hypertension and thirty with diabetes mellitus type 2); the last group was age and sex matched apparently
healthy control individuals. Serum and saliva samples have been taken from each subject for LDH analysis.
Periodontal status have been determined using the clinical periodontal sum score (CPSS).
Results: the mean activity of serum LDH was significantly higher in IHD patients compared to healthy controls & risk
groups, while salivary LDH was highest in relation to highest score of chronic periodontitis (CPSS).
Conclusions: Serum LDH is highly significant in predicting IHD patients, while salivary LDH increases with chronic
periodontitis progression.
Key words: Ischemic heart diseases, chronic periodontitis, and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). J Bagh Coll
Dentistry 2010; 22(1):21-24.

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Article
Oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde and antioxidants superoxide dismutase and uric acid in ischemic heart disease patients

Authors: Rehab A. Mahmood --- Taghreed F. Zaidan --- Alaa M. Shaheed
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2009 Volume: 21 Issue: 3 Pages: 65-71
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: When the oxidant-antioxidant balance is disturbed in favour of reactive oxygen species (ROS),
oxidative stress occurs, which is damaging to tissues. Oxidative stress and ROS have been reported to be related to
the pathogenesis of many diseases including ischemic heart diseases. The aim of this study was to assess oxidative
stress marker malondialdehyde (MDA) and the antioxidants uric acid (UA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in serum
and saliva of ischemic heart diseased patients.
Materials and Methods: Eighty subjects were enrolled in this study, forty patients were diagnosed as ischemic heart
disease (IHD), their ages ranged between 42-80 years, and forty individuals were age and sex matched healthy
looking volunteers. MDA, UA and SOD have been estimated for all the serum and salivary samples.
Results: The mean levels of serum and salivary MDA, UA, and SOD in IHD patients were higher than that of healthy
controls. Age was the most important explanatory factor that affects salivary MDA, UA, and SOD.
Conclusions: Ischemic heart disease patients are associated with increased oxidative stress which has been
represented by increased MDA levels and increased antioxidants UA and SOD in serum and saliva.
Key words: Ischemic heart diseases, oxidative stress, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, uric acid. (J Bagh Coll
Dentistry 2009; 21(4):65-71)

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Article
Low and high density lipoproteins in serum and saliva of ischemic heart disease patients

Authors: Rehab A. Mahmood --- Taghreed F. Zaidan --- Alaa M. Shaheed
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2009 Volume: 21 Issue: 3 Pages: 60-64
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Coronary artery disease is one of the main reasons of early death in humans; the initiation of the
atherosclerotic plaque is ascribed to focal accumulation of lipids. Saliva provides an inexpensive, non invasive and
accessible diagnostic element. The aim of this study was to assess Low and high density lipoproteins cholesterol in
ischemic heart diseased patients and to assess the role of saliva as a diagnostic tool for this biochemical analysis.
Materials and Methods: Eighty subjects were enrolled in this study, forty patients were diagnosed as ischemic heart
disease (IHD), their ages ranged between 42-80 years, and forty individuals were age and sex matched healthy
looking volunteers. Lipid profile has been estimated for all the serum and salivary samples.
Results: the mean level of serum total cholesterol (TC) in healthy controls was higher than that of IHD patients, but it fail
to reach a significant level. The mean levels of salivary TC in healthy controls were significantly higher than that of IHD
patients. The mean levels of serum and salivary HDL in healthy controls were significantly higher than that of IHD group.
There were no significant differences between serum and salivary LDL of IHD patients compared to healthy controls.
The levels of TC, HDL, and LDL are more significant in saliva than in serum in IHD patients compared to healthy controls.
Conclusions: Ischemic heart disease is associated with significant decrease in serum and salivary HDL and non
significant decrease in serum and salivary LDL. Saliva is more significant than serum in this biochemical analysis.
Key words: Ischemic heart diseases, high density and lipoprotein. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(4):60-64)

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Article
Oral manifestations, oral health status and saliva composition changes in a sample of Iraqi systemic lupus erythematosus patients

Authors: Noor S. Mohammed نور محمد --- Taghreed F. Zaidan تغريد زيدان
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: special issue 2 Pages: 65-69
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease associated with significantmorbidity and mortality. Sicca symptoms are frequent in SLE which may be related to concomitant occurrence ofSjögren's syndrome (SS). The aims of study were to determine prevalence of oral manifestations andtempromandibular joint disorders, and to find a correlation between the changes in saliva flow rate, pH andcomposition with the incidence of dental caries in SLE patients.Subjects, materials and methods: One hundred and two individuals were enrolled in this study; 52 of them were SLEpatients; and 50 were healthy control individuals matched in age and gender. The assessment of dental status wasmade according to the decay missing filling teeth (DMFT) index; the gingival inflammation was assessed using thecriteria of gingival index; Clinical pocket depth was measured with periodontal probe type William, and wholeunstimulated saliva samples have been collected from each subject for biochemical analysis. Also, salivary flow rateand pH were measured. After centrifugation, the supernatant of saliva was aspirated for biochemical analysis.Results: Oral ulceration was the most prominent orofacial manifestations of SLE patients followed byTempromandibular joint (TMJ) disorders and facial skin rash then oral vesicles& bullae, oral lichen planus and finallyoral petechiae & purpura. Salivary flow rate and salivary pH were significantly lower in SLE patients than in the controlsubjects. Oral hygiene index (DMFT index, gingival index, Clinical pocket depth) were significantly higher in SLEpatients than in the control subjects .Salivary calcium, sodium, chloride, and total protein were significantly higheramong SLE patients than in the control subjects. While salivary potassium and inorganic phosphorus were significantlylower among SLE patients than in the control subjects. In addition, there was a highly significant positive linearcorrelation between age of SLE patients and DMFT, and between age and clinical pocket depth; and a highlysignificant negative linear correlation between salivary flow rate and salivary calcium in SLE patients. Also there washighly significant positive linear correlation between DMFT and salivary calcium, and between DMFT and salivarychloride.Conclusions: Oral manifestations are common in Iraqi SLE patients. Changes in salivary flow rate, pH, salivarycomposition, and increased dental caries may serve as potential markers of the extent of autoimmune mediatedsalivary gland dysfunction which is similar to Sjogren’s syndrome


Article
Evaluation of the efficacy of ultrasound in the diagnosis of cervical lymphadenopathy

Authors: Shahad D. Ali --- Taghreed F. Zaidan --- Mohammed A. Mahdi
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2018 Volume: 30 Issue: 3 Pages: 59-67
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Cervical lymph nodes are prone to involved by a number of pathologic processes. They are common sites for lymphoma, metastasis, and reactive enlargement in a number of conditions.Aims of the study:-Clinical evaluation of patients with cervical lymphadenopathy. Differentiation between benign and malignant lymph nodes by means of ultra sounds (US) and Correlate the US findings with cytological and/or histopathological findings of cervical lymph nodes.Subjects, Materials and Methods:-The present study was carried out over a period of 6 months and included 81 patients of different age groups presenting with cervical lymphadenopathy. Each patient was examined clinically, then comprehensive sonographic examination of the neck for cervical lymph nodes (L.Ns) was performed using ultrasound machine (GE Wipro Proseries). The scanning was performed with the patient in the supine position, and with the neck hyperextended using a pad or pillow under the shoulders in order to provide optimum exposure of the neck. The parameters considered in this study include: site, long axis (L), short axis (S), shape index (S/L), echotexture, margins, ancillary features like calcification, necrosis, matting and surrounding tissue changes. These findings were correlated with fine-needle aspiration cytology, core and excisional biopsy. The nodes were classified as benign (reactive) and malignant (lymphomatous and metastatic).Results: The age of patients ranged from five to seventy five years, they were 45 male and 36 females, there was association between family history and development of malignant lesions. Regarding clinical evaluation, and according to consistency, (13) hard L.Ns were malignant and (1) was benign, (27) rubbery L.Ns were malignant and 40 soft L.Ns were benign. According to fixation to underlying structure, forty one L.Ns were fixed, (40) were malignant and (1) was benign. Forty L. Ns were not fixed, on histopathological evaluation all were benign. On US, the results showed that malignant lymph nodes are mostly appeared as round shape, homogenous echotexture, nodal shape (S/L ratio) accurate for differentiating benign from malignant lymph nodes. Most of the malignant nodes had well-defined borders. Calcifications, necrosis, matting, were characteristically found in benign lymph node. A combined ultrasound-guided and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) diagnosis had a high accuracy as compared with situations in which they were used alone.Conclusions: Sonographic findings have a high accuracy in differentiating benign from malignant cervical lymph nodes. An ultrasound scan can be used as the first-line imaging tool in the diagnostic evaluation of cervical lymphadenopathy. Using gray scale features are particularly useful to identify the causes of cervical lymphadenopathy.

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Article
Threshold sensitivity of taste perception and the role of saliva and Zinc level in some physiological & pathological conditions

Authors: Tahani A. Al-Sandook --- Wasan M. Al-Omary --- Taghreed F. Zaidan
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2009 Volume: 51 Issue: 1 Pages: 90-94
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Summary:
Background: Decreased taste acuity to the four basic tastes is closely related to health problems (diseases & medications), aging, and smoking. This study aimed to determine taste detection and recognition thresholds to the four basic tastes in some physiological and pathological conditions, determine saliva flow rate, serum and saliva zinc levels in these groups.
Objective and Methods: The study includes 218 individuals (35–80) years old divided into six groups; the control, aging (subjects over 60 years), smokers, diabetics, haemodialysis patients and hypertensive patients on chronic use of captopril.The taste detection and recognition thresholds of sweet, salty, sour and bitter tastes, saliva flow rate were determined. Zinc concentration was assessed in serum and saliva spectrophotometricaly.
Results: The results showed a significant increase in the taste detection and recognition thresholds of the four basic tastes of all groups than in the control, except the salty taste thresholds of the haemodialysis group and the salty taste detection threshold of the diabetics.
Saliva flow rates, serum and saliva zinc levels decreased significantly at p<0.001 in study groups as compared to the control group.
Conclusions:The taste acuity was impaired in aged subjects, smokers, diabetics, haemodialysis patients, and hypertensive patients on chronic use of captopril.
Decreased saliva flow rate and saliva zinc concentration could be causative factors for hypogeusia.

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