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Article
Rheological Evaluation of Polymer (Sav 10) For Polymer Flooding Applications

Authors: Talib A. Salih --- Safaa Hussain Sahi --- Omar K. Hameed
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2016 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 37-46
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Half of the oil production of the worldwide is a result of the water flooding project. But the main concern of this process is mobility control of the injected fluid, because the unfavorable mobility ratio leads to fingering effect. Adding polymer to the injection water increase the water viscosity, therefore, the displacement will be more stable and have a greater sweep efficiency. Using of polymer flooding has received more attention these days. Polymer has great potential in the Middle East region, especially in reservoir with high temperature and salinity. The main objective of this work is to show the effect of shear rate, salinity, temperature, polymer concentration on polymer viscosity and determine the target viscosity to further displacement experiments. Polymer solution was prepared with two types of water (fresh water, brine). The reason of using two types of water is the ability of polymer to prepare by fresh water or brine. Results from this study show that as the shear rate increases, polymer viscosity decreases. Also, the results show that in spite of polymer viscosity decreased with increase in temperature and salinity, polymer (SAV 10) shows that high temperatures have less effect on its viscosity at the same shear rate and has a salinity resistant up 200000 ppm. As polymer concentration increase, polymer viscosity increase until reach the target concentration which can be used for displacement experiments. It was found that the target concentration with viscosity 6.99 cp is 2000 ppm, which is closest to reservoir viscosity.


Article
Using Different Surfactants to Increase Oil Recovery of Rumaila Field (Experimental Work)

Authors: Talib A. Salih --- Safaa Hussain Sahi --- Ahmed Noori Ghani AL-Dujaili
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2016 Volume: 17 Issue: 3 Pages: 11-31
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Enhanced oil recovery is used in many mature oil reservoirs to increase the oil recovery factor. Surfactant flooding has recently gained interest again. To create micro emulsions at the interface between crude oil and water, surfactant flooding is the injection of surfactants (and co-surfactants) into the reservoir, thus achieving very low interfacial tension, which consequently assists mobilize the trapped oil.In this study a flooding system, which has been manufactured and described at high pressure. The flooding processes included oil, water and surfactants. 15 core holders has been prepared at first stage of the experiment and filled with washed sand grains 80-500 m and then packing the sand to obtain sand packs samples for experiment. It was found that the best rate for water injection was 1.2 PV. Productively, while the optimum injection rate was 1.0 PV economically.The study observed that the cost of water injection in secondary recovery increased 700% when PV injected increased from 1.0 PV to 8.0 PV, while the recovery increased only about 8% (58.77 – 66.7%).The effects of concentration, salinity and temperature is also explored by examined many values of each parameter according to surface tension by using capillary rise method. It was found that the optimum conditions for surfactant flooding for sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) 0.01 molar for concentration, 5500 P.P.M for salinity and 70 C for temperatures. These conditions was used to all kinds of surfactants that have been used in this study.The study results indicated that the best surfactant in both productively and economically was SDS with maximum recovery about 90% for each secondary and tertiary recovery and the optimum injection volume for all surfactants 1.2 PV . Another 12 Core holders with fixed pore volume were prepared for the second stage of the experiment. At this stage the pore volume was approximately constant and the variation included different values of SDS concentrations (0.1 and 0.001 Molar) and different values of salinity (1000 P.P.M and 3000 P.P.M) and temperature equal to 90 C. Each value for concentration was experimented with the two values of salinity which in result obtaining four flooding conditions. Each condition was flooded by three injection rates (50, 120, 200 %). The results proved the results obtained from the first stage.

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