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Article
Epidemiological study on prevalence of plaque and gingivitis among adolescents and adult population (15-54) years in Hamam-Allel villages, Ninevah, Iraq

Author: Tarik Y KHAMRCO
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2001 Volume: 1 Issue: 3 Pages: S283-S290
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of periodontal disease (gingivitis) and oral hygiene condition among adolescents and adult population (15-54) years in Hamam-Allel villages in Ninevah city.A sample of (402) individuals aged (15-54) years (10 males and 292 females) were selected randomly and examined using plaque index Score by Silness and Loe and gingival index by Loe and Silness. The results revealed that mean plaque score was (1.21) for the total sample, and it was increase with age, the males reported lower mean than females with no significant difference between them. The mean gingival score was low (54) for the total sample and it was increase with age significantly, the mean gingival score was slightly better in females than males, however, there was no statistically significant differences between them.The study indicated that about 2/3 of the total sample did not brush their teeth or brush infrequently,so the population can be educated in effective and regular oral hygiece, therefore dental health education orogram for those population is an essential activity for promoting their oral health and preventing oral disease.


Article
Prevalence of dental caries, dental health attitude and behaviour in Humaidat village, Ninevah, at the entry of 21st century

Authors: Tarik Y Khamrco --- Saher S Gasgoos
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2006 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 15-19
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To evaluate the prevalence of dental caries in Humaidat village (which is located at Tigris riverabout 25 Km to the Northern West from Mosul City), to determine the level of dental health attitudeand behaviors and to compare the results with the previous study that carried out in the same villagebefore 10 years. Materials and Methods: The size of the sample was 213 individuals, 105 males and108 females. Their ages were ranged between 10–60 years. Clinical dental examination was carried outusing decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) index for the permanent teeth. Questionnaires wereused to assess the level of dental health attitude and behaviours among the individuals. Results: Mostof the individuals have poor awareness about their oral health. They were not used to brush their teethregularly; they eat large amount of sweets at different times of the day and a large percent of them hadno willingness to seek for dental treatment. Clinical dental examination indicated the high cariesprevalence among the individuals, which increased by increasing age, and most of the cases weretreated by extraction. Conclusion: The oral and dental health status in the rural areas is far from goodand needs to be reevaluated.


Article
A comparative study in dental caries prevalence and treatment needs of pregnant women and single females in Mosul City, Iraq

Authors: Tarik Y Khamrco --- Khawla M Saleh
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2003 Volume: 3 Issue: 1 Pages: 57-64
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

An epidemiological study was carried out to compare the prevalence of dental caries and treatment need of pregnant women and single females in Mosul City, Iraq. A total sample of 666 women (399 pregnant women and 267 single females) selected randomly. Pregnant women were selected from four health care centers, when attending to periodic maternal check up with different stages of pregnancy in Maternal and Child Health Care Center. Single females were selected randomly as control group to compare with pregnant group from health centers. Each group subdivided into 4 subgroups according to the age. Caries experience and the treatment need were diagnosed and recorded according to the criteria suggested by WHO (1997). The results showed a significant difference in the mean Decayed, Missing and Filled Surfaces (DMFS) between pregnant and single females, and the prevalence of dental caries increase with advanced age. The mean DMFS value for pregnant women is 28.78 and for single females 19.09. The study demonstrated that the decay surface component was formed more than the half of DMFS value. Educational programmes to pregnant women through medical and dental centers as well as mass media are suggested to increase the dental awareness and preventive behaviour.


Article
Caries experience and treatment needs of primary dentition in Shrkhan village

Authors: Tarik Y KHAMRCO --- Rayia J AL-NAIMI
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2001 Volume: 1 Issue: 2 Pages: 174-179
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The aim of this field investigation was to determine the prevalence and treatment needs of dental caries of primary dentition in (466) child aged (4-12) years old in the village of Shrkhan. Examination of the teeth was performed according to the basic method of the oral health survey of WHO for the year 1997.Results showed that the mean dmft for (4-6) years old was (2.63) and it was decreasing with increasing age to (119) in 10-12 years old.There was a decline in dental caries with age, this was statistically significant at (5%) level, while no significant differences in dental caries experience was found between males and females. The prevalence of rampant caries in age group (4-6) years was (11.3%), the females reported a higher prevalence than males (16.6% and 5.4%) respectively.A high percentage of children were found in need of dental treatment. Majority of them needed one surface restorations, followed by two or more surface restorations, extractions than pulp care.The findings of this study indicated that this group of children needed a preventive and treatment program


Article
Naturally fluoride contained of drinking water and the prevalence of dental fluorosis in Ninevah Governorate, Iraq

Authors: Tarik Y KHAMRCO --- May GH AL-AJRAB
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2002 Volume: 2 Issue: 1 Pages: 7-19
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of dental fluorosis in a group of school students lived in area with high and low natural fluoride contained drinking water in Ninevah Governorate.The study was conducted among (1724) school's students aged (11-16) years from randomly selected schools (primary and intermediate) in two provinces in Ninevah Governorate. Eight hundred and thirteen students who had lived since birth in high natural fluoride level area (Sinjar province) (2.05-2.22 ppm) and (911) students lived continuously from birth in low natural fluoride level area in their drinking water (Talkaif province) (0.11-0.19 ppm).Dean index has been used to assess the dental fluorosis. The results show that the prevalence of dental fluorosis in Sinjar province is (97.3%) within individual and (62.9%) within teeth, ranging from very mild to mild form of dental fluorosis, with no significant sex difference, but the percentage of severity has been found to be increasing with age, while the prevalence of dental fluorosis in Talkaif province was (5.5%) within individual and (1.2%) within teeth, with no significant sex difference.The community fluorosis indices for Sinjar and Talkaif provinces are (1.7 and 0.1) respectively. This difference is due to the difference in level of natural fluoride in both provinces drinking water supplies.


Article
Topical fluoride gel application: When and to whom starts therapy?

Authors: Tarik Y KHAMRCO --- Karam H JAZRAWI
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2002 Volume: 2 Issue: 1 Pages: 32-42
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

This study aims at investigating the scope of topical acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel effect on initial carious lesions, evaluating the effect of the gel on newly erupted teeth, as well as on the low-, moderate, and high-risk School children.A sample of (340) school children [177 (52.06%) males and 163 (47.94%) females]initially in the fourth grade (aged 9-11 years) were collected from (4) Primary schools in Mosul city center, The children were allocated randomly to one experimental group (received topical APF gel) and one control group (did not receive any fluoride therapy).The dental examinations were done using DMFT index: one before fluoride application and the other after one year. It can be observed from this study that the topical APF gel is effective on initial lesions. Moreover, the efficacy of the gel on the newly erupted teeth, including chose teeth erupted during the study, is found to be greater than on the previously erupted ones. The results also reveal that the high - risk groups are the most benefitted from the fluoride treatment than the moderate- and low-risk groups. The percentages of caries reduction were (96.700%), (74.880%), and (36.071%) for the three groups, respectively.So, the use of such a fluoride therapy as a school-based programme is advised for all children with evidence of dental caries, and is recommended to be planned to match the pattern of eruption of teeth.


Article
Caries-preventive effect of topical APF gel with three different frequencies of application in 9-11 years old school children in Ninevah

Authors: Karam H JAZRAWI --- Tarik Y KHAMRCO
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2001 Volume: 1 Issue: 3 Pages: S201-S214
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

This is the first study carried out in Iraq that aimed at evaluating the effect on dental caries of Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride (APF) gel applied topically with different frequencies (once per year vs. twice per year vs. four times a year).A sample of (235) school children [116 (49.36%) males and 119 (50.64%) females) initially in the fourth grade (aged 9-11 years) were collected from (4) primary schools in Mosul city Centre. The children were allocated randomly to (3) experimental groups and one control group. The first group received (0.49%) APF gel four times a year for (4) minutes. The second group received (0.4%) APF gel once per year for (4) minutes; whereas the third group received (0.4%) APF gel twice per year for (4) minutes.Two examinations were done using DMFT and DMIFS indices: one before fluoride application and the other after one year.The results showed a reduction in dental caries (with respect to DMFT index, and in comparison with the control group) of (112.8%) for the first group,(35.9%) for the second group, and (80.4%) regarding the third group. With respect to DMFS index, and in comparison with the control group, the reduction in dental caries was (97.3%),(32.8%), and (72.6%), respectively.The best benefit from using topically applied APF gel was, therefore, achieved from applying (0.4%) gel four times a year for (4) minutes.


Article
Prevalence of dental caries (DMFT) in Iraqi children and adolescent living in areas with low and high level of natural fluoride

Authors: Tarik Y KHAMRCO --- May GH AL-AJRAB
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2001 Volume: 1 Issue: 3 Pages: S385-S400
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of dental caries in a group of school children lived in area with high and low natural fluoride contained drinking water in Ninevah governorate.The study is conducted among (1724) schools students aged 11-16 years from randomly selected schools (primary and intermediate) in two provinces in Ninevah governorate.Eight hundred and thirteen students who had lived since birth in high natural fluoride level area (Sinjar province)(2.05-222 ppm) and (911) students lived continuously from birth in low natural fluoride level area in their drinking water (Talkaif province)(0.11-0.19 ppm).WHO methodology (1997) has been used to assess the dental caries status and using DMFT index for permanent teeth.The results show that in Sinjar province the mean DMFT for total samples were (1.67) and (36.2%) are caries free with no sex difference. while there is a significant age differences. On the other hand, in Talkaif province the results reveal higher DMFT (3.7) and lower percent of caries free (19.1%), The mean DMFT reported twice in Talkaif province than Sinjar province with highly significant differences between them.The percentage of reduction of dental caries has been found to be (54.3%) in Sinjar province compare to Talkaif province.


Article
Time and order of eruption of primary teeth for children in Mosul City, Iraq

Authors: Tarik Y KHAMRCO --- Aisha A QASIM
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2002 Volume: 2 Issue: 3 Pages: 327-340
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The aims of the study were to determine the time and sequence of eruption of primary teeth. Also, to determine the differences in timing of tooth emergence according to side, jaw and gentler variation.Tinning and sequence of cruption were studied cross-sectionally in a group of (1843) children from Mosul City, Iraq:(940) were males and(903) were females aged between (2-37)months. The data were statistically analysed by using Karber's analysis in order to compute the mean and standard deviation of emergence.The results showed that there are no significant differences between the mean time of corresponding right and left teeth in both genders. The findings of the study indicated that the males have their primary teeth to emerge earlier than those of females. The differences between the two genders are clearly seen in the eruption of maxillary lateral incisor and maxillary first molar. The males acquired all their primary teeth to emerge in shorter time span than the females (difference 2.04 months).The results demonstrated that the maxillary teeth emerge before their mandibular opposing teeth in males with the exception of central incisor. However, in females, the mandibular teeth emerge before their maxillary opposing teeth with the exception of the canine and second molar.A specific sequence of primary teeth emergence was found in both arches and for both genders. In general, the emergence of primary teeth started with the emergence of mandibular central incisor and ended with mandibular second molar.


Article
The effectiveness of different methods of teaching dental health on the incidence of plaque and gingivitis

Authors: Tarik Y KHAMRCO --- Saher S GASGOOSE
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2002 Volume: 2 Issue: 3 Pages: 388-398
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of various methods of delivery of dental health education. A sample of(223) secondary school students in Mosul City were randomly allocated to one of the following modes of dental health education: Professional instruction(by the dentist), self-educational manual(by a booklet) and audio-visual method(by video film), in addition to a control group where no dental health education was given. Three clinical dental examinations were carried out to evaluate the presence of dental plaque and gingival health, one prior to the programme(baseline examination) are two examinations following the programme at six weeks and three months later to the baseline examination.The results indicated a very high significant reduction in the plaque and gingival index scores for the three experimental groups,which was maintained on these low levels three months after the baseline examination.The results were achieved with a minimum of time, cost and personals, and do confirm the effectiveness of dental health education alone in improving gingival health. Therefore, these methods seem to be highly valuable and efficient for teaching dental health to the students in Iraqi schools.

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