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Article
Endothelin-1 Expression in Placental Tissue Vasculature in Normal Vaginal Delivery and Cesarean Sections

Author: Thaer M. Farhan
Journal: Muthanna Medical Journal مجلة المثنى الطبية ISSN: 2226146x Year: 2019 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 26-36
Publisher: Al-Muthanna University جامعة المثنى

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Abstract

The placenta is a temporary organ required for the development of embryo and fetus. It allows the physiological exchange between the fetus and the mother. Endothelin is a human protein has three isoforms, endothelin-1, -2, and -3. Endothelin-1 (ET- 1) is the most potent and long-lasting vasoconstrictor known. Endothelin has two receptors, ETA and ETB, ETA receptors are found on the external surface of the vascular smooth muscle cells of blood vessels, and binding of endothelin to ETA increases vasoconstriction. Objectives: To study the histochemical distribution of vasoactive agent (endothelin -1) in placental tissue after normal vaginal delivery and elective caesarean section, this might be a determinant of the onset of parturition. The current study includes studying forty-two placentas (21NVD&21CS) with an eccentric cord insertion were obtained from a healthy pregnant female (with no hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or gynecological diseases or any other major diseases). The placental tissues were histologically prepared for paraffin sections. Staining procedure includes histochemical stain for endotheline-1 using goat polyclonal IgG antibody against endothelin-1 as primary antibody and biolinylated as secondary antibody. An immunostaining score according to the graduated intensities of the reaction product was defined and scored blindly by two investigators who scored Staining intensity (-, +, ++, +++, ++++). The median intensity of ET-1 was highest in placenta delivered by normal vaginal delivery (++++) and lowest in those by cesarean section (+). The normal vaginal delivery group of placentas was associated with statistically significant higher median ET-1 stain intensity compared to that of cesarean section group. In-conclusion: ET-1 activity in placental tissue is significantly higher in normal vaginal delivery group.


Article
Anatomical Study of Axillary Artery Variation.

Authors: Mohammad O. Selman --- Thaer M. Farhan
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: PISSN: 00419419 / EISSN: 24108057 Year: 2010 Volume: 52 Issue: 3 Pages: 322-325
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The axillary artery is a direct continuation of the subclavian artery. The axillary artery is usually described as giving off six branches. The first part gives superior thoracic artery. The second part gives lateral thoracic (LT) and thoracoacromial(TAC) arteries. The third part gives three, subscapular(SS), anterior circumflex humeral(ACH)and posterior circumflex humeral(PCH) arteries. Anatomical variations in the branching pattern of axillary artery are quiet common and typically include the subscapular artery(SS), lateral thoracic artery(LT) and the posterior circumflex humeral artery(PCH). The variation of the axillary artery branching pattern has anatomical as well as clinical and surgical relevance given the proximity to the shoulder joint and humerus.
Patients & Method: Bilateral axilla dissection was conducted on 26 embalmed axillae (13 cadavers) to allow examination of the axillary artery and its branches. The study was carried out in Department of Human Anatomy, College of Medicine.
Results: The classical branching pattern of the LT originating from the axillary artery posterior to the pectoralis minor muscle and the SS producing the circumflex scapular (CS) artery and thoracodorsal(TD) occurred in 77%. The SS was observed originating from the LT 7% of the time. The LT was observed originating from the SS 5% of the time. The LT was observed producing the circumflex scapular artery and TD in the absence of SS 2.5% of the time. The PCH originated from four different sources, from the third part of axillary artery as is classically described in 77%. From the SS 11%. From deep brachial artery DB 9% and from LT 2%.
Conclusion: Vascular variation in the axillary artery and its branches is quiet common , This variation should be considered seriously as will implicate risk of bleeding during surgery in the axilla and also the difficulty in interpretation of the angiography after axillary catheterization .


Article
ANATOMICAL STUDY OF ANOMALOUS TESTICULAR ARTERY
دراسة تشريحية للشريان الخصوي الشاذ

Author: Thaer M. Farhan ثائر محمود فرحان
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2009 Volume: 7 Issue: 1 Pages: 49-54
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background: The testicular artery arises from aorta below the level of renal arteries, most commonly at the level of L2 vertebra.Variations in the site of origin of the testicular artery may be accounted; it may arise from anomalous origin rather than aorta, or may originate from aorta higher than L2 level or arises from the main renal artery or accessory one. Objectives: study the sites of origin of testicular artery and its clinical importance.Materials & Methods: study the origins of 40 testicular arteries, in both sides of 20 male cadavers in the anatomical laboratory prepared and embalmed for teaching purposes in the medical college. Examine both sides to see the possible origins of the testicular arteries either from aorta or from somewhere else.Results: During dissection of 20 male cadavers, examining 40 testicular arteries on both sides, a different site of origin of the testicular artery was encountered. The right testicular artery was found originated from the right main renal artery. On the other hand, the left testicular artery was found originated from the left accessory renal artery in two cases out of twenty. In the other 17 cases, all the testicular arteries whether right or left were originated from abdominal aorta. Discussion: Variation in the renal and gonadal vasculature has been known since early days of human autopsy. The anomalous origin of testicular artery from accessory renal vessel has important clinical implications, since any surgical intervention with the kidney, during transplantation for example, may lead erroneously to injury of the anomalous testicular artery leading to atrophy of the male gonad.Conclusion: •Testicular artery may originate from anomalous origin rather than aorta.•The anomalous testicular artery is the aberrant one, and no more accessory artery present.•The encountered anomalous origin may comprise a potential risk of bleeding from injured artery during surgery.Keywords: accessory renal arteries, testicular artery, vascular variation.

خلفية الدراسة: الشريان الخصوي يتفرع من الشريان الابهر أسفل من الشريان الكلوي عند مستوى الفقرة القطنية الثانية في اغلب الحالات.التباين في طريقة منشأ الشريان الخصوي ممكن مشاهدته إما ينشا من الشريان الابهر بمستوى أعلى او أسفل من الحالة الاعتيادية أو ممكن أن ينشا من غير الشريان الابهر .هدف الدراسة:لدراسة التباين في منشأ الشريان الخصوي والأهمية السريرية لذلك.طريقة العمل: تم دراسة المنشأ لأربعين شريان خصوي لكلا الجهتين لعشرين جثة بشرية محنطة في كلية الطب ز لمعرفة التباين الممكن في ذلك.النتائج: خلال الدراسة التشريحية لعشرين جثة ومن خلال الفحص لأربعين شريان خصوي لكلا الجهتين, تم ملاحظة اختلاف في طريقة منشأ الشريان الخصوي. الشريان الخصوي الأيمن وجد في احد الحالات ينشا من الشريان الكلوي الأيمن, في حين وجد الشريان الخصوي الأيسر ينشا من الشريان الكلوي الإضافي في حالتين من الحالات العشرين, في ماعدا ذلك فان الشريان الخصوي وجد ينشا من الشريان الابهر في كل الحالات المتبقية.الاستنتاج: •الشريان الخصوي ممكن ان ينشئ من منشأ شاذ غير الشريان الابهر.•الشريان الخصوي الشاذ هوالشريان الشاذ الوحيد وليس هناك غيره•ممكن ان يشكل الشريان الخصوي الشاذ خطر لحدوث النزف اثناء العمليات الجراحية على الكلية او شرايينها.مفتاح الكلمات: الشرايين الكلوية الاضافية , الشريان الخصوي , التباينات الوعائية.


Article
ANTHROPOMETRIC STUDY OF PUBIC TUBERCLE AND ITS CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS

Author: Thaer M Farhan ثائر محمود فرحان
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2011 Volume: 9 Issue: 4 Pages: 308-311
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

BackgroundAbdominal wall is the site of opposing physical forces that may eventually result in the appearance of the hernias. The external abdominal hernias are the most common forms, the inguinal hernia being the commonly encountered type [75% of the abdominal hernia]. Many factors are responsible for the formation of the inguinal hernia but, what makes a few people more susceptible to this situation is still clearly not proved. Few of the previous studies have concluded that the low lying pubic tubercle is associated with the development of the inguinal hernia.ObjectivesThis study was designed to investigate the distance between the anterior superior iliac spines and the perpendicular distance of the pubic tubercle from the interspinal line.Methods50 males with inguinal hernia compared with the control group comprising of 60 adult healthy males.ResultsThis study revealed that both parameters (interspinal SS distance and the pubic tubercle height ST) in the study group were significantly greater than that in the control group. The distance from mid inguinal point to the superficial inguinal ring was also measured in both the study and control groups and the results show that the distance is shorter in the individuals with the inguinal hernia. Identification of the structural characteristics of inguinal region enables the surgeon to perform the surgical technique appropriately.ConclusionThe low pubic tubercle group of cases has more tendencies for herniation. The unusual origin of internal oblique muscle in group II with low lying tubercle is far away, from the external half of the inguinal ligament, leaving the internal ring unprotected during abdominal muscle contraction, which is another causation of hernia development.Key words Inguinal hernia, pubic tubercle, inguinal canal, anterior superior iliac spine


Article
Correlation between Obesity and Semen Interleukin-6 with Sperm Concentration and Motility in Iraqi infertile Men

Authors: Rehab Al Maliki --- Mohammad 0. Selman --- Thaer M. Farhan --- Anam Al Salini
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2014 Volume: 4 Issue: 1 Pages: 33-36
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

BackgroundObesity has been defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health while the Body mass index (BMI) is a simple index of the weight-to-height ratio that is commonly used in classifying overweight and obesity in adult populations. Many semen parameters alteration can be ascribed to obesity like decreased sperm concentration , abnormal morphology, compromised chromatin integrity and abnormal motility. Many evidences showed an adverse effect of excess body fat on spermatogenesis.MethodsA total sample size composed of (?O)infertile men were grouped into three groups according to published BMI ranges as follows: normal weight, overweight and obese .A single semen sample was collected for each infertile men.Heightin (m) and weight in (kg) were recorded on day of semen collection .BMI was calculated as BMI= Kgm2. Sperm parameters evaluated accordingto World Health Organization guidelines.Quantitation of the IL-6 inseminal plasma were accomplished using commercially available ELISA kit.ResultsIn the current study, a positive correlation was found between body mass index and IL-6, on the contrary, a significant negative correlation was found among IL-6 level and progressive sperm motility and sperm concentrat ion as well.ConclusionThere is an increase of IL-6 from the adipose tissue with increasing BMI. The IL-6 cause reduction of the sperm motility by increasing the level of ROS. The obesity reduces the spermatogenesis by androgenic deficiency results in low sperm concentration and motilitywhich it may bethe main reason of their infertility.The aim of the study: to evaluate the correlation between the obesity and IL-6 and their effects on sperm concentration and motility.

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Article
IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL LOCALIZATION OF HNF4Α IN THE CHOROID PLEXUS OF THE RABBIT VENTRICLES WITH CLINICAL IMPLICATION

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Abstract

Background:The choroid plexuses are composed of highly differentiated epithelial cells in with connective tissue and permeable capillaries among them. These cells connected by tight junction to form the blood –CSF-barrier that plays important role in protection of CNS. HNF4α is transcription factor of many drugs transporter proteins and known as nuclear subfamily 2 group alpha encoded by HNF4 alpha gene can be found in the liver, pancreas, intestine, brain and recently in epithelial cell of choroid plexuses.Objectives:To evaluation the HNF4α intensity and localization of the choroid plexus in the lateral and forth ventricles of the rabbit.Methods:Choroid plexuses of lateral and forth ventricles of 30 adult male rabbits were studied by morphological and immunohistochemical evaluation of HNF4α in theses ventricles that play role in regulation of drugs transporters and drugs metabolism in B-CSF-B.Results: Histological method showed little different features by subjective examination between various localizations of the choroid plexuses. The immunohistochemical activity of HNF4α was different between lateral and forth ventricle where the IHC positivity is more in the lateral ventricle (0.067±0.029) than forth ventricle (0.032 ±0.018) and this results is statistically significant.Conclusion:The choroidal cells of lateral ventricle showed more IHC activity of HNF4α and might indicate targeting of many drug transporters proteins, metabolites and eliminate of toxic compounds from brain tissues.Key word:Choroid plexuses, HNF4α in lateral ventricle, drug transporter across the blood brain barrier.

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