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Beneficiation Pretreatment and Chemical Activation Method For Preparation and Characterization of Nano Structure Bentonite
استخدام المعالجة والتنشيط الكيمياوي لتحضير ودراسة خصائص بينتونايت نانوي

Authors: Adel Sharif Hamadi --- Riyadh M. Noaman --- Thamera Kidher --- Ghassan Rokan --- et al.
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2015 Volume: 33 Issue: 9 Part (B) Scientific Pages: 1683-1692
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Bentonite has widely been employed in many industrial applications due to their physicochemical properties and availability at low cost. The aim of this work was conducted to submit the Iraqi natural bentonite clay to beneficiation pretreatment and chemical acidification using 60% sulfuric acid under mechanical agitation for 2 hours at atmospheric temperature and pressure condition. The resulting bentonite was washed several times with distilled water and modified with ethanol under ultrasonic mixing. An experimental study was conducted to study the chemical composition, grain size, structural characterization and morphology of nano particle bentonite obtained using techniques of AFM microscopy, X-ray fluorescence XRF, X-ray diffraction XRD, scanning electron microscopy SEM, surface area by BET method, and FT-IR spectra. The calculated surface area of nanobentonite was 161.842 m2/gm, and total pore volume of 0.2196 cm3/gm. The nanoscalebentonite particles diameter in the range of 52 nm at maximum intensity of AFM. The FITR spectra assigned peaks; at 3392.22 and 1635.69 cm-1 is attributed to OH stretching (Al-OH and Si-OH) for bentonite, at 1159, 798.20 and 677.46cm-1 are assigned to characteristic bands of silicates; and peak at 500.08 cm-1 is responsible for Al-O-Si group deformation. SEM analysis show that nanobentonite structure due to beneficiation and activation conditions. The results of X-ray diffraction after activation observed that the intensity of the reflections of the characteristic peak of the gypsum and calcite belonging to the other minerals change due to destruction of the structure in the bentonite phases.

يستخدم البنتونايت في تطبيقات صناعية عديدة نتيجة لخواصه الكيميائية والفيزيائية ولتوفره بكميات كبيرة وتكاليف منخفظة. ان الغرض من هذه الدراسة هو تحضير بنتونايت نانوي من خام البنتونايت العراقي باستخدام معالجة رفع الجودة والتنشيط الكيمياوي بحامض الكبريتيك ذو تركيز 60% ولفترة ساعتين عند درجة الحرارة الاعتيادية والضغط الجوي. لقد تم غسل البنتونايت الناتج عدة مرات بالماء المقطر وتم معاملته مع الايثانول باستخدام الخلاط الفوق صوتي. اجريت دراسة مختبرية للتركيب الكيميائي, حجم الدقائق ,خصائص التركيب الداخلي والمورفولجي للدقائق النانوية باستخدام تقنيات ميكروسكوب القوى الذري, تفلور بالاشعة السينية, حيود الاشعة السينية, المجهر الماسح الالكتروني,المساحة السطحية , قياس طيف الاشعة الحمراء.لقد كانت المساحة السطحية 161.842 m2/gm وحجم المسامات الكلي 0.2196 cm3/gm . القطر النانوي لدقائق البنتونايت عند اقصى شدة لل AFM هو nm52 . لقد اشر طيف FITR عند 392.22 و 1635.69 cm-1 لل OH(Al-OH and Si-OH) وعند 1159, 798.20 و 677.46 cm-1اشرت لاصرة السيلكات وعند 500.08 cm-1 للمجموعة Al-O-Si . لقد بينت صور الماسح الالكتروني SEM الشكل النانوي للبنتونايت نتيجة عملية رفع الجودة والتفاعلات الكيمياوية. حيود الاشعة السينية X-ray diffraction ايضا بينت التغيرات في اطوار البنتونايت بعد المعالجة.


Article
Preparation of PPSU Hollow Fiber Nanofiltration Membranes for Nanofiltration Application

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Abstract

PPSU hollow fiber nanofiltration membranes are prepared by applying two concentrations and various extrusion pressures according to the phase inversion method. Cross-sectional area and outer structures were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In additional to the pore size distribution, either the mean roughness or the mean pore size of the PPSU hollow fiber surfaces was evaluated by AFM. It was found that the morphology of the PPSU fibers had both sponge-like and finger-like structures through different extrusion pressures and PPSU concentrations. The mean pore size and mean roughness for inner and outer surfaces were seen to be decreased with the increase of extrusion pressure at two different PPSU concentrations. Moreover, the lead ion rejection was significantly improved from 19 to 78 % with increasing the extrusion pressure from 2.5 to 3 bar at 25 wt.% PPSU concentration.

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