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Article
Although Late; but the First, an Iraqi Success in Human Embryo Cryopreservation Using Vitrification and the Factors Affecting the Pregnancy Rate: Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Thuraya H. Abdulla --- Ula M. Al-Kawaz --- Ali I. Rahim
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2018 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 10-21
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background: it is important to study a history of the science to appreciate thepast as a motive for hard work in the present for better future. In the other hand,the factors affecting pregnancy rate of frozen embryos are yet to be clarified atdifferent embryonic developmental stages.Objectives: to record a brief history of embryo cryopreservation in Iraq and tostudy many clinical and embryological factors that might affect the pregnancyrate.Subjects, materials and Method: a cross-sectional study of many clinical and embryologicalvariable, where120 frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles enrolled inthe study at the period from January 2017 till July 2018. The variables were statisticallyanalyzed first by one factor analysis comparing between pregnant andnon-pregnant cases; then by multivariate logistic regression analysis to illustratemain factors without a possible confounder effect.Results: In one factor analysis, the following variables showed a significantlyhigh effect on pregnancy rate (P value <0.001) which are women’s age, women’sweight, number of retrieved oocytes, mature oocytes and good quality embryos,developmental stage, E2 level, and endometrial thickness. While in multivariatelogistic regression analysis the women’s weight, the number of retrieved oocytesand good quality embryos were the main factors.Conclusions: it is judiciously to consider these factors while managing infertilecouples with embryo cryopreservation programs especially the modifiable factors.


Article
Effect of Ovarian Stimulation Protocol on Embryo Quality in IVF-ICSI

Authors: Mufeda A. Jwad --- Ban A.Abdulmajeed --- Ula M. Al-Kawaz
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2018 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 55-63
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Defects in reproduction that may involve both the male & femalepartners result in the inability to procreate which is known as infertility. Theuse of assisted reproductive technologies (ART’s) has been increasing over thepast three decades. Many efforts have been done to compensate for unsatisfactoryresults in in-vitro fertilization (IVF) procedures, so that patients undergodifferent ovarian stimulation protocols to control retrieval of multiple oocytesin a single cycle. Although ovarian stimulation has an important role in ART’s,it may also have detrimental effects on oocyte quality, embryo quality, and IVFoutcomes.Objectives: To assess the effect of long agonist versus antagonist protocols onoocyte and embryo quality in IVF- Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).Patients,Materials and Methods:This comparative study was done on the embryos of seventy one infertile femaleswho were undergoing Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatmentregardless to the presence or absence of previous trials. These patients weredivided into two groups, 45 of them treated with agonist protocol and other 26patients treated with antagonist protocol. First oocyte retrieved was used forfurther assessment. Of the 71 oocytes, there were eight immature oocytes (3 atgerminal vesicle (GV) stage, 5 at metaphase I (MI) stage) and three abnormaloocytes, and these were excluded from the following ICSI treatment. Assessmentand comparison of oocyte maturity, fertilization rate, cleavage rate and resultingembryo quality were done.Results:The results of the present study showed significant difference (p<0.05)in oocyte number and maturity but no significant (p>0.05) difference betweenthe group treated with long agonist and those on antagonist protocol regardingfertilization rate, cleavage rate, and embryo quality.Conclusions:The type of protocol used in in-vitro fertilization has no detrimentaleffect on oocyte or embryo quality.


Article
Estimation of Aromatase Enzyme in Obese Infertile Men

Authors: Ula M. AL-Kawaz --- Nawal K. AL-Ani --- Hikmat F. Wassef
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2016 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 22-31
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background: Male obesity is associated with physiological changes that can negatively affect male fertility. Obese men have demonstrated a 3-fold increase in the prevalence of oligozoospermia when compared with men with normal Body Mass Index (BMI). Objective: To estimate the role of aromatase enzyme in decreasing sperm parameters in obese infertile men. Subjects, Materials and Methods: Seventy obese infertile male (patients) and twenty obese fertile male (control) are enrolled in this study. Seminal fluid analysis done according to criteria of WHO (2010). Results: A significant negative correlation was found between human cytochrome enzyme and sperm concentration, progressively motile sperm, non-progressively motile sperm, immotile sperm and normal morphology.Conclusion:The present study showed clearly that male obesity negatively impacts fertilitythrough direct association between increased (BMI) and semen parameters. Theresults suggest that increased estrogen as a result of aromatization in the fattytissue, reflected through the increase in human cytochrome enzyme (aromatase),may be an important mechanism for the hypoandrogenemia and altered spermparameters


Article
Embryo Grading and Pregnancy Outcome inWomen of Patients with Azoospermia Following ICSI

Authors: Ula M. AL-Kawaz --- Ban J. Qasim --- Sally A. Shukry --- Ammar M. Qassim
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2016 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 61-71
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Azoospermia is defined as the lack of sperm in male ejaculate and is suggested to be present in about 1 % of all males and to account for 10-15% of the causes of infertility in men. The development of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) as an effective therapy. Embryo grading has gained special attention in published literature regarding its predictive role in pregnancy outcome following ICSI; however, substantial controversy is present that justified the carrying out of the present study.Objective:To study the association between embryo quality and pregnancy rate in women of males with azoospermia.Patients,Materials and Methods:This prospective cohort study included 60 patients with azoospermia, 15 male with obstructive type and 45 males with non-obstructive type.Those patients were randomly selected form the population of infertile couples who regularly visits the High Institute for Infertility Diagnosis and Assisted Reproductive Technologies and from Kamal Al-Samarrai Hospital -Center for Infertility Treatment and IVF.ResultsPregnancy was encountered in 7 patients (23.33%). It was not statistically associated with type of azoospermia (P=0.388), also it was not affected by age and serum hormonal level, but highly determined by good quality of embryo. Quality of embryo was graded from 1 to 4. The lower the grade, the better the quality of the embryo was. Quality of embryo was not significantly correlated with type of azoospermia, age and hormonal levels.Iraqi Journal of Embryo and Infertility Researches Vol.(6) Special Issue (2016)61ConclusionsGood quality of embryo is a significant predictor of positive pregnancy outcome in ICSI and the quality of embryo is not affected by age of male patient or type of azoospermia.

Keywords

Azoospermia --- ICSI --- embryo grading


Article
Estimation of Aromatase Enzyme in Obese Infertile Men in Correlation with Sex Hormones and BMI

Authors: Hikmat F. Wassef --- Nawal K. AL-Ani --- Ula M. AL-Kawaz
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2017 Volume: 7 Issue: 1 Pages: 62-70
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Male obesity is associated with physiological changes that can negatively affect male fertility. Obese men have demonstrated a 3-fold increase in the prevalence of oligozoospermia when compared with men with normal Body Mass Index (BMI).

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