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Article
Salivary magnesium during pregnancy and laborand its relation to gingivitis

Author: Wesal A. Al-Obaidi
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: PISSN: 00419419 / EISSN: 24108057 Year: 2006 Volume: 48 Issue: 4 Pages: 387-390
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Changes in the level of salivary magnesium could be of great clinical interest not only because of its relation with oral health but also with the physiological alteration occurring during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pregnancy on the salivary magnesium level and their relations to gingivitis.Materials and methods: Salivary samples were taken from 24 pregnant women, 17 non pregnant and 14 lactating women. Flow rate was calculated. The supernatant salivary samples were assayed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Gingival Index was applied for the assessment of gingival inflammation.
Results: Salivary magnesium concentration was significantly the lowest mean value during pregnancy, with decrease in concentration in the third trimester followed by a marked increase after labor reaching the normal level. Pregnant women had a significantly highest Gingival Index mean than other control groups. Very weak correlations were found between flow rate and (pregnancy and salivary magnesium). A positive correlation was recorded between gingivitis and pregnancy and a negative correlation between gingivitis and salivary magnesium. However, statistically all correlations were not significant.
Conclusion: The salivary magnesium is influenced by female sex hormone during pregnancy. Analysis of saliva may be applicable as an investigation means of the physiological alterations that occur during and after pregnancy.


Article
Nine–year cohort study to predict caries in permanent teeth from caries in primary teeth in the same individuals

Author: Wesal A. Al-Obaidi
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2006 Volume: 18 Issue: 3 Pages: 70-72
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Prevalence and severity of dental caries vary in different populations and fluctuate with time. Past caries experience is probably the most common used factor in the assessment of caries risk. The aim of this study was to determine whether caries status of the primary dentition can be used to predict caries in the permanent dentition.
Materials and methods: A sample of 128 kindergarten children of 4-5 years old were examined for primary teeth caries experience in the baseline study based on WHO criteria, then re-examined after 8 years to assess the caries experience in permanent teeth.
Results: Statistically significant associations were observed between the caries experience in primary and permanent teeth by using different indicators. The sensitivity was found to be higher than specificity, while positive and negative predictive values were 81% and 66% respectively.
Conclusion: The primary teeth caries experience play an important role in predicting permanent teeth caries. More attention was suggested to be paid to the children with more primary teeth decayed.
Keywords: Predict dental caries, primary permanent dentition. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(3)70-72)

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Article
Prevalence, severity and pattern of dental fluorosis among a group of children in Dahmar–Yemen

Author: Wesal A. Al-Obaidi
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2006 Volume: 18 Issue: 2 Pages: 92-96
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Dental fluorosis is an irreversible condition caused by excessive fluoride ingestion during the tooth formation. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence, severity and pattern of dental fluorosis of the primary and permanent dentitions.
Materials and Methods: A random sample of one hundred eighty children aged 6-12 years were examined by using Dean’s Flourosis Index – modified criteria.
Results: The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 77.8%. Permanent teeth fluorosis was higher than primary teeth fluorosis which was relatively uncommon. Dental fluorosis was most frequently seen on the posterior teeth (particularly the molars). 42.9% of the children had a moderate type of fluorosis. Dental fluorosis was more prevalent among males than females. Both early and late forming teeth were affected by fluorosis. Upper teeth were more affected than the lower teeth. There was a high degree of bilateral symmetry.
Conclusion: Dental fluorosis was prevalent in both primary and permanent dentitions; it was a moderate public health problem. The high prevalence and severity of fluorosis emphasized the need to study the risk factors determining dental fluorosis in Dahmar Village rather than water fluoridation.
Keywords: Dental fluorosis, children, Yemen. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(2)92-96)

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Article
Gingival health status among 3-5 years old children in Al-Edwania village, Baghdad

Author: Wesal A. Al-Obaidi وصال العبيدي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2005 Volume: 17 Issue: 2 Pages: 84-86
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Periodontal disease is one of the most widespread diseases in Iraq therefore this study was conducted to assess the periodontal condition.Materials and methods: A sample of 91 children living in AL-Edwania village was examined using plaque and gingival indices.Results: It showed a high prevalence of gingival inflammation, gingival inflammation increased with age, and females had a significantly higher gingival index mean than males. The mild type of gingivitis was found to be the highest score. Higher gingival and plaque index means in posterior segment were demonstrated than that in anterior segment.Conclusion: The most common type of gingivitis was the mild. The GI and PlI were increased with age and higher among females.


Article
Effect of small cardamom extracts on Mutans streptococci in comparison to chlorhexidine gluconate and de-ionized water (In vitro study)

Authors: Ghada A. Ibrahim --- Wesal A. Al – Obaidi
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 4 Pages: 160-163
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Herbs are being widely explored to discover alternatives to synthetic antibacterial agents.SmallCardamom often referred to as queen of spices because of its very pleasant aroma and taste, have a history as oldas human race. Most people use cardamom as a spice and are largely unaware of its numerous health benefits.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of water and alcoholic cardamomextracts on sensitivities, growth, and adherence of Mutans streptococci in vitro.Materials and Methods: In this study, saliva was collected from ten volunteers (College students 18-22 years). Agarwell technique was used to study the sensitivities of Mutans streptococci to different concentrations of smallcardamom extracts and other control agents, also the effects of small cardamom extracts on viable counts,adherence of Mutans streptococci were studiedResults: According to agar well diffusion methods, both cardamom extracts were effective in inhibition of Mutansstreptococci, but still weaker than chlorhexidine gluconate 0.2%. Alcoholic extracts showed higher zone of inhibitioncompared to the same concentration of water with high significance differences (P<0.01). The effects of 10%, 15%,and 20% of both water and alcohol extracts of small cardamom were tested on the viability counts of Mutansstreptococci in vitro. Highly significant reduction in the counts of bacteria was reported of both cardamom extractsand CHX in comparison to control without agents after 24 hr. Both cardamom extracts less effective than CHX. All theconcentration of water and alcohol cardamom mouth washes tested was not effective in prevention theadherence of bacteria on teeth surface in vitro, while CHX was effective in prevention the adherence of bacteria.Conclusion: Cardamom extracts were effective against Mutans streptococci, but still less than CHX

المقدمة: یجري استكشاف الإعشاب على نطاق واسع كبدائل لاصناعیة مضادة للبكتریا .الھیل الأخضر ھو ملك التوابل لما لة من راحة عطرة جدا وطعم, ولھ تاریخ قدیم قدم الجنسالبشري. معظم الناس یستخدمون الھیل كتوابل وغیر مدركین فوائدة الصحیة . الغرض من ھذه الدراسة دراسة تأثیر تراكیز مختلفة من المستخلص المائي والكحولي للھیل علىالحساسیة, النمو, والالتصاق لبكتریا المكورات المسبحیة مختبریا.22 ). شملت التجربة اختبار حساسیة المیوتانز للتراكیز المختلفة لمستخلص الھیل - المواد والعمل: في ھذه الدراسة , تم جمع اللعاب من عشرة طلاب تتراوح أعمارھم بین ( 18الأخضر والمواد الضابطة الأخرى بطریقة الانتشار من الحفر في الوسط البكتیري, كذلك تم دراسة تاثیر مستخلص الھیل على النمو الحیوي للمیوتانز وعلى قابلیة البكتریا للالتصاقعلى الأسنان.النتائج: حسب طریقة الانتشار من الحفر في الوسط البكتیریا مختبریا , كان المستخلصان المائي والكحولي فعلان في تثبیط ھذه البكتریا. لكن یبقى تاتیرھما اقل من 0.2 % كلورھكسدین(% تم اختبار تاثیر تراكیز ( 10 % و 15 % و 20 . (P< كلوكونیت .المستخلص الكحولي كان لھ تأثیر أقوى من المستخلص المائي بنفس التراكیز بفروق إحصائیة عالیة. ( 0.01للمستخلص المائي والكحولي على النمو الحیوي للمیوتانز مختبریا, ووجد آن مستخلص الھیل المائي والكحولي و الكلورھكسدین لھ فروقات إحصائیة عالیة في تقلیل النمو الحیويللبكتریا مقارنة بالنمو الحیوي للبكتریا بدون إضافة إي عامل بعد مرور 24 ساعة. لكن یبقى المستخلص المائي والكحولي للھیل اقل فعالیة من 0.2 % كلورھكسدین كلوكونیت. وجد انجمیع التراكیز المستخدمة لمستخلص الھیل المائي و الكحولي مختبریا غیر فعالة في منع التصاق البكتریا على الأسنان وان 0.2 % كلورھكسدین كلوكونیت فعال في منع الالتصاقالبكتریا.الاستنتاج: أن مستخلص الھیل كان فعالا ضد بكتریا المیوتانز ولكن اقل تأثیرا من كلورھكسدین كلوكونیت


Article
Dental caries among kindergarten children in relation to socioeconomic status in Al-Najaf governorate-Iraq

Authors: Suha M. Shubber --- Wesal A. Al-Obaidi
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 3 Pages: 165-168
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Dental caries is the most common oral problem, although dental caries is not life threatening, it has aharmful effect on quality of life. Socioeconomic factors were found to be strong predictors of the prevalence of oraldiseases in children, likes family income, occupational prestige, and education. The aim of this study is to assess theeffect of socioeconomic factors on occurrence dental caries in their children.Materials and methods: The sample consists of 550 kindergartens children aged between (4-5) years were selectedrandomly, girls and boys. The kindergartens selection was randomly from different geographical areas in Al-Najafgovernorate. Information was taken from children's parents using questionnaire with the help of the kindergartensmanagers. Examination of dental caries severity was performed according to the World Health Organization (1987).Children were examined in a suitable room in their school. Day light was used for illumination.Results: High caries prevalence was recorded (84.7%); females had higher caries prevalence as compared to males.Mean dmfs was (10.05±0.40) and ds value was the highest component. Age differences were recorded for bothindicators with no gender differences. Secondary and high schools are the highest percentage of the education ofthe child’s parents and the differences were not significant regarding dental caries between parent factors.Conclusion: Children in this study were in need of preventive programs that are to say in need of recall for regularvisits and the prophylactic application of fluoride therapy and fissure sealant to prevent initiation of dental caries


Article
Severity of dental caries in relation to family size and other socioeconomic factors among a group of children in Baghdad, Iraq

Authors: Ban F. AL- Droubie --- Wesal A. Al -Obaidi
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2007 Volume: 19 Issue: 1 Pages: 88-90
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Dental caries is the most common childhood disease; its relation to family size was not studied in Iraq, so this study was conducted to assess the severity of dental caries among preschool children and its association with socioeconomic factors, especially family size.
Materials and methods: A sample of 229 children aged five years old was selected randomly from different areas in Baghdad City. Dental caries for primary teeth was recorded following the WHO criteria.
Results: The mean dmfs of children of clerk mothers was significantly higher than that among children of housewives mothers. The largest family size had a highest dmfs mean, but there was no significant difference in dmfs mean between different groups. Negative correlations were found between family size and mother education (r = - 0.428, P< 0.01) also between family size and mother occupation (r = - 0.356, P< 0.01). There was no significant difference among the mean dmfs of the first, last child and the only one.
Conclusion: These results indicate that the housewives mothers have more time to take care for their children health and the lager family size affected the ability of parent to care of their children.
Keywords: Dental caries, family size, socioeconomic. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2007; 19(1): 88-90).

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Article
Effect of ultrasonic cinnamon extract on the microhardness and microscopic features of artificial root caries, compared to fluoridated agent

Authors: Wesal A. Al-Obaidi --- Shaimaa T. Al-Baldawy
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2010 Volume: 22 Issue: 1 Pages: 101-104
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Cinnamon has a long traditional in use as a popular mouthwash, breath freshener and food flavoring,
in addition to its medical benefits. The purpose of this study was to test the effect of ultrasonic extract of cinnamon
on the microhardness before and after artificially initiated carious lesion of the outer dentin-root surface compared
with sodium fluoride and de-ionized water.
Materials and Methods: Thirty teeth of upper first premolars extracted from 11-14 year old patients, referred from
Orthodontic Department, College of Dentistry, Baghdad University. They were randomly divided to four study groups
and one control group. After production of initial carious like lesion of outer dentin surface, the teeth were immersed,
for four minutes of selected agents which were ultrasonic cinnamon extract (0.5%, 1% and 5%), sodium fluoride 0.05%
and de-ionized water. Then each tooth was rinsed and storage with de-ionized water. This procedure was repeated
daily for one week. Teeth were subjected to Vicker’s microhardness and microscopic examination before and after
the pH cycle and following the treatment with the selected solutions.
Results: Ultrasonic cinnamon extract and sodium fluoride were successful in elevation of the microhardness values of
demineralized dentin surface, this was statistically highly significant for cinnamon extract at (0.5% and 1%), and
sodium fluoride 0.05%, but significant with 5% cinnamon extract concentration, while the microscopic examination of
dentin-root ground section under light microscope revealed that zone of remineralization in dentin was seen after
treatment with all concentrations (0.5%, 1% and 5%) of ultrasonic cinnamon extract, and sodium fluoride, but it
revealed more with 0.5% cinnamon extract concentration.
Conclusions: The three concentrations of ultrasonic cinnamon extract were effective in remineralization of the outer
dentin-root surface; which was reflected by increase in dentin microhardness values.
Key words: Cinnamon, Microhardness, Root caries. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010; 22(1):101-104.

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Article
Effect of cinnamon extracts on streptococci and mutans streptococci, in comparison to chlorhexidine gluconate

Authors: Wesal A. Al-Obaidi --- Shaymaa k. Al-Joubori
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2011 Volume: 23 Issue: 1 Pages: 141-145
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Cinnamon is a powerful herb that none of other plants came close to cinnamon in its medicinal
applications. Due to its -essential oils- scientists define cinnamon as an anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory food. The
aim of the Study: To assess the effect of specific concentrations of cinnamon extracts on viability counts of
Streptococci and Mutans streptococci among a number of volunteers in compression to 0.2% chlorhexidine
gluconte and deionized water.
Materials and Methods: Both ultrasonic and oil cinnamon extracts were prepared at concentration 3% for ultrasonic
extract, while for oil extract it was 2.5% chlorhexidine gluconate was the control positive, deionized water was the
control negative. Stimulated saliva was collected from 20 female dental students' volunteers (21-22 years). After
withdrawal of oral hygiene measures, divided into four groups each group rinse with the mentioned agent for one
minute. The counts of these bacteria, salivary pH and flow rate were recorded at one minute prior to the rinse as a
base line, one minute after rinsing, 15 minute, 30 minute and one hour.
Result: Cinnamon extract had a high significant antibacterial activity against Streptococci and Mutans streptococci
in the following time points (15 minute, 30 minute and one hour) as it could reduce the viable counts of bacteria, also
for both cinnamon extracts the increase in salivary pH and flow rate continue after half an hour and then started to
decrease but still higher than the base line value.
Conclusions: Both ultrasonic and oil extracts of cinnamon were effective against Streptococci and Mutan
streptococci, increasing the salivary pH and flow rate.
Keyword: Cinnamon, Streptococci, Mutans streptococci. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(1):141-145).

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Article
Oral health status among a group of children attending preventive clinic in Dahmar University - Yemen

Authors: Hala A. Al-Juboury --- Wesal A. Al-Obaidi
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2006 Volume: 18 Issue: 1 Pages: 76-79
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Dental caries and periodontal diseases are the most important etiological factors for tooth mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the oral health status among a group of children in Yemen.
Materials and methods: A sample of 122 children with age range 6-12 years attending the preventive clinic in Dahmar University in Yemen. Dental caries was estimated using the dmfs/DMFS indices following the WHO criteria.
Results: A high caries percentage (93.6%) was found. Caries experience of deciduous teeth was decreasing with age accompanied by increase among permanent teeth. Caries active males were higher than females. Most of the children had a mild gingivitis, which tended to increase with age. Severity of gingivitis was significantly higher among boys than girls.
Conclusion: The low caries percentage may need further investigation to study dietary habits and fluoride level in water.
Keywords: Dental caries, gingivitis, children. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(1)76-79)

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