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The validity of Kala-azar rapid detection test in the laboratory diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in Baquba

Authors: Abdul-Razak SH. Hasan --- Zainab H. Al-Azawi --- Ammar Riyadh Qasem
Journal: Diyala Journal For Pure Science مجلة ديالى للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 83732222 25189255 Year: 2011 Volume: 7 Issue: 4 Pages: 47-53
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

Background: visceral leishmaniasis is the most severe form of leishmaniasis. The diseasecaused by protozoan parasites of the Leishmania genus. It is the second-largest parasitic killerin the world, being responsible for an estimated 500,000 cases each year worldwide.Objectives: To explore the validity of rapid detection test for the laboratory diagnosis ofvisceral leishmaniasis against the conventional blood smear technique.Patients, materials and methods: The present study was carried out at Al-Batoul TeachingHospital during the period from January to July 2009. A total of 75 patients with VL wereincluded. 28 (37.3%) of them were female and 47(62.7%) were male. The age range was 1month- 8 years. Additionally, 30 apparently healthy individuals were enrolled as controlgroups. 13(43.3%) of them were female and 17(56.7%) were male. Venous blood samplewere collected from each subject; sera were separated and kept frozen till use. All sera weretested for anti-rK39 IgG antibodies using the InBios Kala-azar detect rapid test (Seattle, WA)according to the manufacturer's protocol.Results: The results showed that out of 75 patients, 10 (13.3%) and 9 (12%) were positive forkala-azar by microscopical blood film examination and kala-azar rapid screening testrespectively. The distribution of positive cases according to the gender revaled hat theinfection rate among males was higher than in females, and the most affected age was 1-4years.Conclusion: The validity of kala-azar rapid setection test was comparable to that ofmicroscxopical examination for detection of kala-azar cases among clinically suspectedpatients.


Article
Microbial Contamination Associated with Computer Keyboards and Mouse Devices in Diyala University

Authors: Abdul-Razak Shafiq Hasan --- Shaima'a Rahem Hussien --- Zainab H. Al-Azawi --- Reham Asa'd
Journal: Diyala Journal of Medicine مجلة ديالى الطبية ISSN: 97642219 Year: 2015 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 66-72
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

Background: Surface contamination of public user interface systems such as computer keyboards and mouse devices may play a role in community-acquired outbreaks by acting as an environmental vehicle in transmission of potential hazardous microorganisms. There is no economical way to test all keyboards and mice out there, but there is a common-sense way to prevent bacterial contamination or eliminate it if it exists.Objectives: To explore the bacterial contamination rates in multi-user and single-user computer accessories (keyboards and mouse devices) in certain colleges of the Diyala University.Materials and methods: This study was conducted in Bacteriology laboratory- Colleges of Veterinary Medicine- Diyala University for the period from October 2012 to April 2013. A total of 155 swabs were collected aseptically from 60 computers in 4 colleges, namely, College of Medicine, Veterinary Medicine, Science, and Education- Pure Science. Swabs were streaked on blood and MacConkey's agar plates then incubated for 24 hours at 37 ̊ C. Final identification of bacterial species was based on standard bacteriological and biochemical criteria.Results: The results showed that the overall contamination rate in the four colleges was (54.8%). The highest isolation rate of bacterial contaminant was Staphylococcus epidermidis (30.6%), followed by Escherichia coli (29.4%). Fungi constitute (17.6 %) of isolates. The College of Veterinary Medicine rank at the top with significant highest contamination rate (52.7%), followed by the College of Medicine with a contamination rate (21.2). Computers of the internet centers harbor the significant highest contamination rate compared to administrative units (71.8% and 28.2%) respectively. The contamination rate was higher in mouse devices compared to keyboards (57.6% vs 42.3%).Conclusion: The study concluded that continuous education of students and employees about the risk of bacterial contamination arise from using the computers, beside the periodic disinfection of computer accessories may aid the fight against transmission and spreading of infectious pathogens.


Article
Association of Helicobacter Pylori Infection with Diabetes Mellitus in Baquba-Diyala Province

Author: Hasan, A.SH*, Zainab H. AL-Azawi**, Shiama,a R. AL-Salihy***
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2017 Volume: 16 Issue: 3 Pages: 285-289
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Infection with H. pylori has been recognized as a public health problem worldwide. Studies to address the association of H. pylori infection with diabetes mellitus (DM) had yielded controversial results.OBJECTIVE:To figure out the association between H. pylori infection and DMtype 1 and 2 in Baquba city, Iraq . PATIENTS AND METHODS:This cross-sectional case control study was conducted in Baquba-Diyala province for the period from August 2015- March 2016. 82diabetic patients (67 with type 2 and 15 with type 1) and 23 healthy non-diabetic individuals were enrolled. The DM patients include 45 (54.9%) females and 37(45.1%) males. The mean age ±SD of type 2 DM patients was51.37± 10.84 years,while the mean age ±SD of patient with type 1 DMwas 23.66 ± 6.99 years. The patients were collected from the outpatient clinic of Baquba General Teaching Hospital according to the WHO definition criteria of the DM. Blood samples were collected, sera were separated and tested for the presence of anti-H. pyloriIgG antibody using the commercially available Enzyme- linked immunosorbant assay kit.Statistical analyses were done using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) Version 18, and P value < 0.05 was considered significant.RESULTS:The results showed that the anti- H. pylori positivity rate among patients with diabetes mellitus and controls was 35.2% and 9.5% respectively, with statistically insignificant difference (p= 0.54). The anti- H. pyloripositivity rate was slightly higher in type 2 DM than in type 1 DM (29.5 % vs 5.7 %, p=0.9).Diabetic male had insignificantly higher positivity rate compared to female ((29.5% vs26.8, p= 0.096%). Furthermore, higher positivity rate was found in the age group 30-50 years.CONCLUSION:The anti-H. pyloripositivity rate is insignificantly higher among diabetes mellitus patients; particularly type 2 diabetes mellitus than non-diabetic individuals in Baquba cit, Iraq .

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