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Article
Beta-Carotene, Glycemic Control And DyslipidemiaIn Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Hashim M. Hashim --- Ghassan A.Al-Shamma --- Hayder Ali Mohammed
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: PISSN: 00419419 / EISSN: 24108057 Year: 2006 Volume: 48 Issue: 4 Pages: 435-441
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background : Diabetes mellitus is a stressful condition in which the increased production of free radicals impairs the generation of naturally occurring antioxidants like vitamins and carotenoids .
Aim :The present study deals with the changes in serum ß-carotene in type 2 diabetes mellitus, as modulated by glycemic control and oxidative stress .
Subjects & methods : Multiple biochemical parameters were obtained from plasma of 57 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus ( 25 males and 32 females ) , on oral hypoglycemic with a disease duration of 1- 15 years and 37 healthy normal subject s of matching age and sex to serve as controls .
The biochemical parameters measured in the present study included the glycated Hb (HbA1c ), serum lipids ( total cholesterol TC, triglycerides TG , high and low density lipoprotein cholesterols , HDL-C & LDL-C ) , lipid peroxides and serum ß-carotene.
results revealed a marked reduction of ß- carotene in the diabetics in a pattern proportional to that of the glycemic control ,dyslipidemia and oxidative stress .
Possible causes , mechanisms and suggestions underlining these changes are discussed.


Article
Resistin , Insulin resistance and BMI in type 2 diabetes mellitus and healthysubjects.

Authors: Hashim M. Hashim --- Hedef D. Al-Yassin --- Zainab A. Al-Shamma
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: PISSN: 00419419 / EISSN: 24108057 Year: 2008 Volume: 50 Issue: 3 Pages: 377-382
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background : Obesity and insulin resistance have been quite well recognized as fundamental
and leading causes of major health issues such as diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and
cardiovascular diseases. Abdominal obesity, particularly visceral adiposity is considered to
play a major role in causing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus , T2DM
The resistin is considered one of the causes of insulin resistance which lead to
hyperinsulinemia and a decrease in the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (Quicki)
which has been recently reported to be a useful marker of insulin resistance in patients with
T2DM.
Objective : The aim of the present study is to find the relationship between resistin and
obesity as modulated by T2DM.
Subjects and methods : The study involved 50 patients with T2DM with age range of 30 -70
years , and 30 healthy subjects ( control group ) of matching age and sex.
Ten mLs of blood were collected from each patient and normal control subject after an
overnight fast . One mL. was kept in an EDTA tube for mesureement of glycated Hb ( HbA1c)
and the rest was allowed to clot , centrifuged and serum was divided into aliquots . Some
was kept at (- 20
o
C ) for measurement of resistin and insulin ( by enzyme linked
immunosorbant assay , ELISA) and the rest for measurement of glucose , urea and creatinine (
by the available routine laboratory tests ) at the same day of collection.
Results showed a significant rise in serum resistin in the obese diabetic patients as compared
to the non obese patients. There are significant correlations between resistin and each of insulin
resistance ( Quicki ) and degree of obesity (BMI) .
Conclusion : Resistin & insulin resistance are significantly affected by BMI in diabetic
patients only and not in the control group which implies that the obese control subjects didn’t
have insulin resistances enough to show any change in resistin level. This confirms the
synergistic effect of the obesity and diabetes on resistin level, while no effect of the disease per se could be detected from the present study.


Article
The Effect of Cinnamomum Verum on Serum Glucose, GOT, GPT and Creatinine in Patients With Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Faruk H. Al-Jawad --- Hashim M. Hashim --- Batool A. Al-Khafaji
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2005 Volume: 2 Issue: 1 Pages: 19-22
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

The possible effect of Cinnamomum verum on blood glucose was studied in patients with type-2 diabetes. Its effects on hepatic and renal function, and presence of other side effects were evaluated. Fasting blood glucose and serum GOT, GPT and creatinine levels were measured. The results shown that Cinnamomum verum produce significant decrease in serum glucose levels (P<0.05), while there was non significant changes (P>0.05) in serum GOT, GPT and creatinine levels. There was no mentioned side effect except gastric burning in one patient only

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Article
The Hypoglycemic Effect of Some Medicinal Plants in Normal and Experimentally Induced Diabetic Rabbits

Authors: Batool A. Al-Khafaji --- Hashim M. Hashim --- Faruk H. Al-Jawad
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2005 Volume: 2 Issue: 1 Pages: 38-44
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Alloxan (180mg/Kg] I.V is an effective diabetogenic agent that induces diabetes mellitus in rabbits. Ninety healthy male rabbits were involved in this study. The plasma glucose levels were measured in normal and in diabetic rabbits after giving alloxan and following the administration of glibenclamide, insulin and the aqueous extract of medicinal plants. Insulin (2IU/Kg] S.C produced a significant reduction in plasma glucose levels in diabetic rabbits (b= -3.87 P< 0.001]. In the mean time, the aqueous extract of Cinnamomum verum, Nigella sativa and Olea europea at a single dose of 0.5g/Kg orally caused a significant lowering of plasma glucose levels in diabetic rabbits with b=(-2.38], (-2.34 ] and (-1.17] respectively (P< 0.05], whereas the aqueous extract of both Capparis spinos and Coriandum sativum at the same dose produced non significant decrease in plasma glucose levels of diabetic rabbits with b= (-0.86] and (-0.98] respectively (P> 0.05]. The aqueous extract of medicinal plants significantly decreased the plasma glucose levels in normal rabbits except with Capparis spinos, whereas glibenclamide insignificantly reduced the plasma glucose levels in diabetic rabbits.

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Article
Effect of Aqueous Extract of Some Medicinal Plants on Plasma Lipid Profile in Diabetes Induced Rabbits

Authors: Batool A. Al-khafaji --- Hashim M. Hashim --- Faruk H. Al-jawad
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2005 Volume: 2 Issue: 1 Pages: 114-119
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Alloxan (180mg/kg) i.v is a potent diabetogenic agent that induces diabetes mellitus in rabbits with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia . Fifty-four healthy male rabbits were involved in this study. Both plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured before and after giving alloxan and following administration of insulin, glibenclamide or aqueous extract of medicinal plants. Insulin (2 IU/kg) S.C produced a significant reduction in both plasma cholesterol (b=-1.05 p<0.005] and triglyceride levels (b=-1.19 P<0.01) whereas glibenclamide (70mg/kg) per Os produced no significant changes in these values. In the mean time the aqueous extract of Nigella sativa (0.5g /kg] produced a significant decrease in both cholesterol and triglyceride levels with (b=-0.65 P<0.05) and (b=-1.28 P<0.05) whereas Capparis spinos caused a significant decrease in plasma cholesterol levels only with (b=-0.83 P<0.01). Finally the extract of Coriandrum sativum ,Oleoe uropea and Cinnamomum verum produced a significant reduction in triglyceride levels with (b=-1.12 P<0.05),(b=-0.97 P<0.05) and (b=-1.01 P<0.01) respectively but with no significant change in cholesterol levels. There is no significant correlation between the hypoglycemic effects of medicinal plants and their hypocholesterlemic & hypotriglyceridemic effect. Also the possibility of using Nigella sativa and Cinnamomum verum for diabetic patients with type- ll but this needs more clinical trials. Keyword cholesterol, triglyceride, medicinal plants

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Article
EFFECTS OF ATORVASTATIN AND MELATONIN ON GLYCEMIC CONTROL AND LIPID PROFILE IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS

Authors: Haitham M. Kadhim هيثم محمود كاظم --- Faruk H. Aljawad فاروق حسن الجواد --- Hashim M. Hashim هاشم مهدي هاشم
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2014 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 72-77
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Dyslipidemia is a modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factor that remains largely uncontrolled in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Administration of melatonin may improve tissue responses to insulin and increase the efficacy of drugs which act through this pathway like Sulfonylurea.Objective:To investigate the effectiveness of Atorvastatin and melatonin that possess antioxidant and/or hypolipidemic effects on the changes that occur in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus due to uncontrolled glycemic status.Methods:Forty one diabetic patients (26 female and 15 male) with an age 35-60 years and disease duration of 5-10 years were studied. Patients allocated to 3 groups, first group was treated with Placebo (starch 50mg; n=13), second group was treated with (Atorvastatin 20mg/day; n=14), while third group was treated with (Melatonin 10mg/day; n=14), in addition to the already given oral hypoglycemic agent (glibenclamide) and dietary control for 12 weeks. Biochemical parameter (baseline, 6 and 12 weeks later) including and lipid profile tests were done.Results:Atorvastatin and melatonin administration significantly increases fasting serum glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels, with significant decrease in cholesterol, triglycerides, and low density lipoprotein. However, the effects on these parameters were variable between the studied groups.Conclusion:The administration of Atorvastatin may induce hyperglycemia despite of its hypolipidemic effect, while melatonin could improve both glycemic control and lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.Key words:Atorvastatin; melatonin; glycemic control; type 2 diabetes mellitus.


Article
oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation as markers of oxidative stress type 2 diabetic patients

Authors: hayder A. AL-Aubaidy --- Hedef Dhafir El-Yassin هدف ظافر الياسين --- hashim M.Hashim --- Ghassan AL-Shamma
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: PISSN: 00419419 / EISSN: 24108057 Year: 2008 Volume: 50 Issue: 1 Pages: 110-119
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract


Article
ASSOCIATION BETWEEN SERUM COPPER, OXIDIZED HDL AND GLYCEMIC CONTROL IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS IN RELATION TO MICROALBUMINURIA
الترابط بين النحاس و تأكسد البروتينات الدهنيه عالية الكثافة والسيطرة الأيضيه بالنسبة إلى فرط الزلال الضئيل في الإدرار عند مرضى السكري ( نوع 2)

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Abstract

Background: diabetes mellitus (DM ) is associated with a markedly increased mortality rate from cardiovascular and renal disease, not explainable by traditional risk factors. Although data are not yet conclusive, oxidative stress, dyslipidemia, glycemic control and possibly lipid peroxidation has been increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic micro- and macrovascular disease. Little is known, however, about the role of copper in type 2 diabetes.Aim:The present study includes measurement of free radical activity marker (lipid peroxides expressed as malondialdehyde MDA) along with the serum and urine copper, serum lipid profile, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in addition to urinary protein : creatinine ratio in 55 patients with type 2 DM (T2DM) .Results: The patients were divided according to the spot urine albumin excretion (urinary albumin ug / mg creatinine ratio) into two groups:- microalbuminurics & normoalbuminurics.The results were compared with those obtained from 37 age-matched apparently healthy control subjects.There was a significant elevation in serum malondialdehyde MDA , the percentage of oxidized non high-density lipoprotien (ox. non-HDL%) and serum copper with a significant reduction in the percentage of oxidized high-density lipoprotien (ox. HDL%) in the diabetic patients (particulary in the microalbuminurics) as compared with the control subjects. Serum MDA was significantly and positively correlated with serum copper in microalbuminurics and HbA1c% in both diabetic groups.LDL size index was significantly increased in microalbuminuric T2DM patients as compared to the controls and normoalbuminurics indicating smaller LDL size in the diabetics in general and in microalbuminuric in particular. Conclusion: the results of present study suggest an increase in free radical activity , dyslipidaemia and serum copper level favoring atherosclerotic state more in poor glycemic control in type 2 DM particularly in microalbuminurics.The suggested mechanisms underlying these events are discussed.Key words: Copper, lipid peroxides, diabetes mellitus., Microalbuminuria

خلفية الدراسة: يرتبط داء السكري بنسب عاليه من الوفيات بسبب اعتلالات الأوعية الدموية والكلى التي لا تعود للأسباب الأعتياديه المعروفة ، وبالرغم من عدم كفاية الأدلة فان الجهد ألتأكسدي واختلال الدهون ودرجة السيطرة الأيضيه وكذلك زيادة نسبة فوق الأكاسيد لدهون الدم يجعلها من العوامل ألمسببه لأمراض الأوعية الدموية أما علاقة النحاس بكل ذلك فما هو معروف عنه قليل نسبيا.هدف الدراسة: هو قياس دلالات زيادة الجذور الحرة واكاسيد الدهون ممثلة بال- MDAواكاسيد البروتينات الدهنيه وتركيز النحاس ونمط الدهون في الدم وتركيز الهيموغلوبين المتسكر ( HbA1C)ونسبة الزلال في الإدرار عند 55 مريضا بداء السكري ( نوع 2 ) ومقارنتها بمثيلاتها في 37 شخصا طبيعيا ( مجموعة السيطرة ) .ألنتائج: أدت إلى تقسيم مجموعة المرضى إلى نوعين :1- المصابين بفرط الزلال في الأدراربدرجة قليله microalbuminuria 2- المرضى الذين كانت نسب الزلال في الإدرار طبيعيه normoalbuminuria وبالمقارنة مع نتائج مجموعة السيطرة ظهر وجود زيادة ملحوظة عند مرضى السكري في تراكيز أكاسيد الدهون متمثلة بال-MDA وأكاسيد البروتينات الدهنيه عدا العالية الكثافة حيث أظهرت نقصانا مع وجود علاقة طرديه ملحوظة بين تركيز النحاس وال MDA في المجموعة الأولى من المرضى فقط ومع الهيموغلوبين المتسكر HbA1C في كلي المجموعتين.وقد تزامنت هذه التغييرات مع صغر حجم البروتينات الدهنيه الخفيفة LDL عند مرضى السكري بصورة عامه والمجموعة الأولى )المصابين بفرط الزلال في الإدرار) بصورة خاصة.وبينت الدراسة التفسيرات ألمحتمله للظواهر المذكورة.مفتاح الكلمات: النحاس ، أكاسيد الدهون ، داء السكري ، فرط الزلال الضئيل في الإدرار.


Article
Serum Concentration of High-sensitivity CRP in Metabolic Syndrome A Case-control Study
تركيز مصل الدم للبروتين التفاعلي سي عالي الحساسية لدى مرضى المتلازمة الايضية

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Abstract

AbstractBackground: Metabolic Syndrome is an aggregation of conditions that together increases the risk of cardiovascular disease in individuals that would not otherwise be recognized to be at risk. The lack of a consensus definition of Metabolic Syndrome, debate about its etiology and pathogenesis and lack of a consensus document for its treatment contribute to this confusion. Chronic, sub-clinical inflammation and its association with Metabolic Syndrome is a well documented. Inflammatory mediators have been recognized as factors that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.Objectives: to assess the status of high sensitive C reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients with Metabolic Syndrome.Methods: This study is a case-control study based on New National Cholesterol Education Programme Adult Treatment Panel III which approved the criteria of metabolic syndrome, The patients included in this study were 48 patients (of both sexes) attending the Diabetic Consultant Clinic for follow up and monitoring therapy during the period from January, 2010 till the end of September, 2010, The study included another 48 apparently healthy volunteer that were comparable to patients group with respect to age and sex and serve as a control group. They were screened for Metabolic Syndrome criteria: namely, high blood pressure, high body mass index, high fasting blood sugar, high triglyceride, low high density lipoprotein; a significant difference was found between patients and controls with respect to FBS,BMI, TG, HDL and BP (Pالخلاصةالخلفية: المتلازمة الأيضية تجمعُ الشروطِ التي تَزِيدُ خطرَ الإصابة بمرض الأوعية القلبيةِ سوية في الأفرادِ الذي لا يَكُونوا معترف به ما عدا ذلك لِكي يَكُونَ في الخطرِ. قلة في تعريف المتلازمةِ الأيضيةِ، نِقاش حول أسبابها ونشوءها المرضي وقلة التوثيق في معالجتِه يُساهمونَ في التشويشِ حول المتلازمة الايضية، الالتهاب المُزمن دون- السريري الفرعي وارتباطه بالمتلازمة الأيضيةِ موثّقَ بشكل جيد. الوسطاء التحريضيون عُرِفوا كالعوامل التي تَزِيدُ خطرَ مرض الأوعية القلبيةِ.الهدف: لتَقييم منزلةِ سي البروتين التفاعلي عاليِ الحسّاسِية (hs-CRP) في المرضى بالمتلازمةِ الأيضيةِ.الموضوع والطرق: هذه الدراسةِ هي مقطعية عرضية تَدْرسُ مستندة على البرنامج الجديدِ الوطنيِ لتعليمِ الكولوستيرولِ (لجنةِ المعالجةِ البالغةِ الثّالثة) التي صدّقتْ معاييرَ المتلازمةِ الأيضيةِ المرضى تَضمّنوا في هذه الدراسةِ كَانوْ 48 مريضَ (كلا الجنسين) يَحْضرونَ العيادةَ الاستشاريةِ السُكّريةِ للمتابعة ومراقبة علاجِ أثناء الفترةِ مِنْ يناير/كانون الثّاني، 2010 حتى النّهاية مِنْ سبتمبر/أيلولِ، 2010. تَضمّنتْ الدراسةُ 48 متطوّعُ صحّيُ على ما يبدو وتم مقارنتهم بمجموعة المرضى فيما يتعلق بالعُمرِ والجنسِ واستخدمت كمجموعة قياسية (سيطرة)، وتم مسح المجموعتين حسب معاييرِ المتلازمةِ الأيضيةِ: وهي، ضغط دمّ العالي، دليل كتلةِ جسم عاليِ، سُكّر دمِّ صوم عاليِ، شحوم ثلاثية عالي، بروتين شحمي عاليِ الكثافةِ منخفضِ. تم قياس مصل البروتين التفاعلي سي عالي الحسّاسية لكلا المجموعتين باستعمال عُدّةِ إلايسا ELISA.النتائج: ظهر اختلاف معنوي بين المرضى والأصحاء فيما يتعلق بمعايير المتلازمة الايضية اعلاه (P < 0.05) اضافة الى ان تركيزمصل البروتين التفاعلي سي عالي الحسّاسية رُفِعَ بشكل ملحوظ في المرضى بالمتلازمةِ الأيضيةِ عند مقَارنتْهم بالسيطرةِ (P <0.001)، اضافة الى وجود ارتباط معنوي بين البروتين التفاعلي نوع سي ومعايير المتلازمة الايضية (0.001).الاستنتاج البروتين التفاعلي سي عالي الحسّاسية يُمْكِنُ أَنْ يَكُونُ علامة قويَّةَ بسيطةَ مِنْ علامات المتلازمةِ الأيضيةِ.الكلمات المفتاحية: البروتين التفاعلي سي عالي الحساسية، المتلازمة الأيضية.


Article
GONADAL DYSFUNCTION WITH POSTPRANDIAL HYPERTRIGLYCERIDEMIA IS RISK PREDICTORS OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE IN MEN WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

Authors: Zainab AA Al-Shamma زينب عبد الامير الشماع --- Yahya YZ Farid يحيى يحيى زكي فريد --- Hashim M Hashim هاشم مهدي هاشم
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2013 Volume: 11 Issue: 2 Pages: 148-152
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:The association of type 2 diabetes mellitus and risk of cardiovascular disease is well documented. Insulin resistance is the hallmark feature of type 2 diabetes and there is evidence to suggest that testosterone is an important regulator of insulin sensitivity in men, with a role for testosterone in lipid metabolism and specially the triglyceride fraction.Objective:To emphasize the association of low level of total testosterone with that of the postprandial triglyceride in male patients’ with type 2 diabetes mellitus.Methods:Forty two type 2 diabetes mellitus male patients and 42 healthy controls of age range between 30-60 years, during the period from December 2011 to June 2012. Postprandial venous blood used for random blood glucose, lipid profile, urea and creatinine measurement. Luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, testosterone, and sex hormone binding globulin was done using Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (Sandwich assay).Results:A negative correlation between testosterone, and postprandial triglyceride, in both type 2 diabetes mellitus and control groups with a significant difference in testosterone between the two groups. The sex hormone binding globulin was also correlated negatively with postprandial triglyceride in only the control group.Conclusion:Hypogonodism in male (decline in testosterone level) leads to increased postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, which could, both, be considered of predictors for cardiovascular disease risk factors in male patients with type2 diabetes mellitus.Key words:Postprandial triglycerides, type2 diabetes mellitus, testosterone.

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