research centers


Search results: Found 66

Listing 1 - 10 of 66 << page
of 7
>>
Sort by

Article
Techniques of Testing Pronunciation: Production and Recognition Levels

Author: Ahmed Hasani Yasin Alabbasi
Journal: Journal of Surra Man Raa مجلة سر من رأى ISSN: 18136798 Year: 2007 Volume: 3 Issue: 5 Pages: 14-22
Publisher: university of samarra جامعة سامراء

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The current research is an attempt at giving a general look at techniques of testing pronunciation: production and recognition levels. The research falls into four sections, where section one concentrates on testing pronunciation, what to test and the stages of a test, types of testing and ideal testing. Section two shades light on sound production techniques and their types. Explanations and illustrations that are concerned the sound recognition techniques are involved in section three. Whereas Section four includes conclusions and pedagogical implications.


Article
AN ASSESSMENT OF LISTENING COMPREHENSION OF PUPILS OF THE SECONDARY SCHOOLS

Author: .Abdullah Hameed Musa
Journal: Journal of Surra Man Raa مجلة سر من رأى ISSN: 18136798 Year: 2007 Volume: 3 Issue: 5 Pages: 1-13
Publisher: university of samarra جامعة سامراء

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The principal aim of listening comprehension practice is not to provide a model for oral producation, but to strengthen the ability to understand spoken languages. Students can benefit from practice in reacting to what they hear, from participating in listening situations.
This study is divided into five sections:
Section one is an introducation.It makes a general survey of some of the major compononents which comprises with the aims of the study.
Section two is made to arrive at a full picture of listening comprehension through some previous studies which have a relationship with this study.Section three is the construction of the listening comprehension test, section four deals with demonstration and discussion of results. Finally ,the last section, deals with the conclusions, recommendations and suggestions.


Article
Creativity and Techniques: Teaching Literature Vs. Short Story

Author: Istabraq Tariq Al-Azzawi
Journal: Journal of Surra Man Raa مجلة سر من رأى ISSN: 18136798 Year: 2009 Volume: 5 Issue: 14 Pages: 205-233
Publisher: university of samarra جامعة سامراء

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This paper sets up to investigate and correlate between creativity and techniques in teaching literature vs. short story and how the teacher is going to manage the whole process of teaching by his/ her creativity helping the students to understand the literary text as a way to learn the new language. There are many techniques which may be used by the teacher to create an interesting and creative atmosphere through his/ her pedagogic practice. Hemingway' s " Cat In The Rain" is going to be taught as an example.
Introduction
Creativity means" involving the use of skill and imagination to produce something new or a work of art" (Hornby, 2004: 294),Wher as, technique is defined as "a particular way of doing something, especially one in which you have to learn special skills" (Hornby, 2004: 1334-5). Literature is used in teaching the second or foreign language as Carter& Nunan( 2001: 180) assure that" literature in language teaching has a long pedigree. It was fundamental part of foreign language teaching in the “classical humanist paradigm" , because " literature is a legitimate and valuable resource for language teaching" (Cater& Long, 1991: 4). Younis also (1998: 21) claims that" teaching literature and language is interdependent. In order to have better grasp of literature, the student must have a proper training of these skills" , because " literature demonstrates language in use as its best" (Ibid. : 13). In teaching literature there are many activities which can be used through teaching the literary texts. The question that may impress itself is how can a group of activities work together and be sequenced?. To use techniques creatively, there should be a good ground. This is as Protherough (1986: 35) explains" in the triangle of forces the teacher-students –text, how can we use our relationship with the group and the text to make that other relationship between students and book, as fruitful as possible? " .


Article
ERROR ANALYSIS OF THE UNIVERSITY LEVEL STUDENTS IN THE USE OF CONCORD

Author: Hadhir Husein Aboud
Journal: Journal of Surra Man Raa مجلة سر من رأى ISSN: 18136798 Year: 2009 Volume: 5 Issue: 13 Pages: 175-195
Publisher: university of samarra جامعة سامراء

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Learners at all educational levels commit errors while trying to perform the different tasks assigned to them. Such errors committing is said to be the violation of the linguistic rules by learners and can occur at all linguistic levels depending on the frequency of learners' dealing with the constituents of each level. Learners' written performance forms no exception in this respect. There are errors of various types in learners' writings and to varied degrees. Some are called minor errors if they do not hinder communication and, or they are called major errors when they stand in the way of communication.
The present research aims at presenting a detailed account of errors and error correction. It also aims at identifying a number of errors committed by a sample of students in the use of concord.
Section One


Article
A Study of the Syntactic Functions of Participle Clauses in Native and Non-Native Writings

Author: Azhar Hassan Salumee
Journal: Al-Bahith Journal مجلة الباحث ISSN: 20032222 Year: 2013 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 213-227
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This paper investigatesthe syntactic functions ofparticiple clauses in native andnon-native writings . The datachosen for this study is fouressays written by native andnon-native writers. The firsttwo essays are written by(Cales and Liebert) and theother by ( Abdullah andVincent). A statistic study ismade to show the frequency ofparticiple clauses. The resultsshow the under use of suchclauses in non-native writingsthough such clauses areregarded as signal of a goodwriter. This may be mainly dueto the effect of translation fromthe mother tongue to thesecond language and someother possible reasons. Thepaper ends with someconclusions andrecommendations resultedfrom the study.

هذا البحث د ا رسة الخصائص القواعديةفي كتابات انجميزية الاصل واخرىاجنبية . تم اختيار اربع مقالات لغرضهذه الد ا رسة وقام بكتابة اول اثنين منهابواسطة الكتاب )كيمس و ليبرت(والاخرى بواسطة )عبدالله و فينسنت(. تمعمل د ا رسة احصائية لبيان تك ا رر الجملالاستم ا ررية في المقالات قيد الد ا رسة.تبين النتائج قمة استخدام مثل هذا النوعمن الجمل في الكتابات الغير انجميزية)الاجنبية( برغم حقيقة كون هذه الجملهي علامة الكاتب الجيد. قد يعزى هذاالشيء وبصورة رئيسية لتاثير الترجمة منالمغة الام )العربية( الى المغة الاجنبيةبالاضافة الى اسباب اخرى . ينتهيالبحث ببعض النتائج والتوصيات التي تمالتوصل اليها من خلال هذه الد ا رسة


Article
Employing Pre-reading Strategies in Enhancing Third Year College Students' Understanding of Poetry
استخدام إستراتيجيات ما قبل القراءة في تحسين فهم طلبة المرحلة الثالثة لمادة الشعر

Authors: Dr. Haider kadhim Khudhier& د. حيدر كاظم خضير --- Nadia Majeed Hussein نادية مجيد حسين
Journal: Al-Bahith Journal مجلة الباحث ISSN: 20032222 Year: 2013 Volume: 7 Issue: 1 Pages: 6-16
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

are often found to havedifficulties in understanding themeaning of poetic texts . This maybe attributed to the fact they do notmatch the new information with theone existing in their minds. Hence ,it seems necessary to dig in thestrategies that can be employed toenhance understanding andcomprehending of poetic texts astaught in the third year stage ,College of Education/ Ibn Rushd ,Department of English. This papertends to explore the effect of usingpre-reading strategies ( such as:word splash, key words , pre-writequestions , storyimpression ,pictures , do-now , think-pair- share, KWL chart and I-search )on thecollege students' understanding ofpoetry.Sixty students are selected tobe the sample of the study ,dividedinto two equal groups : 30representing the experimental (following the pre-reading strategiesin teaching poetry) and 30representing the control ( followingthe traditional way of teachingpoetry) . After conducting theprocess of equalizing these groupsin terms of factors such as age , sex, level of parents' education , it hasbeen found that students ofexperimental group perform better inactivities related to comprehendingpoetic texts . The pre-readingstrategies motivate students to beenthusiastically engaged inproblems of interpreting andexplaining the meaning of poetry.Moreover , they appear to be moreactive and ready to solve problemsof Staiger ( 1973:37 ) contendsthat reading is essentially acognitive process "during whichthe reader not only comprehendsideas found in a text but alsointerprets and evaluates them.Expressed another way, readingis the most crucial of the fourlanguage skills comprehendingpoetr 1.0 Introductionfor EFL learners ,asit enables them to gain exposureto the target language andreceive valuable linguistic input tobuild language proficiency.Readers often need to go throughan active process rather thansimply decoding the graphicrepresentation . For this,Anderson (1999:1) states that :Reading is an active, fluentprocess which involves thereaderand the reading material inbuilding meaning. Meaningdoes not reside on the printedpage ,synergy occurs in readingwhich combines the words onthe printed page with thereader's background knowledgeand experiences.In the same vein, Ur ( 1996:138 ) argues that reading meansreading and understanding .Reading the words, not knowingwhat they mean, merely indicatesdecoding ( translating writtensymbols into correspondingsounds ) . To give a finerexplanation, he ( ibid ) affirmsthat reading implies the followingtips :1- perceiving and decodingletters in order to read words,2- understanding all the words inorder to understood the meaningof a text,3- gathering meaning from whatis read, and4- understanding of a text byunderstanding the words itcomposed.In brief, reading can mostly beviewed as the translation ofgraphic symbols into theircorresponding meaning whetherspoken or written. Mostdefinitions of reading seem to bebased on the idea thatcomprehension is the essence ofreading, without which no readingcan take place. In thisconnection, this paper intends toinvestigate the application ofpre-reading strategies to enhanceunderstanding poetry of the thirdyear classes.

غالبا ما وٌاجه الطلبة صعوبات ف فهم معان النصوص الشعر ةٌ. قد عٌزى ذلك إلى حق قٌةكونهم لا لٌاءمون ب نٌ المعلومات الجد دٌة وتلكالموجودة ف أذهانهم.من هذا المنطلق نجد انهمن الضروري التعمق ف الإسترات جٌ اٌت الت مٌكن استخدامها لتحس نٌ فهم واست عٌابالنصوص الشعر ةٌ الت تدرس للمرحلة الثالثةف قسم اللغة الانجل زٌ ةٌ كل ةٌ الترب ةٌ ابن رشد.هٌدف هذا البحث إلى اكتشاف اثر استخداماسترات جٌ اٌت ما قبل القراءة على مدى فهم طلبةالكل ةٌ لمادة الشعر. تم اخت اٌر ستون من الطلبةكع نٌه مقسمة إلى مجموعت نٌ بالتساوي: 03كع نٌة تجر بٌ ةٌ ) تم إتباع استرات جٌ اٌت ما قبلالقراءة معهم(, و 03 كع نٌة ضابطة ) تم إتباعالطر قٌة التقل دٌ ةٌ ف تدر سٌهم(. وبعد المعادلةب نٌ المجموعت نٌ بعدة عوامل كالعمر, الجنس,ومستوى تعل مٌ الوالد نٌ تب نٌ بان أداء المجوعةالضابطة أفضل ف الفعال اٌت المتعلقة بفهمواست عٌاب النصوص الشعر ةٌ. وان استرات جٌ اٌتما قبل القراءة قامت بتحف زٌ الطلبة على حلمشكلات تفس رٌ وشرح المعان ف الشعر.وعلاوة على ذلك جعلت الطلبة أكثر نشاطاوجاهز ةٌ لحل المشكلات ف فهم واست عٌاب مادةالشعر.


Article
Investigating Iraqi English Secondary School Teachers' Classroom Strategies

Authors: Khansa'a H. AL-Bahadli --- Ph.D. Candidate
Journal: Al-Bahith Journal مجلة الباحث ISSN: 20032222 Year: 2013 Volume: 7 Issue: 1 Pages: 17-31
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

.AbstractThis study is about Iraqi excellentEnglish secondary school teachers’classroom strategies . The studyfocuses on teachers’ classroomstrategies in four aspects: managingclassroom interaction, questioning,teacher’s feedback and errorcorrection. The findings show thatthe teachers use some classroomstrategies that encourage students tospeak at class in order to create aninteractive classroom.The purpose of this study is toidentify and investigate what exactstrategies the excellent teachers useto create an interactive classroom.Two kinds of approaches are mainlyused in the studies of EFL classroominteractions (Chaudron,1988: 1)Behavioral Category: behavioralcategory classifies behaviors of theteacher and students in terms oflanguage skill acquisitionconsequences of the behaviors. Itinvolves the use of a form orschedule consisting of a set ofcategories for coding specificclassroom behaviors. 2) Discourseanalysis: discourse analysis serves asa device for systematicallydescribing the kinds of interactionsthat occur in language classrooms.The researchers aim to account forthe joint contributions of teacher andstudents and describe all the data.1.1The Problem and its Significance Introduction

انخلاصحذْ انذراسح ػ ان ذًرس انفؼال نهغحالا كَه زٍ حٌ ف ان ذًارس الإػذاد حٌ قٔذ ركزخػهى الإسرزاذ جٍ اٍخ انصف حٍ ف أرتغ يحا رٔ :إدارج انرفاػم انصف ,ً انرساؤل, انرغذ حٌ انزاجؼحنه ذًرس, أٔخ زٍا ذصح حٍ الأخطاء . قٔذ أكذخان رُائج ػهى أ ان ذًرس سٌرخذي تؼطالإسرزاذ جٍ اٍخ انر ذشجغ انطهثح ػهى انرحذزداخم انصف ي اجم خهق صف يرفاػم .انغزض ي ذْ انذراسح نرؼز فٌ تٔحس أ ىْالاسرزاذ جٍ اٍخ انر سٌرخذي آ ان ذًرس انفؼالنخهق صف يرفاػم .اش رُا ي ان ظُز اٌخ انؼه حًٍ ذى اػر اًد اْ ف انرفاػم انصف , الأ نٔى الأ إَع انسه كٕ حٍتذ رٔ اْ ذصف سه كٕ ان ذًرس أنطانة ف ظ ءٕ رَائج ان آًراخ انسه كٕ حٍ ف اكرساب انهغح. ذرطهة اسرخذاو شكم أ جذ لٔ رٌأنف ي أ إَع يرؼذدج ي انسه كٕ .ان ظُز حٌ انصا حٍَ ان ؼًر ذًج ف ذْ انذراسح ذحه مٍ انخطاب قٔذ اسرخذيد كأداج نه صٕفان ظًُى لأ إَع انرفاػم انذي قٌغ ف انصف.ذ ذٓف انثاحصرا نلإن اًو تج غًٍ يا قٌ وٕ ت ان ذًرس أنطهثح كٔم يا تخص ي ظٕ عٕانذراسح.


Article
Cohesion in literary and scientific texts Kerbela university faculty of education department of english

Author: By : Lecturer : Azhar Hassan Salumee 2013
Journal: Al-Bahith Journal مجلة الباحث ISSN: 20032222 Year: 2013 Volume: 7 Issue: 1 Pages: 189-201
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

refers to relations ofmeaning that exist within the text,and that defines it as a text. Thedetection of these meaning relationsis important to its interpretation.These relations are achieved by theuse of cohesive devices. This meansthat the presence or absence of thesedevices in a text helps to make a textcoherent or incoherent respectively.This paper is a statistic study of twotypes of cohesion : the grammaticalcohesion and lexical one in selectedscientific and literary texts. Threescientific essays as well as threeliterary ones have been chosen forthe purpose of analysis. The sixessays are written by differentBritish writers and most of them aretaken from the Internet. The studyaims at presenting data verifying theassumption that both lexical andgrammatical cohesive devices aremore frequent in use in scientifictexts than those occurred in literaryones. Also, some categories in eachtype are more widely used thanothers such as conjunctions andreiteration in both scientific andliterary texts. The study shows thatsuch conclusions can be traced backto the writer's intention to use rathersimple, comparative, and descriptivelanguage in expressing rathercomplex topics presented inscientific texts. That is to say, the useof indirect and complex languagemakes the reader's task moredifficult. Moreover, the frequentcategories of each one help the writerelaborate, illustrate, compare, andeven add new information and ideasto his/her reader. The paper startswith an introduction that acquaintsthe reader with the concept ofcohesion and its two types : thegrammatical and lexical cohesion.Then, an analysis and a statisticstudy of six essays are carried outthat reflect the frequency ofoccurrence of both types of cohesionin these texts. Three scientific essaysas well as three literary ones havebeen chosen for the purpose ofanalysis. The study ends with someconclusions resulted through the

الخلاصةيشير التجانس في النص إلى علاقات المعنىالتي توجد فيه , والتي تعرفه كنص فعلي وانتعقب تلك العلاقات مهم جدا في تفسيره . يتمتحقيق تلك العلاقات باستخدام وسائط التجانس وهدا يعني أن وجود تلك الوسائط أو غيابها منالنص يجعله متجانس أو غير متجانس علىالترتيب .أن البحث الحالي هو دراسة إحصائية لنوعيالتجانس )الوسائط القوا عدية و الوسائط ذاتالعلاقة بالمعنى( في ثلاث نصوص علميةوأخرى أدبية ماخو اغلبها من الانترنت و قدكتب تلك النصوص كتاب بريطانيين مختلفين .تهدف الدراسة إلى برهنة الفرضية التي تنصإلى )يظهر استخدام كلا النوعين من الوسائط فيالنصوص العلمية أكثر من وجودها في الأدبية "و تستخدم الأقسام الفرعية من هدين النوعين "التكرار و أدوات الربط " أيضا بكثرة في تلكالنصوص(. تشير هده الدراسة إلى إن هدهالنتائج قد تعزى الى رغبة الكاتب نفسهلاستخدام لغة وصفية , مقارنة و سهلة فيالتعبير عن المواضيع العلمية و التي هي نوعاما دقيقة , صعبة ومعقدة . أن استخدام اللغةالغير مباشرة و المعقدة في عرض المواضيعالعلمية يجعل مهمة القارئ صعبة للغاية وعلاوة على دلك فأن الاستخدام المتكرر لأقسامكل نوع من تلك الوسائط يجعل الكاتب يتوسع ,يوضح, يقارن و حتى يضيف أفكار و معلوماتجديدة للقارئ . يبدأ البحث بالمقدمة و التيتعرف القارئ بفكرة التجانس و نوعية )الوسائطالقوا عدية و ذات العلاقة بالمعنى( , ثم تم عملتحليل و دراسة إحصائية لستة نصوص و التيتعكس الاستخدام المتكرر لنوعي التجانس فيها .تم اختبار ثلاث نصوص علمية و ثلاث أخرىأدبية لغرض التحليل و ينتهي البحث ببعضالنتائج التي تم التوصل أليها من خلال


Article
The Importance Of Colour Symbolis University Of Kerbala College Of Education For Humanities Department Of Engligh In F. S. Fitzgerald's "The Great Gatsby"

Author: Kaneez Zehra Shahnaz Sultana
Journal: Al-Bahith Journal مجلة الباحث ISSN: 20032222 Year: 2013 Volume: 7 Issue: 1 Pages: 202-221
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

erald's masterpieceThe Great Gatsby is regarded as oneof his greatest work. It has beenconsidered by many a symbol for the"jazz Age," a period of extraordinarywealth and promise. Fitzgerald usesmany different symbolisms toexpress his convictions and ideas.Symbolism is a very importantdevice in the configuration of thestory. Colours are frequently used assymbols to accentuate the meaningof a story and explain certain actionsof a character. F. S. Fitzgerald usescolour symbolism throughout theThe Great Gatsby as a major deviceto develop the personality of hischaracters, to represent differentthemes and set up events.This study attempts to analyzeFitzgerald's use of colours assymbols which is prominent inevery chapter of the novel. Withoutcolour symbolism you would nottruly understand the theme of thenovel. To bring this view to light,the paper concentrates on, to explainthe meaning of different colours usedin the novel.In section one, the study givesa brief introduction to the writer, andsheds light on the social and culturalBackground of the American societyin 1920's. The various culturalelements reflected in the novel whichled to the downfall of the 1920sAmerican Dream will be analyzed insection two . Section three acquaintsthe reader how Fitzgerald utilizes thecolour symbolism to develop majortheme and personalities of hischaracters in the novel. The paperconcludes with an analysis of howthe colour symbolism reflect the

ألخلاصهتعد روا ةٌ "غاتسب العظ مٌ" من أفضل أعمالالكاتب "ف.س.فتز ج رٌالد" و عٌتبرها الكث رٌ نٌرمزا لعصر موس قٌى الجاز وه فترة زمن ةٌتم زٌت بغناها وازدهارها. سٌتخدم الكاتب )فتزج رٌالد( رموز كث رٌة ومختلفة للتعب رٌ عن أفكارهومعتقداته وتعتبر هذه الرمز ةٌ وس لٌة مهمة جداف بناء الروا ةٌ ح ثٌ سٌتخدم الكاتب الألوانبكثرة كرموز دلالة أحداث الروا ةٌ وتمث لٌشخص اٌتها.هذه الدراسة تهدف لتحل لٌ استخدام اللون ف )غاتسب العظ مٌ( وهو استخدام ظٌهر ف كلفصل منها وان عدم استخدام تلك الرموز ؤٌديإلى عدم الفهم الحق قٌ لفكرة الروا ةٌ, قٌدمالبحث ف فصله الأول نبذه مختصرة عنالكاتب و لٌقى الضوء الخلف ةٌ الثقاف ةٌوالاجتماع ةٌ للمجتمع الأمر كٌ ف عشر نٌاتالقرن الماض و عٌكس الفصل الثان مختلفالعناصر الثقاف ةٌ الت أدت إلى سقوط الحلمالأمر كٌ ف الفترة المذكورة . عٌرف


Article
Deviation of Grice's Manner Maxim In Hamlet 's Character
انتهاك قاعدة كرايس )الاسلوبية(في شخصية هاملت

Author: Azhar Hassan Salumee م.ازهار حسن سلومي
Journal: Al-Bahith Journal مجلة الباحث ISSN: 20032222 Year: 2013 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 6-23
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

AbstractThe present studyaddresses the issue ofimplication inShakespeare's Hamlet,viewed from a Griceanperspective. Conversationalexchanges are chosen andanalysed with regard to actsof non-observance(Violating) of Griceanmanner maxim. Theresearcher has found outthat the character Hamletviolates the manner maximby using too many words,repeating information,stating ambiguousspeeches, and usingobscure expressions. Thereasons behind thisviolation vary fromunwillingness to cooperateto misleading the people. Inother words, Hamlet inviolating this maxim aims atgetting the hearer not toknow the truth but to buildhis/her understanding onthe surface meaning of thewords. Hopefully, thesefindings would improve theunderstanding of theviolation of manner maximspecifically for misleadingand enable the reader to

ملخص بحثالدراسة الحال ةٌ تتناول مسالة الانحراف ف مسرح ةٌ هاملت وفقا لنظر ةٌ كرا سٌ,تماخت اٌلر حوار ةٌ التخطب ومن ثم تحل لٌها ف ضوء السلوك الذي لا رٌاع ) نٌتهك( قاعدةالاسلوب ةٌ الت حددها كرا سٌ, وقد وجدالباحث ان شخص ةٌ هاملت ف مسرح ةٌهاملت تنتهك تلك القاعدةمن خلال استخدامهللكلمات الكث رٌة, تكرار, المعلومات , قولحوارات غامضة واستخدام عبارات غ رٌواضحة.الأسباب الت تقف وراء هذاالانحراف متعددة منها عدم الرغبة ف استمرار الحوار وتضل لٌ الاخر نٌ ,وبعبارةاخرى هاملت الذي نٌتهك تلك القادة لا هٌدفالى حمل السامع بمعرفة الحق قٌة,بل انمعرفته تبنى على اساس معنى الكلماتالسطح .ًنامل ان هذه النتائجتعمل علىتحس نٌ الفهم المتعلق بانتهاك قاعدةكرا سٌ)الاسلوب ةٌ( خصوصا الانتهاكللتضل لٌ وتمك نٌ القارئ من رؤ ةٌالمعنىالضمن لما وراء كلام شخص ةٌ هاملت.

Listing 1 - 10 of 66 << page
of 7
>>
Sort by
Narrow your search

Resource type

article (57)

journal (9)


Language

English (49)

Arabic (6)

Arabic and English (2)


Year
From To Submit

2019 (4)

2018 (6)

2017 (2)

2016 (6)

2015 (5)

More...