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The Peasant Movement and the Labor their Role in Russian Political events 1905-1914
الحركة الفلاحية والعمالية ودورها في الاحداث السياسية الروسية 1905-1914

Author: Enas Sa'adi Abdullah ايناس سعدي عبد الله
Journal: Mustansiriyah Journal of Arts مجلة آداب المستنصرية ISSN: 02581086 Year: 2015 Issue: 70 Pages: 1-41
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

It turns out the role of the labor movement and the peasant with the beginning of the twentieth century, and reached its peak during the years between 1905-1907 during any period of the Russian Revolution. In fact, were the causes of this revolution are many, including the survival of serfdom which was paralyzing the country's economy, and its political system, and hinders the development of the country, this system has been tight on the internal market, hampering the development of the industry, and the imposition of a proletarian roughest forms of capital investment. As the autocratic Tsarist policy towards the Russians or other nationalities have increased popular discontent, and perhaps the situation in Finland was a good example of this policy and its consequences. Came Russo-Japanese War to reveal defects Tsarist regime, because he is convinced that many of the corrupt system of government is responsible for what the right of Prussia defeats that the system that has squandered the people's money, has cost the lives of citizens is a necessity. As a result of factors have become over the conditions of workers badly to a large extent, and it was these make up the largest percentage of the population in the industrial cities such as Moscow, Riga, Lodz, Warsaw, and endowed with a wave of meetings and demonstrations and labor strikes, raising slogans workers, political, economic, and culminated in Bloody Sunday, which raised more popular discontent.. The conditions of the peasants in Russia, the bad, and the system of serfdom, and poor distribution of wealth, is a burden on the Russian peasant, so we find that the peasantry was heavily involved in the 1905 revolution to lift the injustice in all their shoulders. Peasants aspires to abolish the ownership of land owners, and the remnants of serfdom in the agricultural system, and Russian, but the peasant movement, although characterized by the power of spontaneity, and generally do not they are organized, and the weak link in the movement of workers and peasants struggling to meet local needs, and do not apply to claim political rights wide.Differed from the position of the Socialist Forces revolution in 1905, the Bolsheviks believed, it's the bourgeois revolution is working on creating a revolutionary democratic dictatorship, any provision in any of the proletariat and the peasantry together. The Mensheviks have thought that as long as the bourgeois revolution must be led by the bourgeoisie.Despite the buildup, which saw a revolutionary movement by the workers and peasants through late 1905, the movement that has seen a significant decline during the years 1906 to 1907, due to overheating that has plagued the revolutionary forces, at a time when reactionary forces have taken the same gathering, and began counter-revolution against the forces Free in 1906, and helped return the army from the battlefields after the end of the Russo-Japanese War, was used to eliminate the Revolution. Despite the failure of the 1905 revolution, the results have been impressive to some extent, one side gave way to the emergence of a number of political parties that represent the various forces of: right-wing and left-wing, whether it is the bourgeoisie, or conservative, or socialist, as well as the start of a new era in the history of Russia represent approval the law of the State Duma, which despite failing four times during the period that the contract, but his presence is a remarkable development in the establishment of a constitutional life somewhat advocated by the political forces, especially the bourgeoisie. The main problem that was not able to be resolved from the Duma, as well as in Tsarist failed to solve, is the agrarian question, this was a matter in the long run, one of the causes of the 1917 revolution.

كانت روسيا اوائل القرن العشرين دولة اوتوقراطية، استبدادية، تحت حكم ال رومانوف( )،وبدأت تشهد تطورا صناعيا كان له ابعاد خطيرة في تاريخها. كانت الثورة الصناعية التي بدأت في روسيا اواخر القرن التاسع عشر، اثر كبيرا في نمو الطبقتين الوسطى(البرجوازية)، والعاملة(البروليتارية)، الامر الذي ادى الى خلق مشاكل كثيرة للأوتوقراطية الروسية. لذلك بذلت القوى الرجعية جهودا كبيرا لعرقلة التطور الصناعي، لأنه يؤدي الى ظهور مجتمع مدني مناوئ لها، وللحياة الريفية، التي تعتمد عليها، ويؤكد عليها بشكل خاص اصحاب التقاليد السلافية. وظهرت في المجتمع الروسي عدة حركات أو جماعات معارضة لسياسة الحكومة الرجعية، واخذت الطبقة الوسطى تعتقد ان الاوتوقراطية مضرة بمصلحتها، ان لم تحدد سلطتها، وتؤسس حكومة دستورية تمثلها( ). كما ان بروز طبقتي العمال والفلاحين خلال سنوات 1901-1903 كان له اثر كبير في اندلاع الثورة الروسية عام 1905.


Article
REALITY OF GOVERNMENT ACTIVITES IN THE FIELD OF FARMER MANAGEMENT FOR AND RECLAIMING LANDS AND MAINTAINING THEIR SUSTAINABILITY IN BABIL PROVINCE
واقع الانشطة الحكومية المقدمة للفلاحين في مجال ادارة الأراضي المستصلحة وتطبيق التوصيات والمحافظة على استدامتها في محافظة بابل

Authors: R . M. Ismail رعد مسلم اسماعيل الخزرجي --- F.H.H Al-Anafee فلاح حكيم هاتف النافعي
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية ISSN: 00750530/24100862 Year: 2016 Volume: 47 Issue: 1 Pages: 325-333
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The research aims at recognizing the reality of government activities in field of farmer management for the reclaimed lands and maintaining their sustainability in Babylon Province, by the following:- (Agricultural extension activities, Agricultural outfits activities, the activity of Bien Al-Nahreen Company for seeds products, Government loan activity, Water resources activity) and determine the level of framers application recommendation from applying the agricultural developments to the reclaimed lands, represented by (Irrigation treatment , fertilization treatment , Soil Conservation) and to maintain problems that farmers face in the operation of reclaimed land and sustainability in Babil province. The sub-district of Abu Gharaq in Babil Province had been chosen to conduct the research due to it has great area of reclaimed lands fully reclamation . The data were collected by survey and personal interview of haphazard class sample, proportionality of rate 12% of research population ,that comprise 1000 farmers with in fact of 120 of them To achieve the research targets a triple standard was prepared for the level description of the type of governments services provided to the farmers in this area, which is comprising of (66)items distributed into (5) aspects: (Agricultural extension activities, Agricultural outfits activities, the activity of Bien Al-Nahreen Company for seeds products, Government loan activity, Water resources activity). The grades of the standard ranges from (66-179) with average amounting at (124.81) grade, with standard deviation amounted at (23.55) grade, research sample were divided into three categories (low, Middle, high), the weights are (1, 2, 3) which were used respectively. A triple scale of the level of the farmers application and sustainability to recent technology was developed in the field of the reclaimed lands, consisting of (35) items, with grades ranging from (77-105)grade. Average of application recent technology is amounted at (48.3)grade, with deviation standard amounted at (8.5)grade. The results of the researcher reveal that the level of farmers' application for the recommended agricultural recent technology in the field of management and sustainability for the reclaimed lands in Babil Province, generally, described as weak, while the level of farmers' application for the recommended agricultural recent technology for each axis of management of reclaimed lands was as follows: Irrigation management described as middle, fertilization management and axis of soil conservation described as few. As for difficulties that face beneficiary peasant of reclaimed lands, the results showed variation of difficulties that researched faced, it related to productivity, extensional problems, and appliances difficulties, the researcher recommends the exigency of edification for the beneficiary farmers of reclaimed lands through prepare extensional and training specialized programs and activities under the supervision of extension staff of the province and the center.

أستهدف البحث التعرف على واقع الانشطة الحكومية المقدمة للفلاحين في مجال الاراضي المستصلحة والمحافظة على استدامتها في محافظة بابل والمتمثلة بالأنشطة الاتية: (نشاط الارشاد الزراعي, ونشاط التجهيزات الزراعية، ونشاط شركة ما بين النهرين لإنتاج البذور، ونشاط الاقراض الحكومي، ونشاط الموارد المائية، والتعرف على مستوى تقديم الانشطة الحكومية في مجال ادارة الاراضي المستصلح، وتحديد مستوى تطبيق الفلاحين المستفيدين من الاراضي المستصلحة للتوصيات الزراعية الموصي بها في كل محور من محاور ادارة الاراضي المستصلحة والمتمثلة بـ (ادارة الري، وادارة التسميد، وصيانة التربة). جمعت البيانات بواسطة الاستبانة وبطريقة المقابلة الشخصية من عينة عشوائية طبقية تناسبية بنسبة 12% من مجتمع البحث مكون من 1000 فلاحا وبواقع 120فلاح. وتحقيقا لأغراض البحث اعدت استيانه تحوي مقياس ثلاثي لمستوى واقع الانشطة الحكومية المقدمة لزراع المنطقة والذي تكون من (66) فقرة موزعة على (5) مجالات هي: (نشاط الارشاد الزراعي، ونشاط التجهيزات الزراعية، ونشاط شركة مابين النهرين لانتاج البذور، ونشاط الاقراض الحكومي، ونشاط الموارد المائية), واعطيت ادرجات المقياس (1,2,3,)على التوالي وتراوحت درجاته مابين (66 – (179درجة ، وبمتوسط بلغ 124.81)) وانحراف معياري بلغ (23.55) درجة. كما اعده مقياس ثلاثي لمستوى تطبيق الفلاحين للتوصيات الزراعية الموصى بها في مجال ادارة الاراضي المستصلحة والمحافظة على استدامتها (مكون من 35فقرة )، تراوحت درجاته مابين ( 77- 105) درجة، وبلغ معدل مستوى التطبيق للتوصيات الزراعية (48.3) درجة، وانحراف معياري (8.5) درجة وقد وزع المبحوثون على ثلاث فئات لأغراض التحليل وفقا لمستويات درجات التطبيق الى (منخفض، متوسط، عال)، واعطيت الاوزان (1 ،2 ، 3) على التوالي. وقد أظهرت نتائج البحث ان مستوى تطبيق الفلاحين للتوصيات الزراعية الموصى بها في مجال ادارة الاراضي المستصلحة والمحافظة على استدامتها في محافظة بابل بشكل عام يوصف بأنه منخفض أما مستوى تطبيق الفلاحين للتوصيات الزراعية الموصى بها لكل محور من محاور ادارة الاراضي المستصلحة فكان كألاتي: أدارة الري يوصف بالوسط، وادارة التسميد ومحور صيانة التربة فيوصفان بالمنخفض. اما فيما يخص المشكلات التي تواجه الفلاحين المستفيدين من الاراضي المستصلحة فقد أظهرت النتائج تنوع وتعدد المشكلات التي يواجهها المبحوثون فهي مشكلات تتعلق بالإنتاجية ومشكلات ارشادية ومشكلات تجهيزية. ويوصي الباحث بضرورة الاهتمام بتوعية الفلاحين المستفيدين من الاراضي المستصلحة من خلال إعداد برامج وأنشطة إرشادية وتدريبية متخصصة يعنى بمسؤوليتها الجهاز الإرشادي على مستوى المركز والمحافظة في مجال ادارة الاراضي المستصلحة والمحافظة على استدامتها.

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