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Article
English to Arabic Example-based Machine Translation System

Authors: Assist. Prof. Suhad M. Kadhem --- Yasir R. Nasir
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS,COMMUNICATION AND CONTROL & SYSTEMS ENGINEERING المجلة العراقية لهندسة الحاسبات والاتصالات والسيطرة والنظم ISSN: 18119212 Year: 2015 Volume: 15 Issue: 3 Pages: 47-63
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Abstract –The Example Based Machine Translation (EBMT) system retrievessimilar examples (pairs of source phrases, sentences, or texts and their translations) froma database of examples, adapting the examples to translate new input. The Example Base(EB) is an important component in an EBMT system. It handles the storage to support thetranslation process. Thus, an efficient EB must be capable of handling a massive volumeof examples at an adequately high speed.In this research, a new approach to reduce the redundancy problem that some EBMTsystems suffer from is suggested by designing EB using B+ tree. The EB is used to storethe examples of a particular field in a manner that reduces the redundancy of theseexamples (or even sub examples) in order to provide efficient memory usage and tominimize the search time. The lexicon of the proposed method is represented by usingtwo databases. One database is used for storing the English words and another database isused for storing the English transfer grammars.

Keywords

EBMT --- EB --- B+ Tree.


Article
Assessing and translating the verb [tharaba /ð ʌ r eb e /] To beat, strike, hit, knock, and punch; to slap, flap; or tap) In the Holy Quran into English
تَرْجَمَةُ الفِعْلِ "ضَرَبَ" فِي القُرْآنِ الكَرِيْمِ إلى اللغَةِ الانكليزيّةِ وتَقْوِيْمُهَا

Authors: Raheem Challub Alkaabi رحيم جلوب الكعبي --- Mohammed Kadhim Ghafil Alaskari محمد كاظم غافل العسكري
Journal: Al-Adab Journal مجلة الآداب ISSN: 1994473X Year: 2015 Issue: 113 Pages: 1-24
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

This paper assesses different approaches used by various translators to translate the verb [tharaba /ð ʌ r eb e /] in the Quranic context, denotation and connotation usages have been highlighted being areas of difficulty in translating the Quran. Various translations of the verb [tharaba /ð ʌ r eb e /] have been compared with a focus on the real meaning, and the metaphorical meaning. This paper shows that approaches to translating denotations and connotations of the verb in question vary.

تَطْرَحُ وَرَقَةُ البَحْثِ هذه تَقْوِيْماً للأسَالِيْبِ المُخْتَلِفَةِ التِي يَسْتَخْدِمُهَا عَدَدٌ مِن المُتَرْجِمِيْنَ فِي تَرْجَمَةِ الفِعْلِ (ضَرَبَ) ضِمْنَ السِّيَاقِ القُرآنِي، حَيْثُ سُلِّطَ الضَّوْءُ عَلى اسْتِخْدَامَاتِ الِفعْلِ مِنْ نَاحِيَتَي الدَّلالَةِ الحَرْفِيَّةِ وَالدَّلالَةِ الضِّمْنِيَّةِ؛ لِكَوْنِ هذَيْنِ المَنْحَيَيْنِ يُمَثِلانِ الجَانِبَ غَيْرَ اليَسِيْرِ فِي تَرْجَمَةِ القُرآنِ الكَرِيْمِ. وَفِي ضَوْءِ هَذَا اُجْرَيْنا مُقَارَنَاتٍ مُتَعَدِدَةً لَتَرْجَمَاتٍ تَنَاوَلْت الفِعَلَ (ضَرَبَ) مَعَ التَّرْكِيْزِ عَلَى المَعَنَى الحَقِيْقِيِّ وَالمَعَنَى المَجَازِيِّ. تُظْهِرُ وَرَقَةُ البَحْثِ هذه التَّبَايُنَ فِي أَسَالِيْبِ تَرْجَمَةِ المَعْنَى الحَرْفِيِّ وَالمَعْنَى الضِّمْنِيِّ للْفِعْل مَحَل البَحْثِ.


Article
Synthesis, Characterization, Theoretical Studies and Bioactivity of Pd(II), Rh(III), Ru(III) and Pt(IV) Complexes with 1,8-Naphthalimide Derivative
تحضير وتشخيص ودراسة نظرية وفعالية بايولوجية لمعقدات الايونات Pd(II), Pt(IV), Rh(III), Ru(III)مع مشتق1, 8 – نفثال ايمايد

Authors: Rehab Abd Almahdi Al-Hasani رحاب عبد المهدي الحسني --- Asia Hameed Abed اسيا حميد عبد --- Sura Khaleel Ibrahim سرى خليل ابراهيم
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2016 Volume: 57 Issue: 4B Pages: 2575-2591
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

A New Mannich base [N-(4-morpholinomethyl)-1, 8-naphthalimide] (L), was synthesized and characterized by C.H.N analysis, FTIR, UV-Vis and 1HNMR spectral analysis. Metal ion complexes of (L) with Pt(IV), Rh(III), Ru(III) and Pd(II) ions were prepared and characterized by FT-IR, and UV-Vis spectroscopy, elemental analysis (C.H.N), flame atomic absorption techniques as well as magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurements. The results showed that metal ion complexes for all complexes were found in [1:2] [M:L] ratio except for Pd(II) complex which was found in [1:1] [M:L] ratio. Hyperchem-8 program has been used to predict structural geometries of the (L) and it's complexes in gas phase. The electrostatic potential (EP) of the (L) was calculated. Furthermore, the heat of formation (∆Hf^o), binding energy (∆Eb), vibration spectra, electronic spectra and bond length for the ligand (L) and its metal ion complexes were calculated by PM3 methods. The antimicrobial activity of (L) and its complexes has been extensively studied against pathogenic bacteria such as (Pseudonomous aerugionosa) as gram negative and (Bacillus Subtilis) as gram positive and fungi (Candida albicans) and (Aspergillus flavus) by agar-well diffusion technique.

تم تحضير قاعدة مانخ الجديدة [N-(4- مورفولينومثيل)-8,1- نفثال ايمايد] (L) والتي شخصت باستخدام التحليل الدقيق للعناصر(C.H.N) وطيف الاشعة تحت الحمراء (FT-IR) وطيف الرنين النووي المغناطيسي (H.NMR1). حضرت معقدات الليكاند (L) مع ايونات العناصر Pd(II), Ru(III), Rh(III) ] Pt(IV) ] والتي شخصت باستخدام اطياف الاشعة تحت الحمراء وفوق البنفسجية – المرئية والتحليل الدقيق للعناصر (C.H.N) والامتصاص الذري اللهبي بالاضافة الى قياسات التوصيلية الكهربائية والحساسية المغناطيسية . اظهرت النتائج ان المعقدات المحضرة كانت بنسبة [2:1] [L:M] مع [Ru(III), Rh(III), Pt(IV) ] ماعدا مع [Pd(II)] كانت النسبة [1:1] [L:M]. استخدم برنامج (8-Hyperchem) لاستنتاج التراكيب الهندسية لكل من الليكاند (L) ومعقداته في الطور الغازي . تم حساب الجهد الالكتروستاتيكي (Ep) لليكاند (L) , بالاضافة الى ذلك تم حساب حرارة التكوين (∆Hf°) وطاقة التاصر (∆Eb) والتردد الاهتزازي والاطياف الالكترونية واطوال الاواصر لليكاند (L) ومعقداته باستخدام الدالة (PM3) و تم تقيم الفعالية لليكاند (L) ومعقداته ضد البكتريا (Pseudonomous aerugionosa) السالبة لصبغة كرام و (Bacillus Subtilis) الموجبة لصبغة كرام و الفعالية المضادة للفطريات باستخدام النوعين (Candida albicans) و Aspergillus flavus)) باستخدام تقنية التنافذ .

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