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Article
Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Workers about The Cervical Cancer and Pap Smear in The College of Nursing
معارف ومواقف وممارسات العاملين في كليات التمريض حول مسحة عنق الرحم وسرطان الرحم

Authors: Hana Algomele --- Nuha Alwandawi --- Wafaa M. Atoof
Journal: kufa Journal for Nursing sciences مجلة الكوفة لعلوم التمريض ISSN: 22234055 Year: 2014 Volume: 4 Issue: 3 Pages: 141-147
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Objectives: The main aim of the study is to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of workers about the cervical cancer and Pap smear in college of nursing. (Teaching and employers staff in Baghdad and Al-Mosul nursing college).Methodology: Ninety two women was deals in present study. The study was conducted during April/2013.The participants were categorized into 2 groups according to their occupation: teaching staff (n= 44) and employer’s staff (n= 48). The knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer and Pap smear are assessed through answers of participants to a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of demographic variables, risk factors, knowledge and practice of cervical cancer and Pap smear .The data were analyzed by using the SPSS, version16.Frequency, percentage and chi-squared test Results: The results of this study shows that the knowledge of the teacher sample is low (40.5%), Just over (35%) had heard of cervical cancer and the main source of information about knowledge is the doctors (36.6%).Almost (7.2 %) had down a pap smear test at least once, only (26.8%) of women wanted to be done the pap smear test and (50%) answers had fear from test of causes did not done pap smear. Conclusion: Our conclusion is that educated women of sample have deficit knowledge, attitude and practice toward cervical cancer and Pap smear. Recommendation: Efforts to increase coverage in cervical screening programs needs to be directed towards medical practitioners as well as towards women. Long term education programs should be made available to motivate the femafle population in the Iraq. In addition, training should be supplied to nurses and primary care physicians to encourage optional screening.

Keywords

cervical cancer --- Pap smear


Article
The Characteristics Women with Cervical Cancer Referred for Radiotherapy and /or Chemotherapy

Authors: Nada Salih Ameen --- Zeena Raad Helmi
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2013 Volume: 12 Issue: 3 Pages: 321-328
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the most common gynecologic cancer in women in the world, most arise frominfection with human papiloma virus. Other host factors also affect the neoplastic progressionfollowing initial infection. OBJECTIVE: To determine characteristics of Iraqi women with carcinoma of the uterine cervix during the last 11years in Iraq. METHODS: Retrospective study; done on records in Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine Hospital- Baghdad; 488 cases of cervical carcinoma referred for chemotherapy and or radiotherapy , from 1999 to2009.Clinical and pathological data were reviewed and analyzed.RESULTS: The data that was obtained from the radiotherapy and nuclear medicine hospital showed that thewomen with cervical carcinoma constitute only 2.1% of total women with malignancies during1999-2009. Highest ;were in 2003 and 2004. Largest proportion presented in late stage(62.32%)and only 37.67% with early stage. Squamous cell carcinoma counted 98.38 % and only1.62% were adenocarcinoma . Median and mean age was 45-50. Median parity between 4 and 6.Majority of patients from Baghdad (43.02%) , Basra (10.93%)and lowest percentage from North;been collectively (10.46%).Only 6.55% had positive family history. (53.72%) with history ofsmoking; significantly associated with late stage. Most common clinical presentation was vaginalbleeding( 65.81%).The most common stage at time of presentation was stage II (36.51%). Most ofreferred patients had surgical interventions as total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingooophorectomy(suboptimalsurgery)60.93%.CONCLUSION:Mostpatientswithcarcinoma of cervix in Iraq presented in late stage due to absence of screeningprogram


Article
The cytotoxic effect of olive oil, nigella sativa and their combination on Hela cancer cell line (in vitro)
التأثير السمي الخلوي لزيت الزيتون او زيت الحبة السوداء او مزيجهما على خط خلايا سرطان عنق الرحم البشري ( هلا ) في الزجاج

Author: Lubna Ahmed kafi لبنى أحمد كافي
Journal: Kufa Journal For Veterinary Medical Sciences مجلة الكوفة للعلوم الطبية البيطرية ISSN: 20779798 Year: 2015 Volume: 6 Issue: 2 Pages: 87-97
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

This study was done to comparison among the cytotoxicity of olive oil, nigella sativa oil and the mixture of olive oil and nigella sativa oil on Hela cancer cell line, the results reveled to the maximum cytotoxic concentration of each olive oil and nigella sativa oil on Hela cancer cell line started from (1 µg/ml – 10000 µg/ml) at 72 hr. incubation periods, which reflect the pattern of cytotoxicity was time depending.While the result the mixture cytotoxicity shows an increasing in cytotoxicity occurred with increasing in the incubation periods especially at 72hr. at concentration equal to 10000 µg/ml , which give indication about the mixture cytotoxicity was time and concentration depends , The cytotoxicity of the mixture was less when comparing with the cytotoxicity of olive oil and nigella sativa oil reflection an antagonism may occurred between the active ingredients of each olive oil and nigella sativa oil causing decreasing in the cytotoxicity of the mixture toward Hela cancer cell line .

أجريت الدراسة بهدف مقارنة التأثير السمي الخلوي لخلايا سرطان عنق الرحم البشري (هلا) لزيت الزيتون أو زيت الحبة السوداء أو مزيجهما في الزجاج بتركيز (1 مكغم / مل – 10000 مكغم/ مل).أظهرت النتائج إن التأثير السمي الخلوي الأقصى لكل من زيت الزيتون أو زيت الحبة السوداء على خط سرطان عنق الرحم البشري (هلا) يبدأ من 1 مكغم / مل الى 10000 مكغم /مل عند 72 ساعة من زمن التعرض والذي يعكس نمط السمية الخلوية بالإعتماد على وقت التعرض.أما نتائج المزيج فقد اظهر بأن التأثير السمي الخلوي يزداد عند زيادة فترة التعرض للزيتين وخصوصآ عند 72 ساعة وبتركيز 10000 مكغم / مل والذي يدل على ان السمية الخلوية للمزيج تعتمد على عاملي التركيز والزمن الخاص للتعرض في نفس الوقت.إن التأثير السام للخلايا في حالة المزيج كان أقل مما هو عليه من التعرض الى زيت الزيتون أو زيت الحبة السوداء كل على حده وهذا ممكن ان يعكس حالة التضاد بين المواد الفعالة الموجودة في زيت الزيتون مع زيت الحبة السوداء والتي أدت الى تقليل التأثير السمي الخلوي على خط سرطان عنق الرحم (هلا) .


Article
and Medical In vitro anti-cancer activity of Doxycycline on some human cancer cell lines
فعالية عقار الدوكسيسيكلين على بعض الخطوط السرطانية البشرية (في الزجاج)

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Abstract

Doxycycline (DC) is an antibiotic that is used in the treatment of number types of infections diseases caused by bacteria and protozoa. Doxycycline is a kind of second-generation tetracyclines which is commonly used to treat a variety of in- fections. Three cancer cell lines include: human cerebral glioblastoma-multiforme (AMGM) at passages 75-84, human cervi- cal cancer (HeLa) at 70 passages, and human pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) at 75 passages cell lines were used in this study. The results showed that DC exerted signi cant cytotoxic effects with all concentrations used (50,100,150,200,250,300,350 and 400) μg/ml on all types of cell lines. Because of cytotoxic activity, good pharmacokinetic characteristics and the safety of drug which used for many years in the treatment of infectious disease, we can conclude that these characteristics make DC a valuable treatment for many types of cancer.

إلدوكسيسيكلين مضاد حيوي من الجيل الثاني للتتراسيكلينات يستخدم في ع ج العديد من ا مراض التي تسببها البكتيريا والبروتوزوا. استخدمت في هذه الدراسة ث ثة خطوط لخ يا سرطانية هي: glioblastoma الدماغ البشري- متعدد ا شكال ) AMGM( عند تمريرة ال84-75, سرطان عنق الرحم البشري )HeLa( عند مقطع ال70 و سرطان الخ يا العضلية المخططة البشرية )RD( عند تمريرة ال75. أشارت النتائج الى ان الدوكسيسيكلين يظهر تأثير معنوي للسمية عند التراكيز المستخدمة وهي )50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 و 400( μg/ml على جميع انواع الخ يا قيد الدراسة. نظرا” للفعالية السمية والخواص الدوائية الجيدة وس مة الدواء حيث استخدم لسنوات عديدة في ع ج العديد من ا مراض المعدية, يمكننا ا ستنتاج بان إلدوكسيسيكلين ع ج جيد نواععديدة من السرطان.


Article
Papanicolaou Smear Outcome of Referred Women to Health Facilities in Baghdad

Authors: Ayser F Abdulraheem --- Jamal M Khudhairi
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2014 Volume: 13 Issue: 1 Pages: 33-37
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background: Cervical cancer is second most common cancer among women worldwide. It is preventable disease because there is usually a phase of pre-malignancy, dysplasia or intraepithelial neoplasia. As the cervix is relatively accessible organ to examine, cells can be easily obtained in the premalignant phase. Cervical cytology by Papanicolaou smear is an effective means of screening for cervical premalignant and malignant conditions. Aim of the study: To describe the socio-demographic characteristics of women referred through cervical screening, in addition to cyto-pathological classification of Papanicolaou smears taken. Patients and Methods: Cross section study carried out from January through June 2012 on a sample of 300 women attending departments of obstetrics and gynecology in two teaching hospitals, and one national cancer center, in Baghdad. All studied women were referred for Papanicolaou smears. Papanicolaou smears were collected; slides were handed to relevant cytopathology laboratories. When reports were due, results were classified according to Bethesda system in order to standardize results coming from different laboratories, and different examiners. Results: normal Papanicolaou smears were seen in (4%) of the studied women, (42%) had inflammatory reaction, (10%) had atypical cells of undetermined significant, (19%) had low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, (20%) had high grade intraepithelial lesion, (1%) had cancer of the cervix, and in (3%) of the studied women the smear was inadequate. Mean time from referral till getting the result was (10 ± 6) days. Although Papanicolaou positivity was not significantly associated with residency, marital life duration and parity, it showed high significant association with usage of contraceptive hormones, and menopause. Conclusion: Premalignant and malignant lesions of cervix are not uncommon in referred women especially in menopausal women and those using hormonal contraception. Lesions can be detected early by Papanicolaou smear. There is discrepancy, and delay in reporting of Papanicolaou smear result, negatively reflected on screening program.


Article
Assessing the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Towards Cervical Cancer Screening Among a Sample of Iraqi Female Population.

Author: Nada A.S. Alwan , Wafa M. Al-Attar , Nawar Al Mallah , Kawakeb N. Abdulla
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2017 Volume: 16 Issue: 2 Pages: 38-47
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Cervical cancer is one of the most common malignancies and the leading cause of cancer related deaths among the female population in developing countries. To assess the level of knowledge, attitude and practices related to cervical cancer risk factors and prevention among Iraqi women. The cross-sectional study included a total of 343 educated female participants who were divided into two groups. Group I comprised 203 employees from the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research while Group II included 140 students from Baghdad Nursing College and the Technical Institute. Participants were asked to complete pre-coded standardized questionnaire prepared by the researchers to elicit information regarding their socio-demographic characteristics and their knowledge, attitudes and practices towards cervical cancer risk factors and its prevention. Overall the answers of the respondents were sub optimal; scored in average as "Poor" among the Employees and "Good" among the Students (32.5% and 68.6% respectively). The difference in scores between the two groups was statistically significant (p < 0.5). Only 38.4% of the employed respondents have heard about Pap smear test versus 85% of the students; the main source of information in the latter was the university curriculum, while among the employed sector the media and TV played the major role. It was displayed that 17% of the married respondents in the study were subjected to Pap smear test before; two thirds of those were examined during the past two years. Favorable positive attitudes towards screening were demonstrated in only 30.3% and 40% among the employed and students groups respectively. The main barrier to screening was fear among the employed group (44.4%), while the lack of sufficient time (60%) was a more important factor behind neglecting screening among the students. In general, only 8.5% of the married respondents believed in the significance of adhering to a routine screening test. The presented findings documented deficit knowledge, attitude and practices related to cervical cancer and Pap smear among the educated Iraqi female population. Efforts should be directed towards establishing national community-based cervical cancer control programs which comprise educational components that focus on elevating the level of awareness among Iraqi women on the risk factors of cervical cancer and the means for its prevention.

Keywords

Cervical Cancer --- Knowledge --- Attitude --- Practice --- Pap smear --- Iraq.


Article
The Molecular Detection of HPV Infection in samples of Iraqi Women with Abnormal cervical Smears

Authors: Mais N. Abdul-samad --- Nuha J. Kandala
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2018 Volume: 59 Issue: 4B Pages: 1995-2004
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 cause almost 70% of cervical cancer cases worldwide. Recently, testing for high-risk HPV types have been adopted by clinical practices for the early detection of cervical cancer in conjunction with cytology tests. Cervical swab samples were collected at the Outpatient Gynecology department of Baghdad Teaching Hospital. These samples consisted of a patient group of 50 samples, and a healthy control group of 10 samples. A papanicolaou test (abbreviated as a Pap test) was also performed for each woman to examine the epithelial cells of both the endocervix and the upper vaginal region. Total DNA (genomic, mitochondrial, and viral) was extracted from cervical swab samples for molecular studies. HPV DNA testing was first done by using Real-Time PCR technology to target the L1 region of HR-HPV with specifically designed primers. This was followed by using AmpliSens kit for specific detection and genotyping of HPV16 and 18 with multiplex Real-Time PCR. The results of RT-PCR detection revealed that out of 16 samples detected with high-risk HPV, 5 samples were shown to be infected with HPV-16 and 5 samples were shown to be infected with HPV-18. These results show a significant relationship between the histological outcome of the patient and persistent HPV infection.


Article
Demographic and Clinical Study on Patients Referred to The National Cancer Research Center for Pap Smears

Author: Huda Hameed Kadhim Alabbody
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2018 Volume: 59 Issue: 4C Pages: 2159-2167
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

A pap test is a simple technique which can detect pre-cancerous and cancerous cells in the vagina and cervix. Cervical cancer is the easiest gynecologic cancer we could prevent it, with regular screening tests and follow-up this screening may avoid cervical cancer or detact it early.This study aims to estimate cytological changes and precancerus lesions during Pap smear test and visual inspection of the cervix on Iraqi women and determine the relationship with demographic characteristics. The study included 50 women aged 18-56 years (mean 39 ±10) in National Cancer of Research Center (NCRC) belong to Baghdad University. These women suffered from genital problems or for checking reproductive health status during the period from 1stDecember 2016 to 31stApril 2018 to perform the grossly inspection of the cervix and take papanacola smear. The results showed that 98% of the women were sexually active, 88% of them in premenapusal period and only (12%) in postmenapusal. Visual inspection of the cervix showed there were (40%) erosion lesions, cytology examination showed (90%) of non specific inflamation, 60% of reactive squamous metaplasia, 26% Koilocytotic atypia, 16% CIN1 or LGSIL. Women how used the contraception 68% and the most of them used pills. The women who had multiple births 26% , 18% had one, and 56 % were nulliparous . The causes of the visit were variable as for rotine checking 48% or to know the reason of abnormal vaginal discharge 22%. 46% of them were doing this test while 54% of them didn't make it previously. Therefore, we recommend by firm awareness and must perform pap smear screening for sexually active women to prevent precancereus lesions in the cervix and then avoid cervical cancer.


Article
THE ROLE OF CERVICAL SCREENING IN EARLY DETECTION OF CERVICAL LESIONS
دور تقصي لطاخات عنق الرحم في التشخيص المبكر للافات

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Abstract

Background: Papanicolaou (pap) smear is the most effective cancer prevention screening tool ever devised. Objective: To study the prevalence of cervical inflammatory, premalignant and malignant lesions and to identify factors related to the prevalence of those lesions.Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted over 3 months period on 302 women attending a Gynecology and Obstetrics outpatient clinic. A detailed history was recruited and pap smear was performed after taking patient consent.Results: Among the total of 300 satisfactory pap smears, pathological changes were found in 209 (67.7%) while the rest 91 (30.3%) did not show any abnormality. More than one type of pathology were found in some cervical smears. The prevalence of different pathological changes revealed by cytological diagnosis of 302 pap smear were: Non-specific cervicitis 188(62.7%), Squamous metaplasia 23 (7.7%), Moniliasis 11 (3.7%), Squamous dysplasia (mild and moderate) 7 (2.3%), trichomouns vaginalis 4(1.3%), HPV infection 4(1.3%), IUCD changes 4(1.3%) and 2 smears (0.7%) were unsatisfactory and excluded from the study. Conclusions: The prevalence of pre-carcerous and carcerous cervical lesions are low and comparable to other studies. Low educational level and improper genital and sexual hygienic practices are associated with inflammatory smears, and they are common findings among women with pre-carcerous lesions. History of prior genital infection, using contraception, abortion and curettage are associated with cervicitis.Keywords: pap smear, cervical cancer, cervicitis

خلفية الدراسة: تعتبر لطاخة بابانيكولاو لعنق الرحم من اكثر وسائل التقصي فاعلية لمنع سرطان عنق الرحم هدف الدراسة: تهدف هذه الدراسة الى ايجاد معدل الانتشار للافات الالتهابية و ما قبل الخبيثة والخبيثة بين النساء و تحديد العوامل المتعلقة بمعدل انتشار هذه الافاتطريقة العمل: اجريت دراسة مقطعية على مدى ثلاثة اشهر شملت 302 امراة مراجعة للعيادة الخارجية للنسائية و التوليد . تم استحصال المعلومات من كل مريضة و اجريت بعدها لطاخة عنق الرحم بعد اخذ موافقة المريضةالنتائج: كانت معدلات الانتشار للافات المختلفة كالاتي؛ التهاب عنق الرحم غير النوعي 188(7ر62%)، الحؤول الصدفي 23(7ر7%)، داء المبيضات11(7ر3%)، الثدن الصدفي 7 (3ر2%)، المشعرات المهبلية 4 (3ر1%)، حمة الحليموم البشري 4(3ر1%)، اما الافات الناتجة من اللولب الرحمي لمنع الحمل فكانت 4 (3ر1%). اثنان من اللطاخات كانت غير كافية و قد استثنتا من الدراسةالاستنتاج: كانت معدلات الانتشار للافات المختلفة مقاربة للدراسات الاخرى. و لقد تبين وجود علاقة ذات معنى احصائي بين لطاخات عنق الرحم الالتهابية و بين المستوى الثقافي المنخفض، اتباع ممارسات تصحح خاطئة، حدوث التهابات تناسلية سابقة، و وجود اجهاض و تجريف رحمي سابق .مفتاح الكلمات: لطاخات عنق الرحم، سرطان عنق الرحم، التهاب عنق الرحم


Article
Human Papilloma Virus in a Sample of Iraqi Women with Normal and Abnormal Pap Smear

Authors: Nada Salih Ameen --- Dalia Thamer Ahmmad
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2014 Volume: 13 Issue: 2 Pages: 211-218
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:World wide, cervical cancer is one of the most common cause of death from cancer in women, HPV testing have a key role in primary cervical screening and the currently accepted view is that HPV is an essential factor in the causation of the disease.OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to outline the presence of HPV infection in our community through sample of Iraqi's women who attended Central Health Laboratories with normal and abnormal Pap smear during the period from August 2006 to December 2008.METHODS: The data were collected from records of the laboratory which includes the information about patients who were referred to the central health laboratories to do HPV test , these data includes: age of the patients , marital state, years after marriage which represents the age of first sexual acts , also the records includes the smoking state, Pap smear results and lastly the HPV test results. HPV testing was done by PCR method , which initially required DNA extraction by MICROGENO DNA from AB Analitica , then DNA Amplificaion by PCR , and finally Electrophoresis for reading the UV light and translating it into certain molecular weight by Molecular Weight Markers.RESULTS:The percentage of HPV infection was 15.65 % , the percentage of positive test was 20% among those aged between 20-30 years old , no viruses had been detected above 50 years old . All the cases that have been examined were married and had 15% infection rate among them . The maximum infection rate 20% was among those who had sexual activity for 5-9 years. 91.6% of the infected women were smokers. 5.5% of the women with negative cytological results was infected, 26.3 % of those with ASCUS, 43.3% of those women with CIN I, 45.5% of those with CIN II , and 57% of those with CIN III ; the highest infection rates were 100% among patients with micro-invasive cancer. CONCLUSION: -High rate of HPV infection is associated with age , smoking and multiple sexual partners(married more than once). - High frequency of detection of oncogenic HPV infection are associated with increasing grade of cervical lesion.

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