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Imipenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from patients and hospitals environment in Baghdad
بكتريا Acinetobacter baumannii المقاومة للأمبينيم المعزولة من مرضى و بيئة مستشفيات بغداد

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Abstract

During 2011, 1900 clinical specimens and 240 hospital environment specimens were collected from four hospitals in Baghdad. 128 isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii were obtained from clinical and environmental specimens in a percentage of 6.05% and 5.42%, respectively. The highest percentage of isolation, 38.26% was of sputum specimens and lower percentage of burns specimens 5.22%. The lowest incidence was of age range (71-80) years old group whereas the highest incidence was of age range (31-40) years old group. Also we found that the incidence was higher in males (66.96%) than that of females (33.04%) and the frequency of positive A. baumannii isolates was higher in intensive care units (ICUs). Results revealed eleven different resistotype patterns* designated arbitrarily from A-K and all our isolates showed multidrug resistance to those antibiotics. We found the highest percentage (85%) of imipenem resistant A. baumannii (IRAB) isolates were isolated from blood disease (leukemia) department followed by ICU, RCU, Burns, surgical and other departments, respectively.

خلال عام 2011 ، 1900 عينة سريرية و240 عينة من بيئة المستشفيات تم جمعها من مستشفيات في بغداد ،تم الحصول على 128 عزلة تعود الى بكتريا A. baumanniiوبنسبة 6.05% من العينات السريرية و %5.42 من العينات البيئية. أعلى نسبة عزل لهذا النوع وصلت الى 38.26 %تم الحصول عليها من نماذج القشع بينما اقل نسبة عزل تم الحصول عليها من نماذج الحروق ووصلت الى 5.22% من 115 عزلة سريرية. كانت أقل نسبة أصابات بين مجموعة الأعمار71-80 سنة بينما سجلت أعلى نسبة أصابات بين مجموعة الأعمار31-40 سنة وكانت نسبة الأصابة في الذكور (66.96%) أعلى منها في الإناث (33.04%) و أعلى تكرار للأصابة ببكتريا A. baumannii كان في وحدات العناية المركزة. أظهرت النتائج 11 نمطا للمقاومة سميت من K-Aوكانت جميع العزلات مقاومة للعديد من المضادات الحياتية ،فيما يخص العزلات السريرية (115) كانت جميع العزلات متعددة المقاومة. تم تسجيل أعلى نسبة عزل وصلت الى (85%) للعزلات المقاومة لمضاد الأمبنيم من ردهات امراض الدم تلاها وحدات العناية المركزة، وحدات العناية التنفسية، ردهات الحروق، الردهات الجراحية والردهات الأخرى.


Article
Improving of Antibacterial Activity for Antibiotics by Purified and Characterized Lectin from Acinetobacter baumannii

Author: Sahira Nsayef Muslim
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2015 Volume: 14 Issue: 1 Pages: 9-22
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Abstract: Lectin has a wide range of applications in many fields as anti-tumor, anti-insect , antiviral and antifungal drug. Here we reported lectin production from Acinetobacter as there is no report on lectin production from Acinetobacter. In the present study a novel strain, Acinetobacter baumannii S3 isolated from sputum samples gave the highest production level of lectin by microscopic glass slide and microtiter plate methods and the hemagglutination activity was not blood-type specific. Lectin was purified to homogeneity with a recovery yield of 72.72% and 40.76 fold of purification by using ammonium sulfate at 35% saturation followed by QAE-Sephadex ion exchange chromatography and sephadex G-200 gel filtration chromatography. The optimum activity of purified lectin was found at 30ºC and pH 7. The best cofactors for lectin activity were Mn++ and Mg++ with relative activities of 132 and 122%, respectively and severely inhibited in presence of Fe3+, Cu2+and detergents. Lectin led to increase antimicrobial activity of antibiotics and had synergism effect, thus lectin may be useful adjuvant agent for the treatment of many bacterial infections in combination with antibiotics.


Article
Study of Antibiotic Resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii in Intensive Care Units (I.C.Us) and Burn Patients

Author: Saif Adel Al-Taliby , Wathiq Abbas Hatite Al-Daraghi
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2019 Volume: 18 Issue: 1 Pages: 32-36
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The genus Acinetobacter is a major cause of nosocomial infections; it is increasingly being associated with various epidemics and has become a widespread concern in a variety of hospitals worldwide. Multi-antibiotic resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, is now recognized to be of great clinical significance. Numerous reports relay to the spread of A. baumannii in the hospital settings which leads to enhanced nosocomial outbreaks associated with high death rates. However, many other Acinetobacter spp. also can cause nosocomial infections. This study focused on the role of Acinetobacter spp. as nosocomial pathogens in addition to their persistence, antimicrobial resistance patterns and epidemiology.


Article
Evaluation of Biofilm Formation Capacity of Acinetobacter baumannii Isolated from Clinical Samples in Baghdad Hospitals using Phenotypic Methods

Author: Haider Turky AL-Mousawi1 , Mohammed I. Nader AL- Taee1 , Qabas Nima AL-Hajjar2
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2018 Volume: 17 Issue: 3 Pages: 47-60
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

During the period from November/2016 to March/2017, a total of 475 specimens from various clinical sources (wounds, burns, urine, sputum, blood and throat) were collected from patients suffering different infections from a number of hospitals in Baghadad city (Karkh and Resafa), as follows: (Al-Yarmuk, Al-Karama, Al-Karkh, Al- Kadmia, Martyr Gazi Al-Hariry, the Medical city, Al-Kindi Teaching, Al-Imam Ali, Ibn-Al Balady and Baghdad Teaching Hospitals). Acinetobacter baumannii isolates in selective (CHROMagar) and specific differential medium, microscopic features, biochemical tests and API20 NE and VITEK-2 system at probability 98%. Furthermore the identification of isolates depending of molecular method by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique which is used to amplify specific gene by using special primers, to genus level was confirmed finally by detection of 16SrRNA gene while identification of A.baumannii isolates to species level was done by blaOXA-51-like gene, gaving ratio 100%. The results showed that the 83 A.baumannii isolates were obtained from clinical specimens (17.47%), distiributed according to the sources from highest to lowest percentage as follow in 31(25.20%) wound, 21(19.81%) burn, while 10(12.82%) urin, 8(11.94%) sputum, 7(12.72%) blood and low percentage 6(13.04%) from throat. This study focused on the phenotypic to determine methods the ability of biofilm production using three methods includes: Congo red agar (CRA), Tube method (TM) and microtiter plates (MTP). The results showed a significant differences between all 83 A.baumannii isolates. A seventy four isolates (89.15%) have the ability to adherence and produce slim layer with significant differences in thickness degrees (strong, moderate and weak). While 9 isolates which represented (10.84%) from isolates have no ability to adherence and produce slim layer. When comparing between these methods to detect strong biofilm production isolates, the results showed that MTP assay was excelled on CRA and TM at 58(69.87%), 48(57.83%) and 45(54.21%), respectively measured by optical densities values at 630 nm. Conclusion: The study concludes that there a positive correlation between biofilm formation and multi drug resistance A. baumannii. Each of the three phenotypic methods used for detection of biofilm formation has its advantages and disadvantages. But MTP method is most widely used and was considered as standard test for detection of biofilm formation.


Article
11.DETECTION OF SOME BIOFILM GENES RELATED WITH MULTIDRUG-RESISTANT IN ACINOBACTER BAUMANNII ISOLATED FROM CLINICAL ISOLATES

Authors: Sura S. Talib سرى سعد طالب --- Thanaa R. Abdulrahman ثناء رشيد عبد الرحمن --- Shatha H. Ali شذى حسين علي
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2018 Volume: 16 Issue: 4 Pages: 430-438
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background: Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumanii) has recently emerged as a major pathogen causing nosocomial infections in patients admitted to intensive care units with a surprisingly rapid acquisition of antibiotic resistance.Objective: To study the rate of occurrence of A. baumanii in different clinical samples and to investigate the association between biofilm formation and presence of ompA and bap genes in multi-drug resistance isolates.Methods:A total of 150 clinical samples were collected from (blood, sputum, urine, wound swab) during a period from the first of October 2017 to the end of March 2018 from Al-Imamein Al-Kadhimein City, Central Teaching Hospital of Pediatrics, Welfare Children Protection in Medical City and Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital and tested against 14 antibiotics by disc diffusion method. Quantitative microtiter plate assay was done for detection of biofilm formation. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to detect ompA and bap genes.Results: There were 75 A. baumanii isolated from different clinical samples as follows: 41 from blood, 13 from wound, 12 from sputum and 9 from urine. The results of antimicrobial susceptibility test showed, high rate of resistance to Aztronem (94.7%) followed by Cefotaxime (89.3%), Cefepim (86.7%), Meropinem (86.7%), Ceftriaxone (86.7%), Ceftazidime (85%), Gentamicin (85%), and Piperacillin (82.7%) respectively. Moderate - to - low rate of resistance to Ciprofloxacin (78%), Impenim (46.7%), Levofloxacin (46%), Amikacin (44%), Tigacycline (42.3%) and Colistin (44%). The detection of biofilm formation showed that (52%) of isolate produce biofilm and the prevalence of ompA gene was 86.7% while the prevalence of Bap-gene was 34.7%.Conclusion: High frequency of A. baumannii infection was observed in different hospitals in Baghdad. More than half of the isolates were biofilm producer and there is highly significant association between the presence of bap gene and the biofilm formation but not with ompA gene.Keywords: Acinetobacter baumannii, ompA, Bap, MDCitation: Talib SS, Abdulrahman TR, Ali SH. Detection of some biofilm genes related with multidrug-resistant in Acinobacter baumannii isolated from clinical isolates. Iraqi JMS. 2018; 16(4): 430-438. doi: 10.22578/IJMS.16.4.11

Keywords

Acinetobacter baumannii --- ompA --- Bap --- MD


Article
Molecular Characteristics of Multidrug Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Isolated from Baghdad Hospitals
الخصائص الجزيئية لبكتريا Acinetobacter baumannii متعدده المقاومة للمضادات الحيوية والمعزولة من مستشفيات بغداد

Authors: Khitam K. AL-Masoudi ختام خالص المسعودي --- Jinan M. AL-Saffar جنان محمد الصفار --- Nuha J. Kendla نهى جوزيف قندلا
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2015 Volume: 56 Issue: 2B Pages: 1394-1399
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

A total of 100 clinical sample from (urine, sputum and swabs of wound , burn and ear) were collected from patients in different hospitals of Baghdad during the period from December 2013 to May 2014. 15 isolates (15%) identified belong to Acinetobacter baumannii, swabs of wounds were represented in high percentage of A.baumannii isolates (40%) while percentage of other samples were variable. Susceptibility of 15 A.baumannii isolates were tested toward 16 different Antimicrobial agents, the results showed all isolates were multi drug resistant. In addition, Polymerase Chain Reaction Technique (PCR) was performed to detection the resistance genes encoding the Oxacillinases enzymes. The PCR analysis showed that the presence of insertion sequence (ISAba1) in 13 isolates whereas blaoxa51like gene was represented in 12 isolates. Furthermore, the results of detection other genes were not appear any amplification for all A.baumannii isolates with genes encoded for bla oxa 58 and bla oxa 143 enzyme.

شملت الدراسة 100 عينه سريريه ومن مصادر مختلفة (الإدرار،القشع،مسحات الجروح،مسحات الحروق ومسحات الإذن) من مرضى مستشفيات مختلفة في بغداد، خلال الفترة الممتدة من كانون الأول 2013 حتى مايس 2014.،شخصت 15 عزله(15%) تعود إلى Acinetobacter baumannii وكانت أعلى نسبه تشخيص تعود إلى مسحات الجروح(40%) وتغايرت نسبه العزل في مصادر العينات الأخرى.اختبرت حساسية عزلات بكتريا Acinetobacter baumannii باتجاه 16 مضاد حيوي، أظهرت نتائج الاختبار أن جميع العزلات كانت متعدده المقاومةللمضادات الحيويه. استخدم تقنيه Polymerase Chain Reaction Technique (PCR) للتحري عن امتلاك العزلات قيد الدراسة على الجينات التي تشفر إلى g(Oxacillinase) فوجد 13 عزله تشفر للتسلسل ISAba1، بينما 12 عزله كانت تحتوي على bla oxa 51 gene إما bla oxa58 gene and bla oxa 143 gene أظهرت نتيجة سالبه لكل العزلات.


Article
Production, Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of a Bioemulsifier Produced by Acinetobacter baumanii AC5 Utilizing Edible Oils

Author: Nadhem H. Hyder
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2015 Volume: 14 Issue: 2 Pages: 55-70
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Biosurfactant or Bioemulsifier amphiphilic compounds are; produced by microorganisms as primary or secondary metabolites. The unique properties of biosurfactants mean that they have the potential to supplement, or even replace, chemical surfactants used in food, in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries; and in the environment. In the present study ten Acinetobacter sp. isolated from different sources were tested for their capability to produce bioemulsifiers in mineral salt medium with addition of 1% (v/v) edible oil as the sole source of carbon. Out of the ten Acinetobacter isolates tested, five showed lipase activity and produced bioemulsifiers exhibiting an emulsification index (EI24%) of 40 – 78%. The results revealed that the isolate Acinetobacter baumanii AC5, a gram negative, oxidase negative, aerobic and a diplococcoid rod bacterium was the best bioemulsifier producer. Optimization studies indicated that bioemulsifier production was associated with bacterial growth, and that the presence of inducer edible oils in the medium also enhanced bioemulsifier production. On the other hand, bioemulsifier production decreased when hydrocarbon (gasoline and diesel oil) were used. Crude bioemulsifier was recovered from the culture supernatant by a solvent system of chloroform: methanol (2:1 v/v), with the extraction producing 5.05 g/l of crude bioemulsifier. Partial purification and chemical analysis of the bioemulsifier revealed that it is a lipoglycan in nature with lipid content of 63%, carbohydrate 35% and a minor fraction of protein 2%. The crude bioemulsifier; showed strong antimicrobial and antifungal activity against tested pathogenic microorganisms.


Article
Detection of qnrA &qnrS in Ciprofloxacin Resistant Acinetobacter baaumannii
الكشف عن الجينات qnrA و qnrS في العزلات المحلية لبكتريا Acinetobacter baumannii المقاومة للسبروفلوكساسين

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Abstract

Fifteen (15) Acinetobacter baaumannii isolated and identied from differentclinical samples including wounds , burns , Urine , CSF and blood . the sensitivity of these isolate were tested against Ciprofloxacin , Norfloxacin and levofloxacin . the result revealed that preacentance (60%) of them are resistant for ciprofloxacin and (73.3%) for levofloxacin and norfloxacin. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for isolates resistant for Ciprofloxacin by using sensitive disces method. (MIC) valus for them was between (4-512) ug/ml. The result of Gelelectrophorphes revealed that Ciprofloxacin resistant isolates possase asingle plasmid band. Using poly merase chain reaction to determinate resistance gene qnrA &qnrS in Acinetobacter baaumannii. qnrA gene is more frequent in local Acinetobacter baaumannii isolate.

تم الحصول على 15 عزلة لبكتريا Acinetobacter baumannii من عينات سريرية مختلفة شملت الجروح والحروق والأدرار وسائل النخاع الشوكي والدم. اختبرت حساسية العزلات لمضادات السبروفلوكساسين والنورفلوكساسين واليفورفلوكساسين أظهرت النتائج أن 60% من العزلات كان مقاومة للسبروفلوكساسين و 73.3% مقاومة للنورفلوكساسين واليفورفلوكساسين. تم تحديد التركيز المثبط الادنى (MIC ) للسبروفلوكساسين للعزلات قيد الدراسة التي أظهرت مقاومة تجاه هذا المضاد في فحص الحساسية بالاقراص، وقد بينت النتائج ان قيمة MIC تراوحت بين ( 512-4 ) مايكروغرام / مل. أظهرت نتائج ترحيل الدنا من العزلات المقاومة لمضاد السبروفلوكساسين أحتواء بعض العزلات على حزمة بلازميدية واحدة. بينت نتائج التحري عن جينات qnrA و qnrS في بكتريا Acinetobacter baumannii أن جينات المقاومة qnrA هي الأكثر إنتشارا بين العزلات المحلية والمقاونة مع qnrS


Article
Effects of green laser therapy on healing of infected wound in mice.
ثاثير العلاج بالليزر الاخضر على التهام الجروح عند الفيران

Authors: Mawada .M. Funjan موده موسى فنجان --- Fareed F. Rasheed فريد رشيد --- , Alaa Nazar الاء نزار
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2017 Volume: 30 Issue: 2 Pages: 101-108
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Abstract:Background: Little studies focused on stimulation of healing process of infected wound in mice. The predominant pathogens that infected wound were gram positive such as Staphylococcus aureusand gram negative such as P. aeruruginosa and Acinetobactor Baumannii. A. baumannii cause wide range nosocomial infections. Objective: study the influence of green laser 532nm at constant power density (irradiance) at different exposure times (5, 15) on healing of wound infected by Acinetobacter Baumannii created on BALB/C mice.Methods: An elliptical full thickness skin wound was created aseptically on a back of 45 adults, females BALB/C mice. The wounds were infected by Acinetobacter Baumannii and the mice were randomly divided into two sets, first one was infected ( non-irradiated controls)15 animals (five in each subgroup)dividing according to the days of irradiation, second set was infected(irradiated groups)randomly divided in to two groups, first group irradiated for 5 mints and second group irradiated for 15 minutes. Both irradiated groups subdivided according to follow up period 3, 5, 10 days. Animal killed on day 3, 5, and 10 after treatment and control group killed also on 3,5,10 after contamination. Cold laser therapy (CLT) achieved by semiconductor diode laser 532nm, output power =40mw, continuous wave laser, power density =5.71 mw/cm2 and doses 1.7J/cm2, 5.14J/cm2. The output of green laser fitted with beam expander to irradiate a circular area of diameter 7cm2. CLT started after surgery and repeated for 3, 5, and 10 days. Wound healing studied by calculating the percentage of wound closure and histopathological evaluation. Conclusion: the present study showed that green laser therapy had obvious influence on healing of infected wound especially with a dose 5.14 J/cm2.


Article
Clinical Risk Factors for Nosocomial Infection Caused by Acinetobacter baumannii among Iraqi Patients suffering from differing burns

Author: Zahraa Falah Azeez , Wathiq Abbas Hatite Al-Daraghi
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2018 Volume: 17 Issue: 3 Pages: 61-66
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate risk factors and the role of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates in mortality due to burns since morbidity and mortality rates are considerably high. A total of 204 patients hospitalized in Burn Care Unit at Al-Diwanyia Teaching Hospitial, The Burn Specialist Hospital between January 2017 and February 2018 were reviewed retrospectively. Logistic regression analysis was used in order to predict the risk. RESULTS: From the collected notes, a total of 289 bacterial colonies were isolated of these patients and from them 22 isolates were identified as A. baumannii. Mortality rates were as follows: 10.5% in general, 4.9% for fewer than 17 years of age, and 5.6 % for between 18-64 years of age.

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