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Article
Adrenaline and Nor Adrenaline Effect on Blood Glucose Level in Diabetic Patients

Authors: Tahani A Al–Sandook --- Harith H Kaskos --- Raid M Basheer
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2007 Volume: 7 Issue: 3 Pages: S41-S44
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: This study was conducted to find the effect of adrenaline and nor adrenaline containing local anesthesia on the blood glucose level on non insulin dependent diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients were given 1.8ml of 2% lignocaine containing 1:100000 adrenaline as infiltration local anesthesia intraorally, and other thirty patients received 1.8ml of 2%lignocaine containing 0.072mg of nor–adrenaline in the same manner. Fasting blood sugar was measured before the administration of local anesthesia and 30 minutes after the administration of local anesthesia. Results: There were no significant differences in blood glucose level measured before and after the injection of adrenaline containing local anesthesia. However, there were significant differences between the results obtained with nor–adrenaline containing local anesthesia, where there is a significant increase in blood glucose level 30 minutes after the injection of local anesthesia. Conclusions: The administration of anesthesia containing adrenaline has no effect on blood glucose level of diabetic patients. While administration of anesthesia containing nor adrenaline cause a significant effect (hyperglycemic effect) in those patients.


Article
Spectrophotometric Determination of Catechol Amine Drugs in Pharmaceutical Preparations via Oxidative Coupling Reaction with 3-Amino Pyridine and Sodium Periodate

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AbstractA rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of some Catechol amine drugs (methyldopa (I), adrenaline (II), and dopamine (III)) in both pure and dosage forms. The proposed method uses 3-amino pyridine as a chromogenic reagent. The method is based on the oxidative coupling reaction of Catechol amine drugs with 3-amino pyridine and sodium periodate to form an orange-water-soluble dye product, that has a maximum absorption at 476, 488 and 490 nm for (I), (II), and (III) respectively. The optimum reaction conditions and other analytical parameter are evaluated. The proposed method was applied successfully to the determination of these drugs in pharmaceutical formulation. The results have demonstrated that the method is equally accurate and reproducible as the official methods.

الخلاصةيتضمن البحث اقتراح طريقة طيفية سريعة وحساسة لتقدير ادوية الكاتيكول امين في المستحضرات الصيدلانية. تعتمد الطريقة على تفاعل الازدواج التأكسدي بين هذه الادوية والكاشف العضوي الـ 3-امينو بردين بوجود بيرايودات الصوديوم حيث يعطي ناتج برتقالي ذائب في الماء وله اعلى امتصاص عند طول موجي 476، 488 و 490 نانوميتر نسبة الى المثيل دوبا ( I )، الادرينالين (II) والدوبامين ( III) على التوالي. طبقت الطريقة المقترحة بنجاح لتقدير ادوية الكاتيكول امين في المستحضرات الصيدلانية.


Article
SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF ADRENALINE IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM USING METHYLTHIAZOLYLDIPHENYLTETRAZOLIUM- BROMIDE (MTT)
التقدير الطيفي للأدرينالين باستخدام الكاشف مثيل ثيازولايل ثنائي فنيل تترازوليوم بروميد

Authors: Theia'a N. Al-Sabha ضياء نجم الصبحة --- Thabit S.Al-Ghabsha ثابت سعيد الغبشة --- Saladdin M.AL-Talib صلاح الدين محمد الطالب
Journal: AL-TAQANI مجلة التقني ISSN: 1818653X Year: 2014 Volume: 27 Issue: 2 Pages: E46-E53
Publisher: Foundation of technical education هيئة التعليم التقني

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Abstract

A sensitive and simple spectrophotometric method is developed for thedetermination of adrenaline. The method is based on the reaction of adrenaline withmethylthiazolyldiphenyl- tetrazolium- bromide (MTT) in basic medium and the increaseof reagent's color intensity is measured at 536 nm against reagent blank. Beers law wasvalid over the concentration range of 0.1 – 3.0μg.ml-1 with molar absorptivity of 1.179 ×105l.mol-1.cm-1, and Sandell sensitivity of 0.00156 μg. cm-2. The relative error is less than+ 3%, and the relative standard deviation of better than + 1.8% depending on theconcentration. The proposed method was successfully applied to the assay of theadrenaline in dosage form.

تم تطوير طريقة طيفية سهلة وحساسة لتقدير كميات مايكروغرامية من الادرينالين .تعتمد الطريقة على تفاعل الادرينالين مع مثيل ثيازولايل ثنائي فنيل تترازوليوم بروميد (MTT) بوسط قاعدي وقياس الزيادة في شدة لون الكاشف عند طول موجي 536 نانوميتر مقابل المحلول الصوري . لقد اتبعت الطريقة قانون بير عند مدى تركيز 3.0-0.1 مايكروغرام . مللتر-1وبامتصاص مولاري×1.17 105 لتر.مول-1. سم-1 وحساسية ساندل 0.00156 مايكرو غرام. سم-2 وخطا نسبي اقل من + 3% وانحراف قياسي نسبي أفضل من +1.8% اعتمادا على التركيز. امكن تطبيق الطريقة بنجاح في تقدير كمية الأدرينالين بمستحضره الصيدلاني


Article
Flow Injection With inhibited Chemiluminescence Method for the Determination of Adrenaline Hydrochloride
الحقن الجرياني مع طريقة التثبيط بالتألق الكيميائي لتقدير هيدروكلوريد الادرنالين

Author: Yousif J. Azeez يوسف جلال عزيز
Journal: Journal of university of Anbar for Pure science مجلة جامعة الانبار للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: ISSN: 19918941 Year: 2009 Volume: 3 Issue: 3 Pages: 25-27
Publisher: University of Anbar جامعة الانبار

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Abstract

A simple rapid and accurate flow injection inhibitory chemiluminescence method has been developed for the determination of adrenaline hydrochloride based on its inhibition of the chemiluminescence from the luminol ،V potassium hexacyanoferrate (III) system. The linear range of determination is 8.0 „e 10-12 ،V 8.0 „e 10-10 mgl-1 for adrenaline hydrochloride and the detection limit is 4.0 „e 10-9 g ml-1. The method has been applied to determine the content of adrenaline in pharmaceutical preparation with satisfactory results.

طريقة سهلة وسريعة ودقيقة للحقن الجرياني المثبط بالتألق الكيميائي تم تطويرها لتعيين هيدروكلوريد الادرينالين بالاعتماد على تثبيط10 ملغم/لتر لهيدروكلوريد - 10 * 2 الى 8.0 - 10* التألق الكيمائي من نظام لومينال-بوتاسيوم هكسوسيانيد الحديد الثلاثي ، المدى الخطي 8.09 مل /لتر ، يمكن يمكن تطبيق الطريقة لتعدين الادرينالين في المستحضرات الصيدلانية بنتائج مقنعة. - 10 * الادرينالين وحد الكشف 4


Article
Endoscopic injection of adrenaline versus normal saline in bleeding peptic ulcerA prospective evaluation

Author: Rabah H. Asreah رباح هياب سريح
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 / 24108057 Year: 2009 Volume: 51 Issue: 1 Pages: 27-30
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Endoscopic treatment is widely accepted as the most effective method for controlling acute ulcer bleeding and preventing ulcer rebleeding.Objective: is to compare efficacy and safety of local endoscopic injection of adrenaline to normal saline in bleeding peptic ulcers and to identify the risk of rebleeding after successful endoscopic hemostasis.Patients and methods: This is a prospective study of 77 patients with bleeding peptic ulcers were treated by local endoscopic injection of adrenaline or NS. Patients who succeeded initial hemostasis were admitted and followed for rebleeding events. Rebleeding was confirmed by urgent endoscopy followed by referral to urgent surgery. Outcome was measured directly by rebleeding rate, need for surgery, and the mortality rate and indirectly by the number of blood transfusion units and days of hospitalization. All clinical and endoscopic data of patients were collected to stratify the risk of rebleeding.Results: The rebleeding rates (17.9% for NS group vs. 11.4% for adrenaline group), the need for emergency operation (10.2% vs. 5.7%), blood transfusion (3.2 units vs. 2.4 units), hospital stay (2.8 days vs. 2.7 days) and in-hospital mortality (5.6% vs. 5.7%) were not significantly different in both groups. Clinical and endoscopic analysis revealed that presence of shock, coexisting disease, large ulcer size (>2cm) and active bleeding were independent factors predicting rebleeding.Conclusion: local endoscopic injection of NS and adrenaline are equally safe and effective in stopping ulcer bleeding and rebleeding. Severe bleeding, comorbidities, large ulcer size, active bleeding all are predictors of rebleeding.


Article
The Effect of Continuous Darkness and Continuous Light on the Reactivity of Smooth Muscles to Drugs in the Rat Vas Deferens

Author: Estabraq M. Mahdi استبرق مهدي
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2009 Volume: 5 Issue: 1 Pages: 47-51
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The vasoconstricting agents: nor-adrenaline and 5- hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) have a stimulant action on smooth muscle contractility of the rat vas deferens.Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effect of exposure to continuous darkness and continuous light on the contractility of the vasa deferntia smooth muscles from rats to applied nor-adrenaline and 5-HT.Method: Male albino wistar rats were divided into 3 experimental groups. Group 1: Control animals, were exposed to the ordinary photoperiod each day. Group 2: Rats were kept in a dark room. Group 3: In a room under a bright artificial light.All animals were killed after 4 weeks.Results: Vasa deferentia preparations from continuous dark group of rats exhibited a reduced reactivity with a significant lower maximal response to 5-HT than those from control rats. The maximal response in the control vasa deferentia preparations were nearly doubled compared with that of the continuous dark preparation where as they responded to exogenous nor-adrenaline with no significant difference from those of continuous dark animals. Vasa deferentia of continuous light animals responded with decreased reactivity and a smaller maximal response to both vasoconstrictors compared with that of control animals.Conclusion: It is concluded that changes in the rhythm of the photoperiod have considerable effects on the reactivity of the vasa deferentia smooth muscle from rats to applied nor-adrenaline and 5-HT.


Article
A NEW SENSITIVE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ADRENALINE IN PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS

Author: Ashraf.S. Al-Ayash
Journal: Al-Nahrain Journal of Science مجلة النهرين للعلوم ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461 Year: 2008 Volume: 11 Issue: 3 Pages: 46-54
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

A sensitive and simple spectrophotometric method for the estimation of adrenaline (ADH) in either pure form or in pharmaceutical preparations. The method is based on the reaction of adrenaline with vanadium (V) in acidic solution to from the colored complex which absorb at lmax = 488 nm. A graph of absorbance versus concentration shows that Beer ,s low is obeyed over concentration range of (0.5–140) mg adrenaline ml-1 with a molar absorpitivity of (2.015× 103 Lit. mol-1.cm-1), a sandell sensitivity of ( 0.09 mg.cm-2) ,LOD (0.46mg.ml-1) , Recovery % (101.16± 0.97) , Erel % (1.17± 0.97) . The mole–ratio method (1:2) approved that ADH- V (V) as a structure of the complex. The optimum conditions for full colour development are described and the proposed method was satisfactorily applied for the determination of ADH in pharmaceutical preparations. The response surface method (RSM) was applied for optimization of experimental condition and data obtained were found similar.

يتضمن البحث استحداث طريقة طيفية لتقدير الكميات النزرة من دواء الأدرينالين في المحاليل المائية باستخدام المطياف الفوتوميتري . اعتمدت الطريقة على تفاعل الأدرينالين مع الفناديوم في وسط حامضي حيث يتكون معقد ذو لون جوزي محمر وأعطت أعلى قمة امتصاص عند طول موجي)488 نانوميتر( وأشار الرسم البياني الخطي للامتصاص مقابل التركيز بأن قانون بير ينطبق ضمن مدى التركيز) 0.5 – 140 مايكروغرام من الأدرينالين لكل مل( . أما قيمة الامتصاصية المولارية كانت مساوية إلى ) 2.015×103 لتر.مول-1 .سم-1( وقيمة حساسية ساندل ) 0.09 مايكروغرام.سم-2( مع خطأ نسبي مقدار )0.97 ± 1.17%( واستردادية ) 101.16± 0.97%( اعتمادا" على مستوى التركيز المراد تحديده , تمت دراسة الظروف المثلى للتفاعل وجرى تطبيق الطريقة في تعين الأدرينالين في المستحضرات الصيدلانية. كذلك تمت دراسة طريقة سطح الاستجابة (RSM) في هذه الطريقة لتقويم العوامل وإيجاد الظروف المثلى للعمل إحصائيا" وكانت النتائج مقاربة للنتائج التجريبية.


Article
A pilot double blinded clinical trial to compare between Tramadol HCL and Lidocaine HCL as local anaesthesia amongst hospital-outpatient adult dental attendees Mosul-Iraq

Authors: Tahani A. Alsandook --- Yahya A. Al-Haideri
Journal: Journal of Oral and Dental Research مجلة طب الفم والاسنان ISSN: 23106417 Year: 2013 Volume: 1 Issue: 1 Pages: 13-16
Publisher: Iraqi Association for Oral Research الجمعية العراقية لبحوث طب الفم

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Abstract

Aim of the study: The aim of the current study is to compare the local anesthetic action of tramadol HCL (with adrenaline) and lidocaine HCL (withadrenaline) in minor oral surgery.Method: A double blind study including 124 patients, requiring minor oral surgery (conventional tooth extraction, surgical removal of impactedteeth and periapical surgery) in the lower molar teeth, allocated randomly into two groups:Group A (n=62), in which each patient received initial dose of one dental cartridge, 1.8ml, from drug A (36mg of Lidocaine HCL with (0.0225mg)adrenalin), for conventional tooth extraction, doubled in case of surgical removal of impacted tooth and periapical surgery.Group B (n=62) received one dental cartridge, 1.8ml, from drug B (50 mg of tramadol HCL and (0.0225mg) adrenalin diluted to 1.8 ml by distilledwater), again this dose was doubled in case of surgical removal of impacted tooth and periapical surgery.For each patient the onset of anesthesia, number of cartridges used, duration of surgery and the degree of pain (with a 10-cm visual analog scaleVAS), had been recorded during the operation.Postoperatively, the patients were instructed to record exactly when the parasthesia disappear and anyadverse effects such as nausea andor vomiting on the first day of operation.Result: there was no significant difference between the two study groups in the number of cartridges (1.33/±0.510, 1.37/± 0.519)nor the onset ofanesthesia(2.95/±1.46, 3.14/±1.31) minutes, intraoperative pain (0.1935/±0.697, 0.2096/±0.656), duration of surgery (12.77/±10.51, 14.11/±11.66)minutes, and side effects. However there was a significant difference in duration of anesthesia(153.14/±35.10, 117.11/±26.88) minutes, where thegroup A achieved longer duration of action of local anesthesia.Conclusion: These study findings suggested that Tramadol HCL can be used as alternative to Lidocaine HCL in combination with adrenaline toachieve local anesthesia in situation where Lidocaine HCL is contraindicated or when adequate local anesthesia with minimal paraesthesia isrequired. Validation and replication of these study findings should be considered in future research.


Article
Anaesthetic efficacy of periodontal ligament injection of 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 adrenaline

Author: Shehab A Hamad
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2006 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 26-34
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of periodontal ligament injection of 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000adrenaline in producing profound pulp anaesthesia and soft tissue anaesthesia. Materials andMethods: The sample of this study included 120 dental students, 72 males and 48 females, ranging inage from 18 to 23 years. The periodontal injection was administered to the periodontal space on themesial and distal aspects of the central incisor, first premolar and first molar of both arches. Theinjection was administered by a standard dental syringe using 0.2 ml of 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000adrenaline. The pulp anaesthesia was evaluated by electric pulp tester and soft tissue anaesthesia wasevaluated by probing. Results: The success rate of pulp anaesthesia in this study was 57.5% (60% inthe maxilla and 55% in the mandible). In both arches, first premolar and first molar teeth showed asignificantly higher success rate than that of central incisor (p<0.05). The mesial and distal teeth,adjacent to the injected tooth, were anaesthetized in 29.7% and 40.8% respectively. No significantdifference was noted in the success rate of pulp anaesthesia between mesial and distal teeth (p>0.05).The duration of pulp anaesthesia was 18.34 minutes. The duration of pulp anaesthesia was significantlylonger in the mandibular than maxillary teeth (p<0.05). The extent of associated soft tissue anaesthesiawas 14.77mm on the labial (buccal) aspect and 11.18 mm on the lingual (palatal) aspect. No significantdifference was noted, in both arches, in the extension of soft tissue anaesthesia on both aspects(p>0.05). Conclusion: The periodontal ligament injection anaesthesia has a higher success rate inpremolars and molars as compared to incisors. The duration of pulp anaesthesia was 18.34 minutes.The extent of soft tissue anaesthesia was 14.77 mm on the labial aspect and 11.18 mm on the lingualaspect.


Article
Evaluation of Catecholamine Levels in Iraqi Female Parkinson's Patients by Using HPLC Technique
تقییم مستویات الكاتیكول امین في مرضى الارتعاش للاناث العراقیات بالالاستخدام تقنیة الكروموتوغرافیة السائل ذات الاداء العالي

Author: Alaa Kamal Jabbar Alhamd علاء كمال جابر
Journal: Al-Mustansiriyah Journal for Pharmaceutical Sciences مجلة المستنصرية للعلوم الصيدلانية ISSN: 18150993 Year: 2014 Volume: 14 Issue: 2 Pages: 55-62
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Abstract:High performance liquid chromatography Reversed–phase (Rp-HPLC) was used toestimate noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (AD) and dopamine (DA) in the female plasma bloodsamples of normal volunteer's and Parkinson's patients before and after treatment withlevodopa drug. Optimal condition based on ion-pairing has been performed to measure NA,AD and DA on ODS-DB column using 50 mM phosphate buffer mixed with 0.5 mM of 1-octane sulphonic acid: acetonitrile (95:5) at pH = 4.5 and monitored by UV-Visiblespectrophotometer at 280 nm.The chromatographic linearity appears to be linear in the range 0.5-10.0 ppm. Theresults show that the plasma concentration levels of NA, AD and DA in female normalvolunteers were (236(64)), (265(84)) and (692(165)) ng/mL, respectively, whereas the plasmaconcentration levels of NA, AD and DA in female Parkinson's patients were (277(41)),(175(32)) and (127(42)) ng/mL before treatment with Levodopa drug using general dose of100 mg/day. After treatment the plasma, the concentration levels become (277(37)), (214(45))and 359(83)) ng/mL, respectively. Probably, this study has revealed that the non-enzymaticoxidation of NA in addition to DA, promotes a toxic effect by causing an inactivation of thevesicular H+-ATPase.

الخلاصة:استخدمت تقنیة كروماتوغرافیا الساثل ذات الاداء العالي الطور العكوس في حسابات تراكیز النورادرینالین،الادرینالین والدوبامین في بلازما الدم للاناث المتطوعین الاصحاء والاناث المصابات بمرض الارتعاش قبل وبعد العلاجبدواء لیفو دوبا. طورت الظروف المثلى لتقنیة الایون المشترك لحساب تراكیز النورادرینالین، الادرینالین والدوبامین علىباستخدام 50 ملي مول من بفر فوسفات الصودیوم ممتزج مع 0.5 ملي مول من الاوكتان سلفونك اسد: ODS-DB عموداسیتونایترایل ( 95:5 ) عند الدالة الحامضیة 4.5 وبطول موجي 280 نانومیتر باستخدام مجس الاشعة فوق البنفسجیة.10.0 جزىء من ملیون. - یظھر المخطط الكروماتوغرافي بان الخط المستقیم یكون ما بین 0.5أوضحت النتائج أن مستویات تراكیز النورادرینالین، الادرینالین والدوبامین في بلازما الدم للاناث المتطوعین165 )) نانو غرام/مللي لیتر على التوالي. بینما مستویات تراكیز ) ( 84 )) و( 692 )(265 ) ،((64) ( الاصحاء ( 236النورادرینالین، الأدرینالین والدوبامین في بلازما الدم للاناث المصابات بمرض الارتعاش قبل العلاج بالیفو دوبا ھي على42 )) ملي غرام/ملي لیتر. أصبحت مستویات تراكیز النورادرینالین، ) ( 32 )) و( 127 ) (175) ،((41) ( التوالي ( 277الادرینالین والدوبامین في بلازما الدم للاناث المصابات بمرض الارتعاش بعد العلاج بالیفو دوبا خلال جرعة دوریة83 )) على التوالي. من المحتمل أن الدراسة تؤكد على ان ) ( 45 )) و( 359 ) (214) ،((37) ( 100 ملي غرام/الیوم ( 277.(vesicular H+-ATPase) الاكسدة الانزیمیة للنورادرینالین اضافة الى الدوبامیین تودي الى تقلیل النشاط الانزیمي لل

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