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Article
Water Quality Assessment of Al-Gharraf River, South of Iraq by the Canadian Water Quality Index (CCME WQI)
تقييم نوعية مياه نهر الغراف, جنوب العراق بواسطة دليل نوعية المياه لمجلس وزراء البيئة الكندي (CCME-WQI)

Author: Salam Hussein Ewaid سلام حسين عويد
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2016 Volume: 57 Issue: 2A Pages: 878-885
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Water quality of Al-Gharraf River, which considered the main branch of Tigris River south of Iraq was examined using the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME-WQI) for aquatic life protection and irrigation. Water samples were collected monthly from five sampling stations during 2013-2014 and 17 physicochemical parameters were analyzed: Temperature, hydrogen ion concentration (pH), electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, alkalinity, chloride, calcium, magnesium, sulfate, phosphate, nitrate, sodium, lead, cadmium, nickel and zinc.The model classified water of Al-Gharraf River as poor for aquatic life protection and fair for irrigation with seasonal overall WQI value of 30-39 and among stations was 38-39.

تم تقييم نوعية مياه نهر الغراف، الذي يعد الفرع الرئيسي لنهر دجلة جنوب العراق من ناحية صلاحيتها للحياة المائية وللري باستخدام دليل نوعية المياه لمجلس وزراء البيئة الكندي .CCME-WQIجمعت عينات المياه شهريا من خمس محطات على النهر لمدة عام خلال 2014-2015 وتم تحليل 17 من المعايير الفيزويكيميائية لجودة المياه وهي: درجة الحرارة ، تركيز أيون الهيدروجين (pH)، التوصيلية الكهربائية، الأوكسجين المذاب، العكارة، القلوية ، الكلوريد، الكالسيوم، المغنسيوم، الكبريتات, الفوسفات, النترات, الصوديوم، الرصاص, الكادميوم , النيكل والزنك. نتيجة التقييم كانت هي ان نوعية مياه نهر الغراف ضعيفة بالنسبة لحماية الحياة المائية ومعتدلة للري وكانت قيمة الدليل العامة الموسمية 30-39 و 38- 39 لمحطات الدراسة.


Article
Water Quality Assessment of Al-Gharraf River, South of Iraq Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques

Authors: Salwan Ali Abed --- Salam Hussein Ewaid
Journal: Al-Nahrain Journal of Science مجلة النهرين للعلوم ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461 Year: 2017 Volume: 20 Issue: 2 Pages: 114-122
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

The multivariate statistical methods (principal component analysis "PCA" and hierarchical cluster analysis "CA"), were used to evaluate the water quality of Al-Gharraf River, the largest branch of Tigris River, south of Iraq. Water quality parameters were calculated monthly at each of the ten stations along the river during the year 2014-2015, to investigate the potential pollution sources and samples were analyzed for 18 physicochemical and biological parameters. The PCA supported in extracting and recognizing the factors that are responsible for river water quality variance over the year. Four factors identified that are responsible for 70% of the total variance in water quality of the river. The first factor is a multi-source factor that explains 31.6% of the total variation. The second factor is organic source factor that explains 14.6% of the total variance. The third factor is soil erosion source factor that explains 12.8% of the total variance. The fourth factor is caused by sulfates and calcium and explains 11% of the total variance. The hierarchical CA classified the 10 monitoring sites into three differentiated groups showed similar water quality features. The natural hydro-geochemical and anthropogenic activities such as domestic wastewater influents were the significant factors affect the water quality. The results of this work can be used to decrease the number of samples analyzed in both space and time to help the decision makers in recognizing priorities to improve water quality.


Article
WATER BUDGET FOR ABU ZIRIG MARSH IN SOUTHERN IRAQ
الموازنة المائية لهور أبو زرك الواقع في الجنوب العراقي

Authors: Ryidh Abood Yasir --- Khayyun Amtair Rahi --- Dr. Zaidun Naji Abudi
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2018 Volume: 22 Issue: 1 Pages: 25-33
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

The marshes of Iraq are located in the southern part of the country with small portion that is located in Iran. They cover an area of about 15000-20000 km2. The marshes consist of hydraulically connected shallow lakes and scattered ponds. Three major marsh areas are considered the core of the wetlands of Iraq: (i) Al Hammar Marshes; (ii) the Central Marshes and (iii) Al Hawizeh Marshes. During the last two decades of the twentieth century, the marshes were subjected to natural and deliberate dryness and destruction and their area reduced to about 10% of the original area. The Iraqi regime in the early nineties of the last century has cut off the marshes’ inflow supplies and dried out the majority of the core marshes permanently. The regime has constructed numerus dykes, manmade cannels to implement the draining the drying process. Efforts are underway to restore the dried marshes. The restoration process requires sustained surface water supplies to re-flood the area and sustain it. Abu Zirig is a small marsh that is part of the Iraqi Central Marshes (ICM). The marsh constitutes a natural depression at the mouth of al Gharraf River. It is situated about 40 km to the east of Nassiriah city. The marsh was one of the marshes dried by diverting flows away from it via manmade embankments. Abu Zirig was part of the re-flooded marshlands. The embankments were removed immediately following the fall of Saddam’s regime on the year of 2003. Its restored area was about 120 km². The marsh consists of two parts separated by manmade dyke; upper and lower parts. This paper is an attempt to study the hydrology of the Abu Zirig Marsh, specifically, the water budget. Determination of water budget component in situ (i.e. the marshes area) is needed to evaluate the restoration process. It was found that the only inflow source was surface water flowing from al Gharraf River. Losses were to infiltration and evaporation. The marsh was considered operating on steady state, so that change in storage during the study period was zero.


Article
Application of Overall Index of Pollution (OIP) for the Evaluating of the Water Quality in Al-Gharraf River southern of Iraq

Authors: Wisam Th. Al-Mayah --- Adel M. Rabee
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2018 Volume: 59 Issue: 2A Pages: 660-669
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

This comprehensive study investigates has been made to assess the water quality of Al-Gharraf River, which considered the main branch of Tigris River south of Iraq using the overall Index of Pollution (OIP), depending on 9 physical, chemical, and biological important parameters of water quality were analyzed: hydrogen ion concentration (pH), turbidity (NTU), total dissolved solid (TDS), dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD5) , total hardness (TH), sulfate (SO4), nitrate (NO3),and fecal coliform (FC), which measured monthly at twenty one stations on the river during 2016-2017. Water quality deterioration has occurred in the last ten stations, consequently, the health status of the river has changed from acceptable to heavily polluted, and the fecal coliform bacteria (FC) was the major factor that affects the quality of the wter river. In this paper concluded that the Al-Gharraf River was in class poor and the Al-Gharraf River water is relatively not suitable for direct public usage in all seasons.


Article
Evaluating of The Gharraf River Water Thi Qar Southern Irarq Using The Water Quality Index (WQI)

Authors: Naser H. Judran --- Zanaib K.Hassoon --- Issa H. Atheeb
Journal: Journal of Education for Pure Science مجلة التربية للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 20736592 Year: 2019 Volume: 9 Issue: 2 Pages: 77-88
Publisher: Thi-Qar University جامعة ذي قار

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Abstract

Abstract:The Water Quality Index was developed mathematically to evaluate the water quality of Al-GharrafRiver The Qar , the main branch of the Tigris River in the south of Iraq. Water samples were collectedtwice monthly from tow stations during 2017, and 10 parameters analyzed: Total dissolved solids(TDS),the concentration of hydrogen ions(PH), dissolved oxygen(DO), turbidity(TUR), phosphates (SO4), nitrates(NO3), chlorides (Cl), total hardness, electrical conductivity(EC) and alkalinity (ALK). The index classifiedthe river water , excluding turbidity, is poor for drinking at both stations, when turbidity was included, theindex classified the river water is very poor in station GT2 and poor in station GT3 for drinking purpos.The results showed thae seasonal variations are negligible in both stations .The study highlights theimportance of applying the water quality index which indicate the total effect of the ecological factors onsurface water quality and which give a simple interpretation of the monitoring data to help local peopleimproving water quality improving .


Article
Study of the quality and validity of the water of the River Tigris (Al-Gharraf stream) within the city of Nasiriya- Iraq
دراسة جودة وصلاحية مياه نهر دجلة (مجرى الغراف) داخل مدينة الناصرية - العراق

Author: Mustafa T. Mustafa مصطفى
Journal: Al-Kufa University Journal for Biology مجلة جامعة الكوفة لعلوم الحياة ISSN: 20738854 23116544 Year: 2018 Volume: 10 Issue: 2 Pages: 32-41
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Despite the importance of water for life, drinking, irrigation, power generation and industrial use. This study concerns the study of the quality and validity of water by applying the arithmetic weight index (AWI) for the water quality of irrigation , where the selection of the eleven variables acidity (PH), Total Dissolved Solid (T.D.S), Alkalinity(ALK), Electrical Conductivity (E.C), Calcium(Ca), Chloride (CL), Sodium (Na), Sulfate (SO4), Potassium (k), Total suspended solids (T.S.S), Total hardness (TH) to show the water quality of the study area. The water samples collected from the river were examined and numbered 17 for two seasons. The study reveals that the water quality index has increased along the stream which indicates the water is completely unfit for irrigation use(arithmetic weight rating almost stations were between poor and very poor water). civilizations around this stream are probably lead to degrading water quality, which could be a menace to the public.

على الرغم من أهمية الماء للحياة والشرب والري وتوليد الطاقة والاستخدام الصناعي. تتعلق هذه الدراسة بدراسة جودة وصلاحية المياه من خلال تطبيق مؤشر الوزن الحسابي (AWI) لجودة مياه الري ، حيث يتم اختيار أحد عشر متغيرات حموضة (PH) ، إجمالي الذائب الصلبة (TDS) ، القلوية (ALK) ) ، الموصلية الكهربائية (EC) ، الكالسيوم (كاليفورنيا) ، كلوريد (CL) ، الصوديوم (Na) ، كبريتات (SO4) ، البوتاسيوم (ك) ، إجمالي المواد الصلبة العالقة (TSS) ، صلابة الكلية (TH) لإظهار نوعية المياه من منطقة الدراسة. تم فحص عينات المياه التي تم جمعها من النهر ورقم 17 لمدة موسمين. كشفت الدراسة أن مؤشر جودة المياه قد ارتفع على طول مجرى النهر مما يدل على أن المياه غير صالحة للاستخدام في الري تمامًا (تصنيف الوزن الحسابي تقريبًا كانت المحطات بين مياه فقيرة وضعيفة للغاية). من المحتمل أن تؤدي الحضارات حول هذا التيار إلى تدهور جودة المياه ، مما قد يشكل تهديداً للجمهور.

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